Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Nandina domestica
(Nandina)

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Datasheet

Nandina domestica (Nandina)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nandina domestica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Nandina
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • N. domestica is a usually evergreen many-stemmed shrub, native to eastern Asia, which has been widely introduced around the world as an ornamental plant, and become naturalized in some countries. It can produce...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nandina domestica (Nandina); foliage, showing compound leaves.
TitleFoliage
CaptionNandina domestica (Nandina); foliage, showing compound leaves.
Copyright©Sylvan Kaufman
Nandina domestica (Nandina); foliage, showing compound leaves.
FoliageNandina domestica (Nandina); foliage, showing compound leaves.©Sylvan Kaufman
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Waipoli Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Waipoli Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Waipoli Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2007.
HabitNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Waipoli Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Kula Ace Hardware & Nursery, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Kula Ace Hardware & Nursery, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Kula Ace Hardware & Nursery, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.
HabitNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); habit. Kula Ace Hardware & Nursery, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); red foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
TitleFoliage
CaptionNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); red foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); red foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
FoliageNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); red foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); flowers. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
TitleFlowers
CaptionNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); flowers. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); flowers. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
FlowersNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); flowers. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); immature fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
TitleImmature fruits
CaptionNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); immature fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); immature fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
Immature fruitsNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); immature fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); mature fruits and foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
TitleFruits and foliage
CaptionNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); mature fruits and foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); mature fruits and foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
Fruits and foliageNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); mature fruits and foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (Nandina); large cluster of fruits.
TitleFruits
CaptionNandina domestica (Nandina); large cluster of fruits.
Copyright©Sylvan Kaufman
Nandina domestica (Nandina); large cluster of fruits.
FruitsNandina domestica (Nandina); large cluster of fruits.©Sylvan Kaufman
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); close-up of ripe fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
TitleRipe fruits
CaptionNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); close-up of ripe fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Nandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); close-up of ripe fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.
Ripe fruitsNandina domestica (nandina, heavenly bamboo); close-up of ripe fruits. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2003.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nandina domestica Thunb.

Preferred Common Name

  • Nandina

International Common Names

  • English: heavenly bamboo; nandina; nanten; sacred bamboo
  • Spanish: bambu celestial; bambu sagrado; nandina
  • French: Nandine fruitiere
  • Chinese: nan-tian-zhu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: avenca-japonêsa; bambu-celeste; bambu-do-céu
  • Germany: Garten- Nandine
  • Italy: Nandina
  • Japan: Nanten
  • Sweden: Nandina

EPPO code

  • NANDO (Nandina domestica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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N. domestica is a usually evergreen many-stemmed shrub, native to eastern Asia, which has been widely introduced around the world as an ornamental plant, and become naturalized in some countries. It can produce numerous fruits, dispersed by birds and animals, and it can sucker to create dense stands.  Because of its current localized distribution, there is little information on its impacts. It is recognized as invasive only in the southeastern United States, where most states recognize it as either a minor invader or a potential invader. In Georgia it is a category 2 invasive plant, causing moderate problems (Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013); in Tennessee it is listed as an Alert species ("possess invasive characteristics; known to be invasive in similar habitats as those found in Tennessee") (Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2009); in Florida it is listed as a Category 1 invasive (FLEPPC, 2013); it is also listed with many observations in TexasInvasives.org (2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Ranunculales
  •                         Family: Berberidaceae
  •                             Genus: Nandina
  •                                 Species: Nandina domestica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Nandina domestica was named by Carl Thunberg in 1781 (Thunberg, 1781; Foster and Yue, 1992). It is the only species in the genus. There is one subspecies, N. domestica var. linearifolia C.Y. Wu ex S.Y. Bao.

Description

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N. domestica grows as an evergreen many-stemmed shrub, up to 2 metres tall (Stone, 2009). It is sometimes deciduous in colder climates. The dark, shiny green stems resemble thin stalks of bamboo. The large, alternate leaves are twice- to thrice-divided giving the leaves a lacy appearance.  Each dark green leaflet is ovate to lanceolate with long, tapering tips. Leaflets are 2-6 cm long. The leaves turn reddish in cold weather, and some cultivars have leaves with a reddish colour.  A large cluster of flowers forms at the uppermost leaf axil.  Flower clusters can be 30 cm long.  The panicles' stems are purplish and hold many tiny pinkish-white flowers each with 6 petals and yellow anthers.  Clusters of small fruits form; each fruit is a round berry containing 2 seeds.  Fruits mature to bright red and are often held on the plants through the winter (Langeland et al., 2008).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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In China, N. domestica occurs along streamsides in montane forests, roadsides, and thickets generally below 1000m (eFloras, 2013). It grows in warm temperate regions of Japan including southern Honshu, Shikoku, and the Pacific side of Kyushu (Ohwi, 1965).  It also grows in South Korea (GBIF, 2013).

It has been widely introduced as an ornamental plant in temperate and subtropical North America, Central America, South America, Europe and Australia (GBIF, 2013), and become naturalized in some countries, including the southeastern United States from Maryland to Texas (Stone, 2009) where it is classed as invasive.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-FujianPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-GuangdongPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-GuangxiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-HenanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-HubeiPresentNativeeFloras, 2013
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-JiangsuPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-JiangxiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-ShaanxiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-ShanxiPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-SichuanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-YunnanPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
-ZhejiangPresentNative Not invasive eFloras, 2013
IndiaPresenteFloras, 2013
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HonshuPresentNativeOhwi, 1965
-KyushuPresentNativeOhwi, 1965
-ShikokuPresentNativeOhwi, 1965

Africa

South AfricaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1999Foxcroft et al., 2008Kruger National Park; escaped from cultivation

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresent only in captivity/cultivation2014Introduced Not invasive GBIF, 2014Vancouver Island, Beacon Hill Park
MexicoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive S. Kaufman, consultant, USA, personal communication, 2015; GBIF, 2013Veracruz and Guanajuato states
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009; GBIF, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-ArkansasWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-FloridaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Judd, 2003; Stone, 2009; GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013
-GeorgiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-HawaiiPresent only in captivity/cultivation2011IntroducedGBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013; PIER, 2013; Starr and Starr, 2014
-KentuckyLocalisedIntroduced Invasive EDDMapS, 2013Barren Co, Jefferson Co.
-LouisianaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009; GBIF, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Invasive EDDMapS, 2013Frederick Co.
-MississippiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-New MexicoPresent only in captivity/cultivation2014Introduced Not invasive GBIF, 2013; Dave's Garden, 2014
-New YorkPresent only in captivity/cultivation1990Introduced Not invasive GBIF, 2013
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedTang et al., 2010
-South CarolinaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009; GBIF, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-TennesseeWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009
-TexasWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stone, 2009; GBIF, 2013; TexasInvasivesorg, 2013
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-WashingtonPresent only in captivity/cultivation2001Introduced Not invasive GBIF, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

GuadeloupePresent only in captivity/cultivation2001Introduced Not invasive GBIF, 2013
HondurasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

South America

ArgentinaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedS. Kaufman, consultant, USA, personal communication, 2014; GBIF, 2013Buenos Aires
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParanaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCarvalho and Gosek, 2008; GBIF, 2013
ChilePresentIntroducedS. Kaufman, consultant, USA, personal communication, 2015; Jardín San Francisco, 2015Grown as an ornamental; not known whether naturalized
PeruPresent only in captivity/cultivation2008Introduced Not invasive GBIF, 2013Lima

Europe

FrancePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedS. Kaufman, consultant, USA, personal communication, 2014 ; GBIF, 2013
HungaryPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedMaráczi et al., 2012
SpainPresentIntroduced Not invasive GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013; GBIF, 2013
UKPresent only in captivity/cultivation2011Introduced Not invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2013

Oceania

AustraliaPresent only in captivity/cultivation1993Introduced Not invasive GBIF, 2013Canberra, ACT
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedMurray and Phillips, 2010; Hall, 2013
French PolynesiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2013Tahiti
New CaledoniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2013
New ZealandPresent2006Introduced Not invasive New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2013Lake Rotoma Scenic Reserve
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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William Kerr, a botanical collector for Kew Gardens, collected N. domestica in China during an expedition in 1804 and shipped it to England (Aiton, 1811). He also introduced it to Calcutta, India in 1832 (Roxburgh and Carey, 1832).

The first report of N. domestica in the United States is from 1834.  William Rich, a Washington, DC, socialite, was listed as having the plant in an address to the Columbian Horticultural Society (Watterson, 1834). It was for sale in the catalogue of William Prince and Sons, a nursery in Flushing, New York, in 1837 (Prince, 1837).

N. domestica has also naturalized in South Africa -- it was found naturalized in Kruger National Park near cultivated plants in 1999 (Foxcroft et al., 2008).  The Missouri Botanical Garden (2013) lists citations for N. domestica in Honduras and Peru.  It has also naturalized in Royal National Park in southeastern Australia (Murray and Phillips, 2010).

Little information is available on when the species became naturalised in those countries where it has done so.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1855 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Murray and Phillips (2010)
England and Wales China 1804 Horticulture (pathway cause)Aiton (1811)
India China 1832 Horticulture (pathway cause)Roxburgh and Carey (1832)
USA 1834 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Watterson (1834) May have been introduced earlier

Risk of Introduction

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N. domestica is widely used as an ornamental plant around the world and is available at nurseries and through online and mail order catalogues.  Once planted, it can spread by seed and vegetatively.

Habitat

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In China, N. domestica occurs along streamsides in montane forests, roadsides, and thickets generally below 1000m (eFloras, 2013). In the southeastern USA, it is found in disturbed and undisturbed upland hardwood and upland mixed forests, floodplain and riparian forests, slope woodlands, urban woodlands and thickets (Stone, 2009).  It rarely occurs in early successional communities, but can grow in full sun and along forest edges (Stone, 2009).  In Australia, it was found naturalizing along a riparian corridor near Sydney (Hall, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number 2n = 20 (eFloras, 2013). In China a study of 13 wild populations of N. domestica showed relatively high genetic diversity (Li, 2009). A North Carolina study of 40 N. domestica cultivars and a wild type showed that all were diploid (Knox and Wilson, 2006).

Reproductive Biology

N. domestica can begin to produce fruits at 18 months of age (Cherry, 2002). Hundreds of seeds are produced per plant.  Seeds ripen in winter but have one-year dormancy and require cold stratification for seed germination (Dehgan, 1984; Langeland et al., 2008; Stone, 2009).  Some plants spread by rhizomes and others do not (Knox and Wilson, 2006).

Longevity

The life span of a N. domestica plant is unknown, but personal observation by the author (S. Kaufman, consultant, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, personal observation, 2013) is that they can live at least ten years in a cultivated setting.

Environmental Requirements

N. domestica grows on acidic and calcareous soils in the southeastern USA; it prefers moist, well-drained soils (Stone, 2009).  It has limited salt tolerance (Du et al., 2013).  Plants can grow under a wide range of temperature conditions and are moderately drought tolerant, but seeds must have a cold period to germinate (Stone, 2009); the species is cultivated in tropical climates, but there is no evidence of naturalization there (S. Kaufman, consultant, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, personal communication, 2014). In New Zealand researchers studying the cold tolerance and ability to harden off of Nandina domestica 'Pygmaea' found that it could tolerate minimum winter temperatures of -14°C (Stanley and Warrington, 1988). A study of cold tolerance found that the LT50 for the seeds was -11.35°C (Shen et al., 2008). Plants show photosensitivity at light levels above 50% (Stone, 2009).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
45 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -24
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 22
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 17 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 17

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall3001600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several viruses affect N. domestica (Tang et al., 2010), and it has also been reported as suffering from powdery mildew (Saenz et al., 2000; Helfer, 1995) and a number of insects.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Seeds may be dispersed by water (Stone, 2009).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals.  In the United States they are dispersed by mockingbirds (Mimidae), northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum), American robins (Turdus migratorius), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and northern raccoons (Procyon lotor) (Stone, 2009).

Intentional Introduction

N. domestica is widely planted as an ornamental plant in North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia (GBIF, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acclimatization societiesColumbian Horticultural Society, Washington, DC, report on member introductions, 1834 Yes Watterson, 1834
Botanical gardens and zoosPresent at many botanical gardens Yes GBIF, 2013
Breeding and propagationMany cultivars being developed Yes Yes Knox and Wilson, 2012
Escape from confinement or garden escapeBird and animal dispersed seeds Yes Stone, 2009
Flooding and other natural disastersPossible water dispersal of seed -- plants often found along riparian corridors Yes Stone, 2009
HorticultureNandina is widely grown and sold in horticultural industry Yes Yes Wirth et al., 2004
Internet salesWidely available from internet sources Yes
Nursery tradeWidely sold at wholesale and retail nurseries Yes Yes Trueblood, 2009; Wirth et al., 2004
Ornamental purposesFruits used in flower arrangements Yes Yes Li, 2002
Seed tradeSeeds available via internet Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organismsBirds and mammals Yes Stone, 2009
MailSeeds, Plants Yes
Water Yes Stone, 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Apple stem grooving virus, nandina stem-pitting virus, and a few mosaic viruses have been detected in N. domestica plants.  Some of these viruses also affect economically important crop plants (Tang et al., 2010); importing infected plants could transfer these viruses to new locations.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

N. domestica reduces light levels by 44% in temperate hardwood and broadleaf forests in North Florida (Cherry, 2002). 

Impact on Biodiversity

N. domestica can displace native vegetation. It poses a threat to Aquilegia canadensis, a rare species in Florida, at Florida Caverns State Park (Langeland et al., 2008).

The fruits contain cyanide, and there is a report of numerous cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) dying from ingestion of large amounts of N. domestica fruits in Georgia, USA (Woldemeskel and Styer, 2010).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Aquilegia canadensisNo details No detailsFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesLangeland et al., 2008

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

In Florida, a survey of growers found average annual sales of N. domestica were $3200 (Wirth et al., 2004).  In North Carolina, the average annual wholesale value of N. domestica was $27 million (Trueblood, 2009).

Essential oils and extracts of N. domestica have been found to have in vitro activity against plant pathogenic fungi (Bajpai et al., 2009a) and foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria (Bajpai et al., 2008).

Social Benefit

N. domestica is used as a herbal medicine in China (Foster and Yue, 1992) and Japan (for cough and breathing difficulties -- Tsukiyama et al., 2009).  It is considered a symbol of good luck in Japan and China (Foster and Yue, 1992; Li, 2002). Essential oils and extracts have been found to have in vitro activity against dermatophytic fungi (Bajpai et al., 2009b).

Environmental Services

The fruits are eaten by birds (Langeland et al., 2008).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental
  • Sociocultural value

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Detection and Inspection

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N. domestica is relatively easy to identify with its distinctive leaves.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There are many cultivars of N. domestica including dwarf forms and forms with different leaf shapes and colors.  Dwarf forms produce fewer fruits and seeds (Knox and Wilson, 2006).  Nandina 'Firepower' was found to produce no flowers or fruits (Knox and Wilson, 2012).  Few shrubs would be confused with N. domestica because of its distinctive leaves, and it is the only species in its genus.

Prevention and Control

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Public Awareness

Several southeastern states of the USA list N. domestica as a potentially invasive plant on web sites and in informational brochures.

Eradication

Because naturalized populations are generally small, they could be eradicated locally.  The plant is widely used in landscaping, however, and new populations are likely to occur.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

In areas where N. domestica is invasive, it is suggested to limit new plantings and remove existing plantings or cut off fruits. When plants are transported or removed plants, care is needed not to spread seeds (Langeland et al., 2008).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Small plants can be hand-pulled (Langeland et al., 2008).

Movement Control

Care should be taken to contain seeds when moving plants (Langeland et al., 2008).

Biological Control

Although N. domestica is occasionally attacked by insects and pathogens, none of these are considered for use as biological controls.

Chemical Control

Spot treatments of glyphosate or triclopyr are effective at killing N. domestica (Langeland et al., 2008).  Plants can be sprayed with glyphosate between August and October in the southeastern USA, or tall plants can be cut and the stumps treated with herbicide. In winter, plants can be killed using a basal bark treatment of herbicide in oil (Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2009).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Only one study has been conducted on the effects of N. domestica on plant communities or ecosystems (Cherry, 2002).  There is also a lack of information on the invasive potential of the species.  There are numerous small naturalized populations, but their rate of spread is not closely monitored.

References

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Aiton WT, 1811. Hortus Kewensis, volume II. London, UK: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 432 pp.

Bajpai VK; Lee TaeJong; Kang SunChul, 2009. Chemical composition and in vitro control of agricultural plant pathogens by the essential oil and various extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(1):109-116. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plantshttp://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
Encyclopedia of Lifehttp://eol.org/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Biodiversity Information Facilityhttp://www.gbif.org/
USDA PLANTS Databasehttp://plants.usda.gov/java/

Contributors

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25/06/2013: Original text by:

Sylvan Kaufman, Consultant, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA

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