Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Nilaparvata lugens
(brown planthopper)

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Datasheet

Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nilaparvata lugens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown planthopper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Short-winged (brachypterous) morph of N. lugens.
TitleAdult, short-winged morph
CaptionShort-winged (brachypterous) morph of N. lugens.
CopyrightMerle Shepard
Short-winged (brachypterous) morph of N. lugens.
Adult, short-winged morphShort-winged (brachypterous) morph of N. lugens.Merle Shepard
Eggs 0.99 x 0.20 mm, crescent- shaped, constricted towards the egg caps. One end of the egg is united near the egg caps, the other remains free.
TitleEggs
CaptionEggs 0.99 x 0.20 mm, crescent- shaped, constricted towards the egg caps. One end of the egg is united near the egg caps, the other remains free.
CopyrightMerle Shepard
Eggs 0.99 x 0.20 mm, crescent- shaped, constricted towards the egg caps. One end of the egg is united near the egg caps, the other remains free.
EggsEggs 0.99 x 0.20 mm, crescent- shaped, constricted towards the egg caps. One end of the egg is united near the egg caps, the other remains free.Merle Shepard
Affected leaves turn progressively yellow from the tip to the midpoint of the leaf, then gradually dry up and die. This feeding damage is commonly referred to as hopperburn.
TitleSymptoms: hopperburn
CaptionAffected leaves turn progressively yellow from the tip to the midpoint of the leaf, then gradually dry up and die. This feeding damage is commonly referred to as hopperburn.
CopyrightMerle Shepard
Affected leaves turn progressively yellow from the tip to the midpoint of the leaf, then gradually dry up and die. This feeding damage is commonly referred to as hopperburn.
Symptoms: hopperburnAffected leaves turn progressively yellow from the tip to the midpoint of the leaf, then gradually dry up and die. This feeding damage is commonly referred to as hopperburn.Merle Shepard
Ducks preying on rice pests in rice fields: in China and other Asian countries ducks are herded into rice fields to control brown planthopper.
TitleControl by natural enemies
CaptionDucks preying on rice pests in rice fields: in China and other Asian countries ducks are herded into rice fields to control brown planthopper.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Ducks preying on rice pests in rice fields: in China and other Asian countries ducks are herded into rice fields to control brown planthopper.
Control by natural enemiesDucks preying on rice pests in rice fields: in China and other Asian countries ducks are herded into rice fields to control brown planthopper.©James Litsinger
N. lugens: nymphs and exuviae on stem.
TitleNymphs
CaptionN. lugens: nymphs and exuviae on stem.
CopyrightErnst Neering
N. lugens: nymphs and exuviae on stem.
NymphsN. lugens: nymphs and exuviae on stem.Ernst Neering
N. lugens: close-up of adults on stem.
TitleAdults
CaptionN. lugens: close-up of adults on stem.
CopyrightErnst Neering
N. lugens: close-up of adults on stem.
AdultsN. lugens: close-up of adults on stem.Ernst Neering
N. lugens: adults on stem.
TitleAdults
CaptionN. lugens: adults on stem.
CopyrightErnst Neering
N. lugens: adults on stem.
AdultsN. lugens: adults on stem.Ernst Neering

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nilaparvata lugens Stål

Preferred Common Name

  • brown planthopper

Other Scientific Names

  • Calligypona oryzae
  • Delphacodes anderida Muir, 1917
  • Delphacodes oryzae
  • Delphacodes parysatis Muir, 1917
  • Delphax lugens Stal, 1854
  • Delphax ordovix Kirkaldy, 1907
  • Delphax oryzae Matsumura, 1906
  • Delphax parysatis Kirkaldy, 1907
  • Delphax sordescens Motschulsky, 1863
  • Dicranotropis anderida Kirkaldy, 1907
  • Hikona formosama Matsumura, 1935
  • Hikora formosana Esaki & Hashimoto, 1943
  • Kalpa aculeata Distant, 1906
  • Liburnia oryzae Matsumura, 1917
  • Liburnia sordescens Melichar, 1903
  • Nilaparvata greeni Distant, 1906
  • Nilaparvata oryzae Esaki & Hashimoto, 1932
  • Nilaparvata sordescens Kuwayama, 1945

International Common Names

  • English: Asian rice brown planthopper; BPH; brown-backed rice plant hopper; planthopper, brown; rice brown planthopper; rice planthopper
  • Spanish: fulgórico moreno; saltahoja del arroz
  • French: cicadelle brune; fulgoridé brun

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Stirnhoeckerzirpe; Zikade, Braunrueckige Reis-
  • Indonesia: wereng
  • Japan: tobiiro-unka

EPPO code

  • NILALU (Nilaparvata lugens)
  • NILAOR (Nilaparvata oryzae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Fulgoroidea
  •                                 Family: Delphacidae
  •                                     Genus: Nilaparvata
  •                                         Species: Nilaparvata lugens

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent, Widespread
-AnhuiPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-FujianPresent, Widespread
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent, Widespread
-GuizhouPresent, Widespread
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent, Widespread
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent, Widespread
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent, Widespread
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent, Widespread
-AssamPresent, Widespread
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent, Widespread
-MeghalayaPresent, Widespread
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent, Widespread
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresent, Widespread
-HokkaidoPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: IRRI (1986)
-HonshuPresent
-ShikokuPresent, Widespread
LaosPresent, Widespread
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
GuamPresent
New CaledoniaPresent, Widespread
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Absidia corymbifera Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Aciagrion d'abreui Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Aciagrion occidentale Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Acisoma panorpoides Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Acupalpus inornatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Agamermis changshaensis Parasite
Agamermis unka Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Agriocnemus pygmaea Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Amblyseius nr. calorai Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Amphiareus constrictus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Anagrus flaveolus Parasite Eggs India; Andhra Pradesh rice
Anagrus frequens Parasite
Anagrus incarnatus Parasite Eggs
Anagrus nilaparvatae Parasite Eggs
Anagrus nr. flaveolus Parasite Eggs
Anagrus optabilis Parasite Eggs India; Andhra Pradesh; India; Tamil Nadu; Taiwan rice
Anagrus paranilaparvatae Parasite
Anagrus perforator Parasite Eggs
Anaphes taprobanicum Parasite Eggs
Aphanocladium gamsianum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Araneus inustus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Araneus theisi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Argiope catenulata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Argiope pulchella Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Atypena formosana Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Bembidion semilunium Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Calcarisporium ovalisporum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Carabidae Predator Arthropods|Nymphs
Casnoidea indica Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam rice
Casnoidea interstitialis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ceriagrion olivaceum olivaceum Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cheiloneurus australiae Parasite Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cicindela sexpunctata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Clubiona japonicola Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam rice
Coccinella axiridis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccinella transversalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam
Coelophora inaequalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coleosoma octomaculatum Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Conidiobolus nr. coronatus Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Crocothemis servilia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cyclosa insulana Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cymodema basicornis India; Andhra Pradesh rice
Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs China; Guangxi; Philippines; Taiwan; Tamil Nadu; Vietnam rice
Cyrtorhinus lividipennis vitiensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cyrtorhinus riveti Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Dicondylus indianus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Digonatopus javanus Parasite
Diplacodes trivialis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Dolomedes facetus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Echthrogonatopus exitiosus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ecthrodelphax bicolor Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ecthrodelphax fairchildii Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Elenchus japonicus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Japan rice
Elenchus koebelei Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Enoplognatha japonica Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Entomophaga australiensis Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Entomophthora nr. apiculata Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Erigonidium graminicolum Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs China; Hunan rice
Erynia delphacis Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedium Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gnathonarium dentatum Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gnathonarium exsciccatum Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Haplogonatopus apicalis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Haplogonatopus atratus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Haplogonatopus orientalis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Harmonia octomaculata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Tamil Nadu
Himetobi P virus Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hippasa holmerae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hirsutella citriformis Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hirsutella necatrix Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hirsutella strigosa Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hydrochara affinis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hydrometra albolineata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Icius magister Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ischnura aurora aurora Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ischnura senegalensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Limnogonus fossarum Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Limnonectes limnocharis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Lycosa chaperi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India rice
Lycosa leucostigma Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Lycosa pseudoammualta Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Lycosa pseudoannulata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs China; Hunan; Philippines; Taiwan; Tamil Nadu; Vietnam rice
Lymnaea auricularia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Lymnaea auricularia race swinhoei Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India rice
Marpissa magister Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Marpissa mandali Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Marpissa pomatix Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Mesovelia vittigera Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metarhizium flavoviride Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Micraspis crocea Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Micraspis discolor Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India; Orissa; Vietnam rice
Micraspis lineata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Micraspis univittata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Micraspis vincta Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microvelia douglasi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microvelia douglasi atrolineata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microvelia horvathi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Nabis capsiformis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Neoscona doenitzi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Neoscona theisi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Neurothemis tullia feralis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Oedothorax formosana Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam
Oligosita aesopi Parasite Eggs
Oligosita naias Parasite Eggs India; Tamil Nadu rice
Oligosita tachikawai Parasite Eggs India; Andhra Pradesh rice
Oligosita yasumatsui Parasite Eggs India; Andhra Pradesh rice
Ootetrastichus nr. beatus Parasite Eggs
Ophionea ishii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ophionia indica Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Orius tantillus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Orthetrum sabina Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Oxyopes javanus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Oxyopes lineatipes Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Oxyopes sakuntalae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pachygnatha clercki Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paederus fuscipes Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam rice
Paederus tamalus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paederus tamulus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pandora delphacis Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pantala flavescens Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paracentrobia andoi Parasite Eggs Taiwan rice
Paracentrobia garuda Parasite Eggs
Paracentrobia yasumatsui Parasite Eggs
Pardosa annandalei Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pardosa pseudoannulata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Penicillium oxalicum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Peranthis unifaciata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pipunculus javanensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pipunculus mutillatus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pipunculus orientalis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pipunculus roralis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pirata subpiraticus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Plexippus paykullii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam rice
Polididus armatissimus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudogonatopus flavifemur Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Philippines
Pseudogonatopus hospes Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudogonatopus nudus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudogonatopus pusanus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudogonatopus sarawaki Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ranatra dimidiata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Rhinella marina Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Rhyothemis variegata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Runcinia nr. ronwali Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Serratia marcescens Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Solenopsis geminata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Stenonabis tagalicus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Stenus cincindeloides Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Sticholotis substriata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetragnatha andamanensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetragnatha caudicula Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetragnatha javana Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Taiwan; Vietnam rice
Tetragnatha mandibulata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam rice
Tetragnatha maxillosa Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetragnatha nitens Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam rice
Tetragnatha praedonia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetragnatha sutherlandi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetragnatha vermiformis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetragnatha virescens Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Vietnam rice
Tetramorium bicarinatum Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetrastichus formosanus Parasite Eggs
Theridion octomaculata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Thomisus cherapunjcus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Thomisus cherapunjeus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Thomisus nr. labefactus Predator
Tomosvaryella epichalca Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tomosvaryella oryzaetora Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tomosvaryella subvirescens Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tomosvaryella sylvatica Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Trigonotylus doddi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India; Andhra Pradesh rice
Trithemis aurora Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tylorida striate Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tytthus chinensis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tytthus mundulus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tytthus parviceps Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs
Ummeliata insecticeps Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Taiwan

References

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Abe Y, Koyama K, 1991. Embryonic development and selective oviposition of a dryinid wasp, Haplogonatopus atratus Esaki et Hashimoto (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 35(1):57-63

Abeyratne AM, 1976. Brown planthopper damage in Sri Lanka. International Rice Research Newsletter, 1(2).

Abraham CC, 1975. The brown planthopper outbreaks in Kerala, India. The Rice Entomological Newsletter, No. 2.

Alam S, Alam MS, Chowdhury MA, 1980. Brown planthopper situation in Bangladesh. International Rice Research Newsletter, 3(4):17-18.

Alam S, Rezaul Karim ANM, 1976. Brown planthopper outbreak in Bangladesh. International Rice Research Newsletter, 1(2).

Alam SN, Cohen MB, 1998. Detection and analysis of QTLs for resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, in a doubled-haploid rice population. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97(8):1370-1379; 31 ref.

Alam SN, Cohen MB, 1998. Durability of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, resistance in rice variety IR64 in greenhouse selection studies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 89(1):71-78; 21 ref.

Anjaneyulu A, 1974. Identification of grassy stunt, a new virus disease of rice in India. Current Science, 43(13):416-417

Anon., 1944. Insect pest of rice. Handbook for farmers in Taiwan. (Japanese). Taiwan: Agricultural Research Institute, Goverment of Taiwan.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Bae SH, 1966. Studies on some aspects of the life history and habits of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stsl), Delphacidae: Homoptera. MS Thesis, University of the Philippines, Los Ba±os, Philippines.

Banerjee SN, 1971. Recent progress in rice research in India.. In: Kono T, Ito, Y, Mitsuhashi, J, Tamaki, Y, eds. Symposium on Rice Insects, Tokyo, 1971. Tropical Agriculture Research Series, No. 5. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Agriculture Research Center, 83-97.

Bhalla OP, Pawar AD, 1975. Homopterans injurious to rice in Himachal Pradesh, India. The Rice Entomological Newsletter, 2:40-41.

Calora FB, 1974. On the recent outbreaks of brown planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and the grassy stunt virus disease of rice in Laguna. In:Proceedings of the fifth annual conference of pest control council of the Philippines, Davao city, May 8-10.

Chandra G, 1979. Taxonomy and bionomics of the insect parasites of rice leafhoppers and planthoppers in the Philippines and their importance in natural biological control. Philippine Entomologist, 4(3):119-139

ChannaBasavanna GP, Gubbaiah G, Rai PS, Mahadevappa M, 1976. The rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stal in Karnataka, India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 1(2):14

Chantarasa-ard S, Hirashima Y, Hirao J, 1984. Host range and host suitability of Anagrus incarnatus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of delphacid planthoppers. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 19(4):491-497

Chatterjee PB, 1978. Occurrence of brown planthopper on rice in West Bengal, India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 3(2):12

Chelliah S, Bharathi M, 1994. Insecticide management in rice. In: Heinrichs EA, ed. Biology and Management of Rice Insects. India: Wiley Eastern Limited, 657-679.

Chelliah S, Fabellar LT, Heinrichs EA, 1980. Effect of sub-lethal doses of three insecticides on the reproductive rate of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, on rice. Environmental Entomology, 9(6):778-780

Chelliah S, Heinrichs EA, 1981. Factors affecting insecticide-induced resurgence of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens on rice. Environmental Entomology, 9(6):773-777

Chen CN, Cheng CC, 1978. The population levels of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) in relation to the yield loss of rice. I. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 20(3):197-209

Chen JianSheng, Gu YueLan, Lu BaoLi, Guan LiQing, Zhang SongHan, Han Chang'an, 1999. Study on occurrence tendency and controlling strategy of pests and diseases in direct-sowing paddy fields in Shanghai. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 15(4):72-75; 4 ref.

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