Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Nerium oleander
(oleander)

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Datasheet

Nerium oleander (oleander)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nerium oleander
  • Preferred Common Name
  • oleander
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Nerium oleander is a shrub native to the Mediterranean region which is widely used as an ornamental in the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate areas worldwide. Although reported only as cultivated, persistent or as an occasional escape...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.
TitleFlowers and seedpods
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.
Flowers and seedpodsNerium oleander (oleander); Flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.
Copyright©Fastily/Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.
Flowering habitNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.©Fastily/Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowers. Balcalı, Adana, Turkey. May 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Flowers. Balcalı, Adana, Turkey. May 2016.
Copyright©Zeynel Cebeci (Zcebeci)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowers. Balcalı, Adana, Turkey. May 2016.
FlowersNerium oleander (oleander); Flowers. Balcalı, Adana, Turkey. May 2016.©Zeynel Cebeci (Zcebeci)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Pods and seeds. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. February 2011.
TitlePods and seeds
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Pods and seeds. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. February 2011.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Pods and seeds. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. February 2011.
Pods and seedsNerium oleander (oleander); Pods and seeds. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. February 2011.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Kesmeburun, Osmaniye, Turkey. June 2020.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Kesmeburun, Osmaniye, Turkey. June 2020.
Copyright©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Kesmeburun, Osmaniye, Turkey. June 2020.
Flowering habitNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Kesmeburun, Osmaniye, Turkey. June 2020.©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Karataş, Adana, Turkey. June 2020.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Karataş, Adana, Turkey. June 2020.
Copyright©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Karataş, Adana, Turkey. June 2020.
Flowering habitNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Karataş, Adana, Turkey. June 2020.©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Balcalı, Sarıçam - Adana, Turkey. June 2020.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Balcalı, Sarıçam - Adana, Turkey. June 2020.
Copyright©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Balcalı, Sarıçam - Adana, Turkey. June 2020.
Flowering habitNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. Balcalı, Sarıçam - Adana, Turkey. June 2020.©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Burst seed pod. Coín, Spain. December 2011.
TitleBurst seed pod
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Burst seed pod. Coín, Spain. December 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Bj.schoenmakers/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Burst seed pod. Coín, Spain. December 2011.
Burst seed podNerium oleander (oleander); Burst seed pod. Coín, Spain. December 2011.Public Domain - Released by Bj.schoenmakers/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Seeds. Whale Beach, New South Wales, Australia. August 2012.
TitleSeeds
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Seeds. Whale Beach, New South Wales, Australia. August 2012.
Copyright©Margaret Donald/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Seeds. Whale Beach, New South Wales, Australia. August 2012.
SeedsNerium oleander (oleander); Seeds. Whale Beach, New South Wales, Australia. August 2012.©Margaret Donald/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.
Copyright©Fastily/Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.
Flowering habitNerium oleander (oleander); Flowering habit. June 2018.©Fastily/Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Leaves, flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.
TitleLeaves, flowers and seedpods
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Leaves, flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Leaves, flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.
Leaves, flowers and seedpodsNerium oleander (oleander); Leaves, flowers and seedpods. Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. January 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii. January 2008.
TitleLeaves
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii. January 2008.
LeavesNerium oleander (oleander); Leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii. January 2008.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. June 2018.
TitleFoliage
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. June 2018.
Copyright©Fastily/Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. June 2018.
FoliageNerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. June 2018.©Fastily/Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. August 2009.
TitleFoliage
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. August 2009.
Copyright©Dalgial/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. August 2009.
FoliageNerium oleander (oleander); Foliage. August 2009.©Dalgial/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Leaf detail. April 2011.
TitleLeaf detail
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Leaf detail. April 2011.
Copyright©Joaquim Alves Gaspar (Alvesgaspar)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Leaf detail. April 2011.
Leaf detailNerium oleander (oleander); Leaf detail. April 2011.©Joaquim Alves Gaspar (Alvesgaspar)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Immature seed pod. Shobhavana, Moodbidri, India. April 2018.
TitleImmature seed pod
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Immature seed pod. Shobhavana, Moodbidri, India. April 2018.
Copyright©Dhakshini R/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Immature seed pod. Shobhavana, Moodbidri, India. April 2018.
Immature seed podNerium oleander (oleander); Immature seed pod. Shobhavana, Moodbidri, India. April 2018.©Dhakshini R/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Fruit nearing maturity; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
TitleFruit nearing maturity
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Fruit nearing maturity; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Copyright©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Fruit nearing maturity; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Fruit nearing maturityNerium oleander (oleander); Fruit nearing maturity; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
TitleDehisced pod
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Copyright©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Dehisced podNerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
TitleDehisced pod
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Copyright©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Dehisced podNerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
TitleDehisced pod
CaptionNerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Copyright©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Nerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.
Dehisced podNerium oleander (oleander); Dehisced pod with hairy seeds; Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. December 2015.©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nerium oleander L.

Preferred Common Name

  • oleander

Other Scientific Names

  • Nerion oleandrum St.-Lag.
  • Nerium carneum Dum.Cours.
  • Nerium flavescens Spin
  • Nerium floridum Salisb.
  • Nerium grandiflorum Desf.
  • Nerium indica
  • Nerium indicum Mill.
  • Nerium japonicum Gentil
  • Nerium kotschyi Boiss.
  • Nerium latifolium Mill.
  • Nerium lauriforme Lam.
  • Nerium mascatense A.DC.
  • Nerium odoratissimum Wender.
  • Nerium odoratum Lam.
  • Nerium odorum Aiton
  • Nerium splendens Paxton
  • Nerium thyrsiflorum Paxton
  • Nerium verecundum Salisb.
  • Oleander indica (Mill.) Medik.
  • Oleander vulgaris Medik.

International Common Names

  • English: common oleander; French willow; pride of Ceylon; rose laurel; rosebay; south sea rose; sweet oleander; Turner’s carnival oleander; Turner’s shari-d oleander; Turner’s tickled pink oleander
  • Spanish: balandre; laurel en flor; laurel rosa; nerium; pascua
  • French: laurier rose; oleandre
  • Arabic: haban
  • Portuguese: sevadilha
  • German: Echter Oleander; Lorbeerrosen

Local Common Names

  • American Samoa: oliana
  • Brazil: espirradeira; oleandro
  • China: jia zhu tao
  • Cook Islands: tālona; tārona; tiare tālona
  • Cuba: adelfa; adelfa sangre de toro; adelfa varadero; rosa francesa
  • Dominican Republic: flor del Perú; martinica; perulí; rosa del Perú
  • Ecuador: laurel; laurel de jardín
  • Fiji: rusi; vasa
  • French Polynesia: tarona; tarona uouo
  • Germany: Duftender Oleander
  • Guam: rosa laurel
  • Haiti: laurier; laurier blanc; laurier des jardines; laurier rose; laurier tropical
  • Italy: oleandrio; oleandro
  • Japan: kyōchiku-tō
  • Kiribati: te orian; te orion
  • Marshall Islands: oliaanta; olianta
  • Mexico: flor de rosa; narciso; rosa clavel
  • Micronesia: wiliancher
  • Netherlands Antilles: franse bloem
  • New Zealand: oliana
  • Niue: talona
  • Pakistan: ganira; kunair
  • Pitcairn Island: holiandah
  • Portugal: adelpho; aloendro; cevadilla; eloendro
  • Puerto Rico: alelí; alelí extranjero; bastarda; laurel rosado; loendreira; loendro; loueiro-rosa; nerio; oloendro; savadilla ; sevadilha; sevadilla
  • South Africa: selonsroos
  • Spain: abelfa; aberfe; adelfes; aderfa; aelfa; baladra; baladre; baladro; berfa; biva; delfa; diva; edelfa; laurel rosa; llorer real; llorer reial; llorer rosa; narciso; rosa de berberia; rosalaurel; roser reial; saner; valadre; veratre; yerba mala
  • Tonga: lolie
  • Turkey: zekkum a
  • USA: ‘oleana; ‘oliana; ‘oliwa; rose-bay

EPPO code

  • NEROD (Nerium odorum)
  • NEROL (Nerium oleander)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Nerium oleander is a shrub native to the Mediterranean region which is widely used as an ornamental in the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate areas worldwide. Although reported only as cultivated, persistent or as an occasional escape in some countries, it has naturalized in others mainly through water dispersion. Although very few details are available about its invasiveness, N. oleander is reported as capable of producing many seedlings and being very competitive. Another major concern about the species is that all plant parts are very poisonous, especially to small children, pets and livestock. Limiting the invasiveness of N. oleander is its preference for intermittent waterways, low pollination and fruit production, adaptation to water dispersal and the requirement of seedlings for moist shaded environments to survive. N. oleander is reported as invasive in South Africa, Hawaii (USA), Australia, New Zealand and Niue. It is also listed as invasive in two US National Parks (Death Valley National Park in California and Lake Mead National Park in Nevada) and in Florida but without further details. It is listed as potentially invasive in Cuba, being categorized as a naturalized species with a tendency to proliferate in the country and with the capacity to produce a high number of seeds.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Apocynaceae
  •                             Genus: Nerium
  •                                 Species: Nerium oleander

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Nerium oleander is a member of the Apocynaceae which has a mostly tropical and subtropical distribution with about 3700 species (Sennblad and Bremer, 2002). This species is one of the most widely cultivated ornamentals in the world (PIER, 2018). The genus name comes from the Greek word ‘Nerion’ which means ‘water’ or ‘wet’. The specific epithet is believed to be a reference to the resemblance of its leaves to those of the olive tree (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). It is currently the only species in the genus Nerium; N. luteum is an invalid name according to World Flora Online (2020).

Description

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The following description is from PIER (2018):

Shrub to 5 m high or more with clear sap. Leaves simple, arranged in whorls of three, blade narrowly elliptic, usually 8-18 cm long, surface finely veined. Flowers continuously though the year; flowers many, borne in dense terminal clusters. Corolla of fused petals, funnel-shaped, 3.5-5.5 cm long, with a spreading limb 4-6 cm across, five-lobed, or double-flowered, with a ring of filamentous appendages in the centre, pink, purple, or white. Fruit pod-like, cylindrical, usually 7-12 cm long, filled with hairy seeds.

A detailed account of Leeuwenberg’s description of N. oleander is given by Pagen (1988).

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Nerium oleander is native to the Mediterranean region, including northern Africa, southern Europe and South East Asia (HEAR, 2017). It is extensively cultivated worldwide throughout the tropics and subtropics (PIER, 2018). This species occurs in Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (See Distribution Table for details; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2018; Euro+Med, 2020; Flora do Brasil, 2020; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020; PROTA, 2020; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Oct 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
ComorosPresentIntroduced
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresentNative
KenyaPresentIntroduced
LibyaPresentNative
MoroccoPresentNative
NigerPresentNative
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso cultivated. Invasive in Diego García Island
ChinaPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
Hong KongPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
IndiaPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresentNative
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroduced
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
-HonshuPresentIntroduced
JordanPresentNative
KuwaitPresent
LebanonPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MaldivesPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresentNative
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced1911
QatarPresentIntroduced
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
SyriaPresentNative
ThailandPresentIntroducedCollege campus
TurkeyPresentNative
United Arab EmiratesPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresentNative
CyprusPresentNative
CzechiaPresent
FrancePresentNative
-CorsicaPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresentNative
MaltaPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
-AzoresPresent, Only in captivity/cultivation
SpainPresentNative
-Balearic IslandsPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentNative

North America

ArubaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHotel garden
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroduced1929
BermudaPresentIntroduced1905
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAnegada, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedAlajuela, Guanacaste, Puntarenas, San Josá
CubaPresentIntroduced
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced
DominicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1910
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedLa Libertad, Usulután
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced1933Guatemala, Petén
HaitiPresentIntroduced1926
HondurasPresentIntroducedAtlántida, Comayagua, Francisco Morazán
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedCampeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, México, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán
MontserratPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced1930Chinandega, Estelí, Granada, León, Managua, Matagalpa
PanamaPresentIntroducedCanal Area, Panamá, San Blas
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1886
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1881St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-District of ColumbiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1886Botanical gardens
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1921
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveKure Atoll. Invasive in Hawai'i Island. Also cultivated
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced1896Missouri Botanical Garden greenhouses
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso cultivated
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
-ChuukPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
-KosraePresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
GuamPresentIntroduced1912
KiribatiPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced
NauruPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso cultivated
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso cultivated. Naturalized in thickets
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
TongaPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
-Johnston AtollPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedLa Paz, Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentIntroduced
-AlagoasPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-CearaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Distrito FederalPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced
-GoiasPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Mato GrossoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-ParaibaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-ParanaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-PernambucoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-PiauiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Rio Grande do NortePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-SergipePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-TocantinsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive in Robinson Crusoe Island. Also cultivated
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1934Antioquia, Atlántico, Valle del Cauca
EcuadorPresentIntroduced1943Azuay, Chimborazo, El Oro, Guayas, Los Ríos, Pichincha
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedAlso cultivated
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced1924
ParaguayPresentIntroducedCentral
PeruPresentIntroduced1923Cajamarca, Cusco, Huánuco, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, San Martín
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedDistrito Federal

History of Introduction and Spread

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Nerium oleander is a shrub native to the Mediterranean region which has been introduced as an ornamental to the tropics and subtropics worldwide (PROTA, 2020). It is reported as being present since the late 1800s in North America and the Caribbean and reported from Central America, South America and Oceania since the early 1900s (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020). The spread of N. oleander has occurred mainly through its use as an ornamental and landscape species; it has naturalized in various countries in Oceania, mainly by establishing itself in riparian habitats (PIER, 2018). It is reported as occasionally escaping from cultivation in tropical America (Flora of Panama, 2020).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Philippines 1911 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Mexico 1896 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
USA 1886 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Belize 1929 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Bermuda 1905 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Dominican Republic 1910 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Guatemala 1933 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Haiti 1926 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Nicaragua 1930 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Puerto Rico 1886 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
United States Virgin Islands 1881 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Chile 1922 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Colombia 1934 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Ecuador 1943 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Guyana 1924 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Peru 1923 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Venezuela 1901 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Fiji 1947 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Guam 1912 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)

Risk of Introduction

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Nerium oleander is one of the most used ornamental shrubs in the tropics and subtropics (PIER, 2018). It has a high risk of introduction due to its popularity as an ornamental and high availability through local nurseries and the internet. Although widely distributed, there are still some areas without reports of its occurrence. The development of cultivars more resistant to colder temperatures could expand the species range into northern latitudes (Dave's Garden, 2020).

Habitat

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Nerium oleander is a shrub found in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates (HEAR, 2017). It is reported in forests and shrublands along riverbanks and creeks, in intermittent watercourses among rocks, gravelly places, damp ravines and slopes and in the vicinity of springs in arid areas (Herrera, 1991; HEAR, 2017; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2020). In South Africa and in the Mediterranean region, N. oleander is usually found naturally only along watercourses, with a preference for gravelly and rocky streambeds (Henderson, 1992). It can be found from sea level to elevations of almost 2000 m (Herrera, 1991). N. oleander is also cultivated as an ornamental and a landscape shrub in urban areas and is a persistent relic in old towns and graveyards (HEAR, 2017; PIER, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeUnknown

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Nerium oleander is a popular ornamental shrub with many cultivars developed with a wide array of sizes and different flower colours (HEAR, 2017). The chromosome numbers reported for the species are n = 11, 2n = 22 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 1977). Germplasm collections are available for the species (Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Reproductive Biology

Nerium oleander is propagated by seed and when cultivated, vegetatively through cuttings (HEAR, 2017; PIER, 2018).

A description of the reproductive characteristics of N. oleander is given by Herrera (1991):
The flowers are self-compatible, but selfing is prevented by the spatial separation of the pollen and stigma development. Plants produce low pollen quantities and no nectar. Pollination is low, with some bees [Apidae] and flies [Diptera] visiting the flowers deceived by the massive fragrant flower production. Fruits reach maturity about 40 to 45 days after pollination. Unvisited flowers do not set fruit. Fruit abortion ranges from 8 to 54%. Despite a low fruit set, the seed output per plant is high as the mean number of seeds per fruit ranges from 40 to 300. The seeds have a tuft of long hairs which can aid in wind dispersal, but a relatively large percentage of the seeds land close to the parent plant. The main means of dispersal is though water during the rainy season. The seeds can float for long periods of time and even germinate while floating; germination is close to 100%. Seedlings can also float, and remain submerged for up to 5 months and only become established if the water depth is less than 10 mm. Seedling survival is low; most die in open sites and need damp, shaded places. About 46% of the seedlings die during spring and summer due to desiccation. Heavy flooding is also a cause of mortality of established seedlings.

Physiology and Phenology

Nerium oleander has a high fire tolerance (HEAR, 2017). According to Pagen (1988) flowering time throughout the range of this species varies with five zones distinguished: southern France and northern Italy (June-September); Portugal, Spain, southern Italy, Malta, Albania, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus (April, May-September); Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Niger and Libya (March-October); Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Iraq (April-November); Oman, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and China (almost year round); fruits can be found at any time of the year in all regions. Seed dispersal occurs during the peak of the rainy season (Herrera, 1991).

Longevity

Nerium oleander is a perennial shrub (PROTA, 2020).

Environmental Requirements

A shrub native to intermittent streambeds of the Mediterranean region, N. oleander is now distributed in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018; PROTA, 2020). It prefers full sun, will tolerate reflective heat and partial shade but not full shade (HEAR, 2017). Across its natural range, N. oleander appears to show an affinity for areas with a steady supply of soil moisture. It prefers well drained medium to heavy soils with  pH 5.5-7.8 (HEAR, 2017; PROTA, 2020); although it tolerates poor soils it will do best in fertile soils (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). It is salt and drought tolerant (HEAR, 2017; PIER, 2018). In areas with colder temperatures, N. oleander will tolerate some frost down to -6°C; in these areas, the species should be planted in containers to be brought indoors and maintained at temperatures above 10°C (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
44 24

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -6
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1252400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphis nerii Herbivore Plants|Whole plant not specific
Aspidiotus nerii Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Cucumber mosaic virus Pathogen Plants|Whole plant not specific
Lygaeus creticus Herbivore Plants|Whole plant not specific
Oncopeltus fasciatus Herbivore Plants|Seeds not specific
Sphaeropsis tumefaciens Pathogen Plants|Whole plant not specific
Strawberry latent ringspot virus Pathogen Plants|Whole plant not specific
Tomato spotted wilt virus Pathogen Plants|Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Various pests and diseases have been reported for N. oleander including: insects such as Aphis nerii, Aspidiotus nerii, Daphnis nerii, Caenocoris nerii, Oncopeltus fasciatus and Syntomeida epilais (Miller and Dingle, 1982; Bristow, 1991; Herrera, 1991; Popenoe et al., 2019; PROTA, 2020); viruses such as  Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Strawberry Latent Ringspot Virus (SLRV) and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) (Betti and Canova, 1989; Bellardi et al., 1996); fungi Fusarium brachygibbosum, Pseudocercospora neriella and Sphaeropsis tumefaciens (Kavak, 2007; Mirhosseini et al., 2014; HEAR, 2017); and  bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi and Xylella fastidiosa (Temsah et al., 2010; HEAR, 2017).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Although the seeds of N. oleander can be dispersed by wind, the main method of dispersal is through water currents during the rainy season (Herrera, 1991; PIER, 2018).

Accidental Introduction

Although N. oleander has been reported as a seed contaminant and as an escape from cultivation, no details are given (PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Intentional Introduction

Nerium oleander is one of the most used ornamental shrubs of the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate areas worldwide, valued for its abundant showy flowers and ability to adapt to periods of drought. Various cultivars are available in nurseries and over the internet (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018; Dave's Garden, 2020).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosCollections in various botanical gardens Yes Yes Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Breeding and propagationFor use as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2020)
DisturbanceAs an escape from cultivation Yes HEAR (2017); PIER (2018)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeAs an escape from cultivation Yes HEAR (2017); PIER (2018)
Flooding and other natural disastersSeeds dispersed through water after heavy rainfall Yes Herrera (1991)
Garden waste disposalPossible as it is recorded as a garden escape Yes Yes HEAR (2017)
Habitat restoration and improvementUsed for soil stabilization Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Hedges and windbreaksUsed as an ornamental and a landscape species Yes Yes PIER (2018)
HitchhikerAs a seed contaminant Yes Yes Hanelt (2020); USDA-ARS (2020)
HorticultureUsed as an ornamental and a landscape species Yes Yes PIER (2018); Dave’s Garden (2020)
Interconnected waterwaysSeeds dispersed through water after heavy rainfalls Yes Herrera (1991)
Internet salesSold in nurseries and over the Internet Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2020)
Medicinal useVarious ethnobotanical uses reported Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Nursery tradeFor use as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2020)
Off-site preservation Germplasm collections available Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2020); USDA-ARS (2020)
Ornamental purposesUsed as an ornamental and as a landscape species Yes Yes PROTA (2020)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPossible from its use as an ornamental Yes
Floating vegetation and debrisSeeds dispersed through water after heavy rainfall Yes Herrera (1991)
GermplasmGermplasm collections available Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Soil, sand and gravelPossible from its use as an ornamental Yes
WaterSeeds dispersed through water after heavy rainfall Yes Herrera (1991)
WindSeeds are wind dispersed Yes Herrera (1991)
MailSold in nurseries and over the internet Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2020)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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Nerium oleander is reported as a potential seed contaminant, which could have an economic impact, but no details are provided (Hanelt, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Environmental Impact

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There is very little information on the impact of N. oleander on habitats where introduced. Extracts from this species have allelopathic effects and can inhibit the germination of other species (HEAR, 2017). In Australia and South Africa, N. oleander is listed as an environmental weed invading riparian habitats and shrublands (HEAR, 2017; PIER, 2018).

Impact: Biodiversity

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Nerium oleander is reported as naturalized in riparian habitats in Australia, where it produces many seedlings and competes with other species (PIER, 2018). The species is poisonous to mammals and to some invertebrates (PROTA, 2020).

Social Impact

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All parts of N. oleander are poisonous and can be fatal, especially to small children, pets, livestock and other animals (Cortinovis and Caloni, 2013; Caloni et al., 2013; Kammerer, 2019; Ceci et al., 2020; PROTA, 2020). There are reports of animals being killed following consumption of a few leaves (Pagen, 1988). The ingestion of plant parts is reported as one of the major causes of childhood hospital admissions in Australia and Africa (HEAR, 2017). The sap can cause dermatitis and can also irritate the eyes and the mucous membranes of the mouth and intestine (HEAR, 2017; PROTA, 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Benefit

N. oleander is one of the most widely cultivated ornamental shrubs, and is available for sale locally at nurseries and over the internet (Dave’s Garden; PROTA, 2020).

Social Benefit

Nerium oleander is used as an ornamental and landscape shrub in tropical and subtropical countries. It is used in gardens, in containers, parks, roadsides, as a screen or hedge, windbreak, along beaches and in urban areas, as after removal of the suckers, leaving just a few stems, it can also be formed into very attractive small trees (Portis et al., 2004; Hanelt, 2020). In colder climates, it is used as an indoor container plant (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). This species also has various medicinal uses, as a cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant and sternutatory. It is used to treat scabies, cancer, chancres, ulcers, leprosy, swellings and skin diseases (PROTA, 2020). N. oleander is also used as a rat poison, an insecticide and a parasiticide (HEAR, 2017; Hanelt, 2020; PROTA, 2020). The leaves contain small amounts of latex that can be used to make rubber and a green dye is obtained from the flowers (PROTA, 2020).

Environmental Services

Nerium oleander has an extensive root system and is used to stabilize the soil in warmer areas (PROTA, 2020). Various insects, including Daphnis nerii, Caenocoris nerii and Aphis nerii, feed on N. oleander becoming toxic themselves, preventing predation (Herrera, 1991).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Landscape improvement
  • Soil conservation
  • Windbreak

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Materials

  • Dyestuffs
  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals
  • Rubber/latex

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Nerium oleander is sometimes confused with the olive tree (Olea europaea), due to the leaves being similar in shape. They are easily distinguished by the fact that N. oleander is a multi-trunked shrub and O. europaea a tree. The fruits of N. oleander are pods while those of O. europaea are drupes. The flowers are also very different: N. oleander has bigger flowers in a wide array of colours while the flowers of O. europaea are smaller and a cream-white colour (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Eradication

The South African government recommends the removal and destruction of N. oleander plants, including prohibiting its trade (Invasive Species South Africa, 2020). In California where this species has naturalized and is sold as an ornamental, the recommendation is that it be considered for removal from the trade following talks with the horticulture industry and also monitored for further spread into wildlands (Brusati et al., 2014).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Nerium oleander can be physically controlled by cutting the stumps (Brisbane City Council, 2020).

Chemical Control

Basal bark treatments are recommended for the control of N. oleander (Brisbane City Council, 2020).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More information is needed about the effects of N. oleander on habitats and native species where reported as invasive. There is also a lack of information about the naturalization of this species in areas where reported as introduced and/or cultivated.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bellardi, M. G., Betti, L., Marani, F., 1996. Virus diseases of ornamental shrubs. XI. Nerium oleander L. infected by cucumber mosaic virus and a potyvirus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 35(2), 133-136.

Betti, L., Canova, A., 1989. Virus diseases of ornamental shrubs. II. Leaf vein yellowing of oleander. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 28(1), 76-78.

Brisbane City Council, 2020. Weed identification tool. Brisbane, Australia: Brisbane City Council.https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/

Bristow, C. M., 1991. Are ant-aphid associations a tritrophic interaction? Oleander aphids and Argentine ants. Oecologia, 87(4), 514-521. doi: 10.1007/BF00320414

Brusati, E. D., Johnson, D. W., DiTomaso, J. M., 2014. Predicting invasive plants in California. California Agriculture, 68(3), 89-95. doi: 10.3733/ca.v068n03p89

Caloni, F., Cortinovis, C., Rivolta, M., Alonge, S., Davanzo, F., 2013. Plant poisoning in domestic animals: epidemiological data from an Italian survey (2000-2011). Veterinary Record, 172(22), 580. doi: 10.1136/vr.101225

Ceci, L., Girolami, F., Capucchio, M. T., Colombino, E., Nebbia, C., Gosetti, F., Marengo, E., Iarussi, F., Carelli, G., 2020. Outbreak of oleander (Nerium oleander) poisoning in dairy cattle: clinical and food safety implications. Toxins, 12(8), doi: 10.3390/toxins12080471

Cortinovis, C., Caloni, F., 2013. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe. Veterinary Journal, 197(2), 163-168. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.007

Dave's Garden, 2020. Dave's Garden. In: Dave's Garden El Segundo, California, USA: Internet Brands.http://davesgarden.com

Euro+Med, 2020. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity . http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

Flora do Brasil, 2020. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Panama, 2020. Flora of Panama (WFO). In: Flora of Panama (WFO) St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Hanelt, P., 2020. Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. In: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops . Gatersleben, Germany: Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK).http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/apex/f?p=185:3:0::NO

HEAR, 2017. HEAR species information index. In: HEAR species information index Puunene, Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk project.http://www.hear.org/species/

Henderson, L., 1992. Oleander: an invasive riverside shrub from the Mediterranean. Veld & Flora, September, 84-86.

Herrera, J., 1991. The reproductive biology of a riparian Mediterranean shrub, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 106(2), 147-172. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1991.tb02289.x

Ihsan Ullah, Wazir, S. M., Ayesha Farooq, Khan, S. U., Zahid Hussain, 2011. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of FR Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 17(4), 407-416. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-12.pdf

Invasive Species South Africa, 2020. Plants A-Z. In: Plants A-Z , South Africa: Invasive Species South Africa.http://www.invasives.org.za/plants/plants-a-z

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 1977. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN). St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Kammerer, M., 2019. The poisoning by the oleander in animals. (L'intoxication par le laurier rose chez l'animal). Point Vétérinaire, 50(400 (Part 1)), 13-14. http://www.pointveterinaire.com/

Kavak, H., 2007. First report of Pseudocercospora neriella on Nerium oleander in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology, 89(Suppl.3), S71. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2020. Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. In: Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List Richmond, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens.http://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet

Miller, E. R., Dingle, H., 1982. The effect of host plant phenology on reproduction of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, in tropical Florida. Oecologia, 52, 97-103. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00349016

Mirhosseini, H. A., Babaeizad, V., Hashemi, L., 2014. First report of Fusarium brachygibbosum causing leaf spot on oleander in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(2), 431. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. In: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Pagen, F. J. J., 1988. Oleanders: Nerium L. and the oleander cultivars. Agricultural University Wageningen Papers, (No. 87-2), 1-113.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Popenoe, J., Bourdon, J., Warwick, C. R., Chen, J. J., 2019. Key plant, key pests: oleander (Nerium oleander). ENH1310. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP574

Portis, E., Comino, C., Lanteri, S., Lenzi, A., Lombardi, P., Tesi, R., 2004. Genetic relationships between oleander (Nerium oleander L.) accessions by means of AFLP profiling. Acta Horticulturae, (No.651(2)), 173-180. http://www.actahort.org

PROTA, 2020. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Kenya, Netherlands\Nairobi: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Sennblad, B., Bremer, B., 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology, 51(3), 389-409. doi: 10.1080/10635150290069869

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

Temsah, M., Hanna, L., Saad, A. T., 2010. Histological pathogenesis of Pseudomonas savastanoi on Nerium oleander. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(2), 407-413. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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Distribution References

Abdel-Hameed E S, El-Nahas H A, Abo-Sedera S A, 2008. Antischistosomal and antimicrobial activities of some Egyptian plant species. Pharmaceutical Biology. 46 (9), 626-633. DOI:10.1080/13880200802179543

Abou-Awad B A, Elbanhawy E M, 1991. New mites of the family Eriophyidae from Kenya (Acari: Eriophyoidea). Acarologia. 32 (4), 329-333.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ali H B, Agarwala B K, Kaddou I K, 2012. New records of aphids of the Subfamily Aphidinae (Homoptera: Aphididae) infested herbaceous plants and shrubs for Iraqi aphid fauna. Advances in Bio Research. 3 (4), 66-75. http://www.soeagra.com/abr/abrdec_2012/12.pdf

Álvarez L A, Armengol J, Pérez-Sierra A, León M, Abad P, Vicent A, García-Jiménez J, Beltrán C, 2005. First report of Phoma exigua var. heteromorpha causing oleander dieback in Spain. Plant Disease. 89 (7), 775. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0775B

Al-Zalzaleh H A, Al-Zalzaleh M A, 2007. Effect of VAM application on height of ornamental plants in bioremediated and agricultural soil. Agricultural Science Digest. 27 (3), 174-177.

Amirmijani A, Khodaparast S A, Zare R, 2014. Contribution to the identification of Cladosporium species in the North of Iran. Rostaniha. 15 (2), 133-145. http://rostaniha.areo.ir/article_101237_c0c091f7d5f8bedbdc2048350bec7ed3.pdf

Brusati E D, Johnson D W, DiTomaso J M, 2014. Predicting invasive plants in California. California Agriculture. 68 (3), 89-95. DOI:10.3733/ca.v068n03p89

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Brisbane City Councilhttps://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/oleander
Dave’s Gardenhttp://davesgarden.com
e-Flora of South Africahttps://www.sanbi.org/biodiversity/foundations/biosystematics-collections/e-flora/
Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversityhttp://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed
Flora do Brasilhttp://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
HEAR species information indexhttp://www.hear.org/species/
Invasive Species South Africahttp://www.invasives.org.za/plants/plants-a-z
Mansfeld's World Database of Agriculture and Horticultural Cropshttp://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/apex/f?p=185:3:0:
Millennium Seed Bankhttp://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet
Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx
Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collectionshttp://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

Contributors

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11/06/2020 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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