Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Myzus persicae
(green peach aphid)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Myzus persicae (green peach aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Myzus persicae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • green peach aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Myzus persicae (green peach aphid); an alate (winged) adult, an important vector of plum pox virus.
TitleAdult
CaptionMyzus persicae (green peach aphid); an alate (winged) adult, an important vector of plum pox virus.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
Myzus persicae (green peach aphid); an alate (winged) adult, an important vector of plum pox virus.
AdultMyzus persicae (green peach aphid); an alate (winged) adult, an important vector of plum pox virus.USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Myzus persicae Sulzer (1776)

Preferred Common Name

  • green peach aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis convolvuli Kaltenbach, 1843
  • Aphis cynoglossi Walker, 1848
  • Aphis derelicta Walker, 1849
  • Aphis dianthi Schrank, 1801
  • Aphis dubia Curtis, 1842
  • Aphis egressa Walker, 1849
  • Aphis malvae Mosl., 1841
  • Aphis persicae Sulzer, 1776
  • Aphis persiciphila
  • Aphis persola Walker, 1848
  • Aphis rapae Curtis, 1842
  • Aphis redundans Walker, 1849 sec. Laing, 1925
  • Aphis suffragans Walker, 1848
  • Aphis tuberoscellae
  • Aphis vastator
  • Aphis vulgaris Kyber, 1815 (sec. Walker)
  • Aulacorthum convolvuli
  • Myzodes persicae (Sulzer)
  • Myzodes tabaci Mordvilko, 1914
  • Myzoides persicae
  • Myzus dianthi (Schrank)
  • Myzus malvae Oestl., 1886 (sec. Theob.)
  • Myzus nicotianae Blackman
  • Myzus pergandei Sanders, 1901 sec. Patch
  • Myzus persicae var. cerastii Theobald
  • Myzus persicae var. sanguisorbella Theobald, 1926
  • Nectarosiphon persicae (Sulzer)
  • Phorodon cynoglossi Williams, 1891 sec. Davis, 1911
  • Phorodon persicae (Sulzer)
  • Rhopalosiphum betae Theobald, 1913
  • Rhopalosiphum calthae Koch, 1854
  • Rhopalosiphum dianthi
  • Rhopalosiphum lactucellum
  • Rhopalosiphum lactucellum Theobald, 1915
  • Rhopalosiphum persicae
  • Rhopalosiphum solani Theobald, 1912 nonKalt, 1843
  • Rhopalosiphum tuberosellae Theobald, 1922
  • Rhopalosiphum tulipae Thos., 1879 sec. Davis, 1911
  • Siphonophora achyrantes Mon., 1879
  • Siphonophora nasturtii Koch, 1855

International Common Names

  • English: cabbage aphid; green sesame aphid; peach aphid; peach curl aphid; peach-potato aphid; potato aphid; tobacco aphid
  • Spanish: afido amarillo del tabaco; afido verde; afido verdoso; pulgón verde; pulgón verde del melocotonero
  • French: puceron des carottes; puceron gris du pecher; puceron vert du pêcher
  • Portuguese: pulgao verde do pessegueiro

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: pulgón verde del duraznero
  • Brazil: pulgao verde da batatinha
  • Denmark: ferskenbladlus
  • Dominican Republic: melaito; melaito verde
  • Finland: persikkakirva; perunakirva
  • Germany: Bocksdorn-Blattlaus; Gruene Pfirsichblattlaus; Nelken-Blattlaus
  • Israel: knimat haafarsek
  • Italy: afide verde del pesco
  • Japan: momoaka-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: Groene Perzikbladluis; Groene Tabaksluis
  • Norway: ferskenbladlus
  • Sweden: persikbladlus
  • Turkey: seftali yaprak biti

EPPO code

  • MYZUPE (Myzus persicae)
  • RHOPDI (Rhopalosiphum dianthi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Myzus
  •                                         Species: Myzus persicae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Myzus persicae was first described by Sulzer in 1776 as Aphis persicae. Its numerous synonyms are listed by Börner (1952) and Remaudiere and Remaudiere (1997) and taxonomy is reviewed by Blackman and Paterson (1986) and Blackman (1986). The name M. persicae as applied here refers to a complex of sibling species and host plant races, including the tobacco-adapted form, described by Blackman (1986) as a separate species (M. nicotanae); this needs to be borne in mind when designing control strategies.

Description

Top of page

Adult wingless parthenogenetic females are oval-bodied, 1.2-2.1 mm in body length, of very variable colour; whitish green, pale yellow green, grey green, mid-green, dark green, pink or red. The tobacco form (nicotianae) varies even more and can also be bright yellow, or almost black. Apart from genetically determined colour variation, any one genotype will be more deeply pigmented green or magenta in cold conditions. Immature stages are quite shiny, but adults are less so. Winged morphs have a black central dorsal patch on the abdomen. Immatures of the winged females are often pink or red, especially in autumn populations, and immature males are yellowish (Blackman and Eastop, 1985).

Distinguishing characters of the M. persicae group with a hand lens or under the microscope are the convergent inner faces of the antennal tubercles in dorsal view, and the very slightly clavate siphunculi, which are usually dark-tipped and about as long as the terminal process of the antenna.

M. persicae alate virginoparae from populations derived from overwintering eggs on Prunus have cylindrical cornicles, whereas those from populations derived from overwintering virginoparae are clavate.

Distribution

Top of page

M. persicae is probably of Asian origin, like its primary host plant (Prunus persica) but now occurs everywhere in the world except where there are extremes of temperature or humidity.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
BurundiPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-BiharPresentOriginal citation: Ram and Kishore Parihar (2002)
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
LaosPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MongoliaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
Palestine
-Gaza StripPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent, Widespread
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent, Widespread
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GibraltarPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present
-Russian Far EastPresent
SerbiaPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent, Widespread
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-EnglandPresent
-ScotlandPresent
-WalesPresent

North America

BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
FijiPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Widespread
-BahiaPresentOriginal citation: Sigaran Tarrago et al., 1994
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
-Easter IslandPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

Top of page
Aerial dispersal of winged forms over long distance is the main mode of dispersal of this cosmopolitan pest. However, phytosanitary measures are important to stop the spread of virus-infected planting material (for example, seed potatoes) from which native aphid vectors could spread subsequently.

Habitat

Top of page
Open vegetation; crops and herbaceous plants in open situations. Peach orchards.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The winter (primary) host of M. persicae is almost invariably Prunus persica (peach), including var. nectarina; sometimes P. nigra in USA, and possibly P. tenella, P. nana, P. serotina, P. americana and peach-almond hybrids. It is not clear whether the sexual part of the life-cycle is completed on species other than P. persica and P. nigra.

M. persicae is highly polyphagous on summer hosts, which are in over 40 different families, including Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Leguminosae, Cyperaceae, Convolvulaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Cucurbitaceae and Umbelliferae. Summer hosts include many economically important plants.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeOther
    AleuritesEuphorbiaceaeOther
      Aloe (grey alder)AloaceaeOther
        Anchusa (Bugloss)BoraginaceaeWild host
          Anethum graveolens (dill)ApiaceaeOther
            Anoda cristata (Anodaweed)MalvaceaeUnknown
            Anthriscus (chervil)ApiaceaeWild host
              Antirrhinum (snapdragon)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
                Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeMain
                ArabidopsisUnknown
                AraceaeAraceaeMain
                  Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
                    Armoracia rusticana (horseradish)BrassicaceaeMain
                      Artemisia (wormwoods)AsteraceaeWild host
                        Asclepias meadii (Mead's milkweed)AsclepiadaceaeWild host
                          Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeMain
                            Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
                            Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain
                            BrassicaBrassicaceaeMain
                            Brassica carinata (African cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica juncea (mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica napusBrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica napus var. napobrassica (swede)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica napus var. napus (rape)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica napus var. oleiferaBrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera (Brussels sprouts)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeOther
                              Brassica rapa (field mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                              Brassica rapa cultivar group CaixinBrassicaceaeOther
                                Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis (Chinese cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
                                  Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensisBrassicaceaeUnknown
                                  Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeMain
                                    CapsellaUnknown
                                    Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                    Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeMain
                                    Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
                                    CardariaUnknown
                                    Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
                                      Carthamus tinctorius (safflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                        Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
                                          Chenopodium (Goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                                            Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                              Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeMain
                                              Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeOther
                                                Cichorium intybus (chicory)AsteraceaeMain
                                                  Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                    CitrusRutaceaeMain
                                                      Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeMain
                                                        Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley)LiliaceaeOther
                                                          Convolvulus (morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
                                                            Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeMain
                                                              Crocus sativus (saffron)IridaceaeOther
                                                                Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                  Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                    Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                      Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                        Cuminum cyminum (cumin)ApiaceaeMain
                                                                          Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
                                                                            Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (globe artichoke)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                              Cyphomandra betacea (tree tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                DahliaAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                  Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
                                                                                    Dianthus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeOther
                                                                                      Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeMain
                                                                                        Eucalyptus urophylla (Timor mountain gum)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                        Euonymus europaeusCelastraceaeUnknown
                                                                                        Euphorbia (spurges)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
                                                                                          Foeniculum vulgare (fennel)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                            Fragaria (strawberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                            Fragaria chiloensis (Chilean strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                              Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeOther
                                                                                                Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
                                                                                                    Hemerocallis (daylilies)LiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                        Humulus lupulus (hop)CannabaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeWild host
                                                                                                            Indigofera (indigo)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
                                                                                                                Iris (irises)IridaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                                                  Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                    Lepidium draba (hoary cress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                    Lepidium sativum (garden cress)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Lilium (lily)LiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Lolium (ryegrasses)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                                            Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)PoaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                              Lupinus (lupins)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                  Malva (mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                    Malva nicaeensisUnknown
                                                                                                                                    Malva sylvestrisMalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                    MatthiolaBrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                      Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                        Mentha (mints)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          Narcissus (daffodil)LiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                            Nasturtium officinale (watercress)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                              Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                              Origanum majorana (sweet marjoram)LamiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                Papaver somniferum (Opium poppy)PapaveraceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                  Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)ApiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                      Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                        Petroselinum (parsley)ApiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                          Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                            Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            Poa (meadow grass)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                              Primula (Primrose)PrimulaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                              Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                              Prunus amygdalusRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                  Prunus davidianaRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                  Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    Prunus nanaRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      Prunus nigra (Canada plumtree)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                        Prunus serotina (black cherry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                              Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                              Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                Rhus (Sumach)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Rumex acetosa var. hortensis (garden sorrel)PolygonaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                        Secale cereale (rye)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                          Senecio (Groundsel)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                            Senecio vulgarisAsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                              Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum chomatophilumUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum demissumSolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum ehrenbergiiSolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum infundibuliformeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum jamesiiUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Solanum pallidumUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Solanum palustreUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Solanum sanctae-rosaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Solanum trifidumUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sonchus (Sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                    SpinaciaUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                      StellariaUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Triticum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tulipa (tulip)LiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Veronica (Speedwell)ScrophulariaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vicia (vetch)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Growth Stages

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect of infestation depends greatly on host plant and transmitted viruses. Spring populations on peach cause severe leaf curl and shoot distortion. In potato, PLRV symptoms are leaf rolling and tuber stem necrosis. In sugarbeet, beet yellows viruses (BYV, BYDV, BWYV) cause yellowing in older leaves, chlorotic spotting, and thickening of the leaves, which become leathery and brittle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On many crop plants (for example, potato, brassicas, sugarbeet) M. persicae only occurs at low densities, particularly on older leaves. Large colonies of the tobacco form (nicotianae) occur on growing stems and younger leaves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Growing point / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Inflorescence / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / abnormal patterns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / necrotic areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / necrotic areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Stems / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Whole plant / wilt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Species Vectored

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Alfalfa mosaic virus (alfalfa yellow spot)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bean common mosaic necrosis virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bean common mosaic virus (common mosaic of beans)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bean leafroll virus (pea leafroll virus)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bean yellow mosaic virus (bean yellow mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beet mild yellowing virus (beet mild yellowing)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beet mosaic virus (spinach mosaic virus)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beet western yellows virus (turnip (mild) yellows)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beet yellows virus (beet yellows)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Carnation latent virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cauliflower mosaic virus (cauliflower mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cucumber mosaic virus (cucumber mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    East Asian Passiflora virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hop mosaic virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lettuce mosaic virus (lettuce mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Maize dwarf mosaic virus (dwarf mosaic of maize)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Onion yellow dwarf virus (onion yellow dwarf)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Papaya ringspot virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Passion fruit woodiness virus (passionfruit woodiness disease)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (pea virus 1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Peanut mottle virus (peanut mottle)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Peanut stripe virus (groundnut stripe disease)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Peanut stunt virus (peanut stunt)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pepper veinal mottle virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Plum pox virus (sharka)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Potato leafroll virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Potato virus S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Potato virus Y (potato mottle)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Red clover vein mosaic virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Soybean mosaic virus (soybean mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tobacco etch virus (tobacco etch)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tobacco vein distorting virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tobacco vein mottling virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tobacco yellow net virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tuberose mild mottle virus (tuberose mild mottle virus)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tulip breaking virus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Turnip mosaic virus (cabbage A virus mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Watermelon mosaic virus (watermelon mosaic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M. persicae is heteroecious holocyclic (host alternating, with sexual reproduction during part of life-cycle) between Prunus (usually peach) and summer host plants, but anholocyclic on secondary (summer) hosts in many parts of the world where peach is absent, and where a mild climate permits active stages to survive throughout the winter. It is usually anholocyclic in tropics and sub-tropics, with exceptions: for example, Ghosh and Verma (1990) reported apterous oviparous females of M. persicae for the first time from India, collected on Prunus persica. Blackman (1974) discussed the life-cycle variability of M. persicae on a worldwide basis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    For host-alternating populations, in spring, winged female emigrants (alate virginoparae) produced from the fundatrices migrate to summer hosts. A series of generations of wingless (apterous) and alate virginoparae are produced viviparously by thelytokous (all-female) parthenogenesis. These develop on summer hosts until reduced daylength (critical photoperiod between 12.5 and 14 hours in Europe), in conjunction with temperature below a certain threshold, induces autumn migrants (gynoparae) which migrate back to peach. Gynoparae will attempt to colonize a range of trees and shrubs, but the sexual part of the cycle is only completed on Prunus persica and close relatives. Gynoparae produce oviparae (mating females) that feed and develop on peach leaves. Males are produced after gynoparae (1 month later in a study from Italy) on the summer hosts, and migrate independently to peach, where they mate with the oviparae, which by then have become adult. Males appear to be attracted by sex pheromone released by sexual females, and are also attracted to the odour of the winter host (Tamaki et al., 1970). Oviparae lay 4-13 eggs, usually in crevices around and in axillary buds. Up to 20,000 eggs may occur per P. persica tree, although 4000 is around average, with large variation between trees (van Emden et al., 1969). The eggs overwinter in diapause, requiring a period of chilling to develop, and are extremely cold resistant (surviving temperatures as low as -46°C). Hatching coincides with swelling of flower buds, which provide food for first fundatrices. High fundatrix mortality may occur (van Emden et al., 1969). Fundatrigeniae feed on opened buds, flowers and soft shoots of the peach tree. Winged female emigrants are produced in the second generation after the fundatrix, but production of wingless females may continue for several generations, with increasing numbers of emigrants being produced as the nutritional suitability of the peach tree declines.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On the summer hosts, populations tend to be dispersed. M. persicae tends to feed on older senescing leaves, often along the leaf veins. van Emden et al. (1969) described how a range of host-plant variables affected aphid development and fecundity. Plant nutrition is a factor in the induction of winged forms, along with temperature, but there is also a strong genetic component. In laboratory experiments, low temperature promoted, while high temperature tended to suppress, the development of winged forms. Kuo (1991) described development and reproduction on radishes and potatoes at six constant temperatures (5-30°C) in the laboratory. M. persicae is relatively cold resistant. Howling et al. (1994) described mortality of aphids at various cold temperatures and their results suggested that an acclimatized overwintering population of M. persicae would persist without significant mortality after a period of 7-10 days with -5°C frosts each night.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Between six and eight generations developed on sugar-beet plants during the growing season in the Czech Republic, wheras 10-25 generations a year were possible on potatoes in southwestern USA. Wingless parthenogenetic females produce 30-80 progeny each. Higher growth rates have been observed on virus-infested plants. Winged females alight fairly indiscriminately on summer hosts, as expected for a polyphagous species, although they have a landing preference on yellow and yellow-green surfaces. Decreased departure rates account for accumulation on favoured hosts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M. persicae has 2n=12 chromosomes normally, but a form heterozygous for a chromosomal translocation is worldwide and common (Blackman et al., 1978). M. persicae is a highly variable species; strains, races and biotypes have been distinguished by morphology, colour, biology, host-plant preference, ability to transmit viruses and insecticide resistance (van Emden et al., 1969). A distinct form of M. persicae (=nicotianae Blackman) occurs throughout most of the world on tobacco (Blackman, 1986; Takada and Tamura, 1987). Hybridisation in a region where the two forms both have a sexual phase on peach may account for the fact that both now have the same genes for insecticide resistance (Field et al., 1994). Remaudiere et al. (1991) reported a winged viviparous albino of M. persicae from South America.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The literature on M. persicae is probably larger than for any other aphid species. Major reviews of this aphid include those by van Emden et al. (1969) and Mackauer and Way (1976).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Natural enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Acridotheres tristis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Finland; France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Agonum dorsale Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Allothrombium pulvinus Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Alloxysta discreta Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Anisosticta novemdecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Anomalochrysa maclachlani Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Anthocoris gallarumulmi Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Anthocoris nemorum Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Anthocoris sibiricus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphelinus abdominalis Parasite Nymphs France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphelinus asychis Parasite Nymphs France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphelinus mali Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphelinus semiflavus Parasite Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius colemani Parasite Nymphs Tamil Nadu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius ervi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile; Morocco peaches; potatoes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius funebris Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius gifuensis Parasite Nymphs Yunnan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius matricariae Parasite Nymphs France; Poland; Romania; UK; USA; USSR peaches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius nigripes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius picipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius rhopalosiphi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius rosae Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius similis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius sonchi Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius urticae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidius uzbekistanicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs Heilongjiang; Russia; USSR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asaphes lucens Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bembidion quadrimaculatum Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Brinckochrysa scelestes Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults/Nymphs India Cuminum cyminum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Carabidae Predator Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs Andhra Pradesh; India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysopa chrysops Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysopa formosa Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria; France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysopa nigricornis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysopa pallens Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysopa quadripunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysopa slossonae Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria; Finland; Moldova; USSR tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysoperla downesi Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysoperla harrisii Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria;France;Poland tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysoperla sinica Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coccinella hieroglyphica Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coccinella quinquepunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria; Finland; India; Maine; New York Cuminum cyminum; tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coccinella septempunctata brucki Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coccinella transversalis Predator Adults/Nymphs India aubergines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coccinella transversoguttata Predator Adults/Nymphs Maine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coleomegilla maculata cubensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs USA; Maine potatoes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Conidiobolus thromboides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cotesia rubecula Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cycloneda limbifer Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Deraeocoris flavilinea Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Deraeocoris pallens Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Morocco; Poland potatoes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dicyphus errans Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Endaphis aphidimyza Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Entomophaga aphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Entomophaga chromaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ephedrus californicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ephedrus cerasicola Parasite Nymphs Norway Capsicum annuum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ephedrus persicae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs China; Yunnan radishes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Episyrphus alternans Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria; India potatoes; tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eriopis connexa Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Erynia neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Erynia nouryi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Erynia phalloides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eupeodes confrater Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Andhra Pradesh; India; Punjab mustard; tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eupeodes latilunulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Forficula decipiens Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs India; Tamil Nadu Capsicum annuum; kohlrabi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Geocoris bullatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Harmonia conformis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Harmonia dimidiata Predator Adults/Nymphs India aubergines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hemerobius pacificus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hippodamia undecimnotata
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria; India Cuminum cyminum; tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ischiodon aegyptius Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ischiodon scutellaris Predator Adults/Nymphs India; India; Andhra Pradesh; India; Punjab mustard; potatoes; tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jalysus wickhami Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lasiochalcidia erythropus Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs UK Brassica
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lipolexis scutellaris Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lysiphlebia mirzai Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lysiphlebus confusus Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lysiphlebus delhiensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lysiphlebus fabarum Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Macrolophus caliginosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Macrolophus caluginosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Macrolophus nubilus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mallada boninensis Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Andhra Pradesh tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Micraspis discolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Micraspis vincta Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Andhra Pradesh tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Micromus angulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Micromus pusillus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Micromus tasmaniae Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nabis alternatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Neoephedrus kalimpongensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nineta pallida Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Orius minutus Predator Adults/Nymphs China apples; Astragalus sinicus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Orius sauteri Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Orius vicinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Phalangium opilio Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Podisus maculiventris Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Polistes crinitus americanus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Praon myzophagum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Praon unicum Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA; Washington peaches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs Morocco potatoes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs France aubergines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Propylea quatuordecimpunctata
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pterostichus melanarius Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scaeva latimaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scaeva pyrastri Predator Adults/Nymphs Bulgaria tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scymnodes lividigaster Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scymnus bicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scymnus ferrugatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scymnus marginicollis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scymnus morelleti
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scymnus posticalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sphaerophoria indiana Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Synharmonia lyncea Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Syrphus ribesii Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tjederina gracilis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Toxares deltiger Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Toxares zakai Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trioxys angelicae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trioxys indicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trioxys similis Parasite Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trioxys tucumanus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Verticillium lamellicola Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wesmaelius subnebulosus Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zele chlorophthalma Parasite Adults/Nymphs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Notes on Natural Enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aphid natural enemies tend to be habitat-specific rather than host-specific, so the important natural enemies attacking particular aphid pests on crops tend to vary according to the crop, the circumstances under which it is grown and the climate. This is particularly true of aphid pests attacking a range of different crops over large geographical areas. Besides, many parasitoids are members of species complexes, morphologically very similar but with different host preferences and geographical distributions. Those in the list of natural enermies are only a selection of species that have been considered as important by investigators and should not be taken as definitive.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M. persicae is attacked by over 30 species of primary parasitoid. Most also attack a range of other aphid species, although some, for example, Trioxys similis, appear host-specific. T. angelicae is a parasitoid on Prunus only. M. persicae is the preferred host for Aphidius matricariae and Aphelinus semiflavus in the USA. Aphidius colemani is also an important natural enemy in North and South America. The second and third aphid nymphal instars are usually preferred by ovipositing parasites (Hågvar and Hofsvang, 1991) with older nymphs usually avoided as they result in small parasite adults emerging which leave few offspring; though Aphidius gifuensis prefers third and fourth instars (van Emden et al., 1969). Parasites often use aphid honeydew as a host-finding cue (Hågvar and Hofsvang, 1991).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coccinellids, adults and larvae, are important predators worldwide, particularly Adonia spp., Coccinella spp., Hippodamia spp. and Scymnus spp. Coccinella septempunctata and Chilomese sexmaculata were the most abundant predators in potatoes, and other crops, in India (for example, Raj, 1989; Gupta and Yadava, 1989). Important syrphid larvae predators worldwide include Episyrphus balteatus, Ischiodon scutellaris, Metasyrphus corollae and Scaeva pyrastri. Kumar et al. (1987) provided a key for syrphid larvae that prey on M. persicae in India.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Van Emden et al. (1969) provided an extensive list of known natural enemies of M. persicae, which has been updated from the literature to 1996. Halima et al. (1993) described parasites and predators attacking M. persicae in Tunisia, and Nakata (1995) described fluctuations of aphids and their natural enemies on potato in Japan. In India, the common myna bird (Acridotheres tristis) was recorded preying on M. persicae in cumin (Gupta and Yadava, 1989).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kish et al. (1994) described infestation of M. persicae by Verticillium lecanii on peach leaves, and Beauveria bassiana and Conidiobolus sp. on potatoes; while aphids collected from weeds growing in and near a peach orchard were infected with Entomophaga chromaphidis, Conidiobolus obscurus and V. lecanii. Aphids on potatoes and non-solanaceous hosts in Idaho, USA, were infected with Pandora neoaphidis, Chromaphidis and Conidiobolus spp. (Kish et al., 1994). Li et al. (1992) described Entomophthorales in China. Pathogenicity of these fungi is greatest when humidity is high.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M. persicae is the most important aphid virus vector. It has been shown to transmit well over 100 plant virus diseases, in about 30 different families, including many major crops. Persistent viruses transmitted include Beet western yellows virus, Beet yellows virus, Beet mild yellowing virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Bean leaf roll virus, Potato leaf roll virus and several viruses of tobacco (for example, Tobacco vein-distorting virus, Tobacco yellow net virus). Many more are transmitted by the non-persistent method, including Potato virus Y, Cucumber mosaic virus, Clover yellow vein virus, Alfalfa mosaic virus, Pepper veinal mottle virus, Plum pox virus, Lettuce mosaic virus and Tobacco vein mottling virus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Direct feeding damage can result in stunting and reduced root weight, but populations on most crops do not reach levels causing obvious symptoms such as chlorosis or leaf curling, and the production of copious honeydew with associated sooty mould. However, significant yield losses can arise from direct damage on potatoes (Sexson et al., 2005) and visible distortion of leaves can occur on peach in the spring as well as on peppers and flower crops in greenhouses.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M. persicae is a major pest everywhere potatoes are grown. It is the most important vector of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), which causes leaf roll and tuber rot necrosis. Seed potatoes have low tolerance for PLRV and low aphid populations can be very damaging.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yield losses in sugarbeet due to beet yellows are more serious if infection occurs early in the season and can be up to 30-50%, with an increase also in the impurities present in the harvested sugar.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On peach (the primary host) the aphid causes twisting of the young leaves and on nectarines, pitting on and discoloration of the young fruits (Barbagallo et al., 2007).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Threatened Species

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asclepias meadii (Mead's milkweed)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesIllinois; Iowa; KansasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Risk and Impact Factors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Impact mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Herbivory/grazing/browsing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Diagnosis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Methods have been developed for diagnosing economically important characteristics of field-collected aphids. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used to detect plant viruses carried by M. persicae (for example, Carlebach et al., 1982; Reinhardt et al., 1988). Levels of insecticide resistance in individual aphids can be estimated from their esterase content measured by immunoassay, and DNA diagnostic methods for resistant M. persicae have also been developed (Field et al., 1997).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Detection and Inspection

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On Prunus persica, inspect for curled leaves, in which colonies develop in early spring.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Monitoring is important in field crops, but M. persicae transmits viruses of crops such as sugar beet and potato at low densities, and is therefore difficult to detect on the crop before the damage is done. Suction and yellow traps are the most efficient way to detect first migration of winged aphids into the crop. Networks of suction traps have been developed to monitor migrating aphids, for example, the Rothamsted Insect Survey in the UK and AGRAPHID in France (Hulle et al., 1987), as part of the 'Euraphid' forecasting system in European Union countries. Much effort has been expended on developing forecasting methods, for example for sugarbeet (Harrington et al., 1989). Appropriate applications of insecticides are often based on monitoring data. Insecticide application in sugar beet against M. persicae is only necessary when aphids are carrying yellows viruses. Vertical nets placed downwind of fields of infected potato plants can be used to quantify the proportion of M. persicae carrying virus (diagnosed by use of ELISA; see Diagnosis).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M. persicae is a member of a group of closely related and very similar-looking species in the subgenus Nectarosiphon. Some of these are specific to particular host plants and confined to Europe; see Blackman and Paterson (1986) for a key to these. Others are more widely distributed: Myzus certus is a red species that restricts its feeding to Caryophyllaceae and Violaceae, and occurs in Europe and North America. This species does not host-alternate to peach; a sexual generation, with wingless males, can occur on Caryophyllaceae. Myzus dianthicola is a deep yellow-green colour and is only known from carnations (Dianthus) causing chlorotic patches on the leaves. It is recorded from USA, Europe and New Zealand, and has no sexual phase.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Myzus antirrhinii is mid-green to dark grey green and rather polyphagous. It forms dense colonies on certain host plants, for example, Buddleja, Antirrhinum and Pittosporum, but it sometimes also occurs on field crops. Production of winged morphs is rather sporadic, and it has no sexual phase. M. antirrhinii is known from western USA and Canada, Europe and Australia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Myzus nicotianae occurs in most parts of the world where tobacco is grown. It has slight but consistent morphological differences from M. persicae and Blackman (1986) gives linear discriminant functions for winged and wingless females, but the two taxa can only be reliably separated using multivariate morphometrics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M. nicotianae is anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) almost everywhere, but has a sexual phase on peach in some parts of the world (for example, northern Greece) and some hybridization with M. persicae may occur, which would account for the fact that it has the same genes for insecticide resistance as M. persicae (Field et al., 1994), and the same resistance-linked chromosomal translocation. Because the extent of gene flow between the two taxa is still uncertain, and because the two are confused in the literature, data for M. nicotianae is here included in the treatment of M. persicae.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Electrophoretic techniques can distinguish between M. persicae and M. antirrhinii, based on patterns of esterases (Ffrench-Constant et al., 1988; Blackman and Spence, 1992).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Two other widely distributed and polyphagous pest species are less closely related but liable to confusion with M. persicae: the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus, which is straw-coloured with contrastingly black tips to antennae and legs, and Myzus cymbalariae, which is yellowish brown to dark reddish brown. Both these species have siphunculi much shorter than those of M. persicae. The preferred hosts of both species are in Alliaceae and Caryophyllaceae.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prevention and Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chemical Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As M. persicae is mainly important as a virus vector, a high level of control as provided by insecticides is often required. However, insecticides are relatively ineffective for non-persistent viruses, because transmission by the aphid occurs in just a few seconds. Moreover, there are varied restrictions on active ingredients in different parts of the world, and further restrictions on formulation, method of application, crop and time of year. Additionally, resistance to most groups of insecticides that defeats their use has appeared in many places (Foster et al., 2007; Bass et al., 2014). The aphid has several mechanisms conferring resistance primarily to different groups of insecticides; amplification of carboxylesterase for organophosphate insecticides, insensitive target site (MACE) against dimethyl carbamates, knock-down resistance (kdr and super-kdr) against pyrethroids and most recently a mechanism known as Nic-R++ against neonicotinoids (Bass et al., 2011). Other insecticides such as pymetrozine and flonicamid may therefore be required to obtain adequate control of the aphid, and diamide insecticides should become available in the future. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    IPM Programmes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Insecticidal soaps have been found useful in greenhouses, where they have low toxicity to many beneficial organisms. The fungal pathogen Lecanicillium lecanii is compatible with insecticides and is effective against M. persicae in a wide range of greenhouse crops, but only where high humidities can be maintained. In field crops, however, the main form of IPM is the modification of choice of insecticide and time of application to minimise damage to indigenous natural enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biological Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Releasing natural enemies produced by commercial breeding companies has become a routine component in the control of M. persicae on greenhouse crops (Powell and Pell, 2007). Here lacewing larvae have given good control on aubergines, and the midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza has proved an effective predator of the aphid on peppers. However. Most releases are of parasitoids of M. persicae, the main species being Aphidius colemani, Aphidius matricariae and Aphidoletes abdominalis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Host-Plant Resistance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Host-plant resistance to insects is commonly based on secondary plant chemistry. As M. persicae can attack plants in many unrelated botanical families, such resistance is hard to obtain, and the focus has been more on morphological plant characters. Glandular trichomes on potatoes are an important resistance factor. Gibson and Pickett (1983) described the release of the repellent aphid alarm pheromone chemical, (E)-ß-farnesene, from these glandular hairs of wild potato. Trichomes also release a sticky exudate, which immobilizes aphids, and contains toxic sucrose ester compounds, shown to inhibit settling and probing. Glandular hairs have been bred into resistant potato cultivars (Vallejo et al., 1994). Gatehouse et al. (1996) reported enhanced resistance to M. persicae in transgenic potato plants expressing lectins, but such plants present a potential toxicity hazard to humans and have not been commercialised.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Increased waxiness in brassicas decreased aphid colonization, mainly due to a non-preference resistance mechanism (Stoner, 1992).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cultural Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Most cultural measures are aimed at reduction of the virus problem, and are particularly important when rapidly transmitted non-persistent viruses are involved. Among cultural control methods recommended  are early sowing (e.g. of potatoes), weed management and the use of certified seeds, known to be virus-free (for example, seed potatoes). In peach orchards normal pruning procedures on peach to reduce the number of overwintering eggs are effective control against overwintering eggs. This in turn is also beneficial to crops to which aphids migrate in summer. In potatoes, sprout inhibitor is sprayed to reduce emergence of infested volunteer plants which could serve as reservoirs of infection for the following year's crop. In sugarbeet, where beet itself is the most important reservoir of infection, elimination of overwintering plants is important.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Some success in reducing M. persicae numbers and virus has been achieved in high value field crops by the expensive technique of laying aluminium foil between the plant rows to reflect the sky and disorientate arriving aphids. This approach has been modified and costs reduced by spraying the crop with highly reflective kaolin-based particles (Glenn and Puterka, 2005). Lightweight row covers ('horticultural fleece') of spun-bonded polyester or polyethylene can protect seedlings from viruliferous M. persicae (Harrewijn et al., 1991); the plants grow through the fleece as they get older.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    References

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Agarwala BK, 1983. Notes on some aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) affecting economically important plants in Bhutan. Indian Agriculturist, 27(3):261-262.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Arvind Kumar, Singh CP, Renu Pandey, 2009. Insect pests of Ashwagandha, Withania somnifera Linn. in tarai region of Uttarakhand. Entomon, 34(2):115-118.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Askarianzadeh, A., Birch, A. N. E., Ramsay, G., Minaeimoghadam, M., 2013. Study of wild Solanum species to identify sources of resistance against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). American Journal of Potato Research, 90(1), 66-70. doi: 10.1007/s12230-012-9277-9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bale, J. S., Harrington, R., Clough, M. S., 1988. Low temperature mortality of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Ecological Entomology, 13(2), 121-129. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1988.tb00340.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Balliu A, Cota E, 2007. Biological control of main greenhouse pests in Albania. Acta Horticulturae, 729:489-492. http://www.actahort.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Barbagallo S, Cocuzza G, Cravedi P, Komazaki S, 2007. IPM case studies: deciduous fruit trees. In: Aphids as crop pests [ed. by Emden, H. F. van\Harrington, R.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 651-661. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073204012

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bass C, Puinean AM, Andrews M, Culter P, Daniels M, Elias J, Paul VL, Crossthwaite AJ, Denholm I, Field LM, Foster SP, Lind R, Williamson MS, Slater R, 2011. Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae. BMC Neuroscience, 12(51):(31 May 2011). http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2202-12-51.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bass C, Puinean AM, Zimmer CT, Denholm I, Field LM, Foster SP, Gutbrod O, Nauen R, Slater R, Williamson MS, 2014. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 51:41-51. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09651748

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biswas AK, Mandal SK, 1992. Occurrence of insect pests in different types of tobacco cultivated in West Bengal. Crop Research (Hisar), 5(1):169-171.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman RL, 1974. Life-cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Hom., Aphididae) in different parts of the world, in relation to genotype and environment. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 63(4):595-607.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman RL, 1987. Morphological discrimination of a tobacco-feeding form from Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and a key to new world Myzus (Nectarosiphon) species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 77(4):713-730

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman RL, Paterson AJC, 1986. Separation of Myzus (Nectarosiphon) antirrhinii (Macchiati) from Myzus (N.) persicae (Sulzer) and related species in Europe (Homoptera: Aphididae). Systematic Entomology, 11(3):267-276.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman RL, Spence JM, 1992. Electrophoretic distinction between the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, and the tobacco aphid, M. nicotianae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(2):161-165.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman RL, Takada H, Kawakami K, 1978. Chromosomal rearrangement involved in insecticide resistance of Myzus persicae. Nature, UK, 271(5644):450-452

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman, R. L., Malarky, G., Margaritopoulos, J. T., Tsitsipis, J. A., 2007. Distribution of common genotypes of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece, in relation to life cycle and host plant. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 97(3), 253-263. doi: 10.1017/S0007485307004907

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman, R. L., Spence, J. M., Field, L. M., Devonshire, A. L., 1995. Chromosomal location of the amplified esterase genes conferring resistance to insecticides in Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Heredity, 75(3), 297-302. doi: 10.1038/hdy.1995.138

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Börner C, 1952. Europae Centralis Aphides. Mitt. Thür. Bot. Ges., Weimer, 3:1-488.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cabrera-Brandt, M. A., Verdugo, J. A., Ramírez, C. C., Lacroze, J. P., Sauge, M. H., Figueroa, C. C., 2015. Intra-specific variation of behavioral signals in suppressing plant defenses in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, feeding on the resistant wild peach Prunus davidiana. Journal of Pest Science, 88(2), 259-266. doi: 10.1007/s10340-014-0614-2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Carlebach R, Raccah B, Loebenstein G, 1982. Detection of potato virus Y in the aphid Myzus persicae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Annals of Applied Biology, 101(3):511-516.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Carver M, Hart PJ, Wellings PW, 1993. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and associated biota from The Kingdom of Tonga, with respect to biological control. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 69(3):250-260.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Castro e Castro BMde, Soares MA, Andrade Júnior VCde, Pires EM, 2013. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam): a new host for Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). (Batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.): um novo hospedeiro para Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) e Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).) Comunicata Scientiae, 4(2):220-223. http://comunicata.ufpi.br/index.php/comunicata/article/view/256/184

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chen, C., Feng, M., 2002. Evidence for transmission of aphid-pathogenic fungi by migratory flight of Myzus persicae alates. Chinese Science Bulletin, 47(23), 1987-1989. doi: 10.1360/02tb9431

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cheng HK, Zhao JH, Xie M, Wei SX, Song XP, Wang JZ, 1992. Tests on the effect of releasing Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Dip.: Cecidomyiidae) to control the aphid, Myzus persicae, in greenhouses and plastic tunnels. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 8(3):97-100

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CIE, 1979. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 45. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crossthwaite AJ, Denholm I, Field LM, Foster SP, Lind R, Williamson MS, Slater R, 2011. Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ss subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae. BMC Neuroscience (online), 12:51.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Culjak TG, Jelovcan S, Grubi?ic D, Badurina D, Sesvecanec M, 2008. Oilseed rape pests. (?tetnici uljane repice.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(5):285-296.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Daljeet Singh, Sandeep Kaur, Dhillon TS, Parminder Singh, Hundal JS, Singh GJ, 2004. Protected cultivation of sweet pepper hybrids under net-house in Indian conditions. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Protected Cultivation in Mild Winter Climates: Production, Pest Management and Global Competition, Kissimmee, Florida, USA, 23-27 March, 2004.], No.659(1):515-521. http://www.actahort.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Deka TN, Gudade BA, Vijayan AK, Chhetri P, 2014. Mollitrichosiphum spp: a new record of aphid from Alder-large cardamom ecosystem in Sikkim. International Journal of Forestry and Crop Improvement, 5(2):94-97. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJFCI.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Devine, G. J., Harling, Z. K., Scarr, A. W., Devonshire, A. L., 1996. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on NicotineTolerant Myzus nicotianae and Myzus persicae. 48(1), 57-62. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199609)48:1<57::AID-PS435>3.0.CO;2-9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Devonshire AL, Devine GJ, Moores GD, 1992. Comparison of microplate esterase assays and immunoassay for identifying insecticide resistant variants of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(4):459-463.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Divol, F., Vilaine, F., Thibivilliers, S., Amselem, J., Palauqui, J. C., Chantal Kusiak, Dinant, S., 2005. Systemic response to aphid infestation by Myzus persicae in the phloem of Apium graveolens. Plant Molecular Biology, 57(4), 517-540. doi: 10.1007/s11103-005-0338-z

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eastop VF, Hille Ris Lambers D, 1976. Survey of the World's Aphids. The Hague, Netherlands: DR. W. Junk bv Publishers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ellis, C., Karafyllidis, I., Turner, J. G., 2002. Constitutive activation of jasmonate signaling in an Arabidopsis mutant correlates with enhanced resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum, Pseudomonas syringae, and Myzus persicae. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 15(10), 1025-1030. doi: 10.1094/MPMI.2002.15.10.1025

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Emden HFvan, Eastop VF, Hughes HD, Way MJ, 1969. The ecology of Myzus persicae. Annual Review of Entomology, 14:197-270.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fenton, B., Malloch, G., Woodford, J. A. T., Foster, S. P., Anstead, J., Denholm, I., King, L., Pickup, J., 2005. The attack of the clones: tracking the movement of insecticide-resistant peach-potato aphids Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 95(5), 483-494. doi: 10.1079/BER2005380

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fenton, B., Margaritopoulos, J. T., Malloch, G. L., Foster, S. P., 2010. Micro-evolutionary change in relation to insecticide resistance in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae. Ecological Entomology, 35(s1), 131-146. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2009.01150.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fenton, B., Woodford, J. A. T., Malloch, G., 1998. Analysis of clonal diversity of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in Scotland, UK and evidence for the existence of a predominant clone. Molecular Ecology, 7(11), 1475-1487. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00479.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ffrench-Constant RH, Byrne FJ, Stribley MF, Devonshire AL, 1988. Rapid identification of the recently recognised Myzus antirrhinii (Macchiati) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Entomologist, 107(1):20-23.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ffrench-Constant, R. H., Harrington, R., Devonshire, A. L., 1988. Effect of repeated applications of insecticides to potatoes on numbers of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the frequencies of insecticide-resistant variants. Crop Protection, 7(1), 55-61. doi: 10.1016/0261-2194(88)90039-7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Field LM, Anderson AP, Denholm I, Foster SP, Harling ZK, Javed N, Martinez-Torres D, Moores GD, Williamson MS, Devonshire AL, 1997. Use of biochemical and DNA diagnostics for characterising multiple mechanisms of insecticide resistance in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Pesticide Science, 51(3):283-289; 20 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Field LM, Javed N, Stribley MF, Devonshire AL, 1994. The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae and the tobacco aphid Myzus nicotianae have the same esterase-based mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Insect Molecular Biology, 3(3):143-148.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fischer S, Leger A, 1996. Macrolophus caliginosus W. (Heteroptera, Miridae), un auxiliare a exploiter en serre. Revue Suisse de Viticulture,- Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 28(2):111-112.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fontaine, S., Caddoux, L., Brazier, C., Bertho, C., Bertolla, P., Micoud, A., Roy, L., 2011. Uncommon associations in target resistance among French populations of Myzus persicae from oilseed rape crops. Pest Management Science, 67(8), 881-885. doi: 10.1002/ps.2224

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foster SP, Denholm I, Harling ZK, Moores GD, Devonshire AL, 1998. Intensification of insecticide resistance in UK field populations of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in 1996. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88(2):127-130; 15 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foster SP, Devine G, Devonshire AL, 2007. Insecticide resistance. In: Aphids as crop pests [ed. by Emden, H. F. van\Harrington, R.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 261-285. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073203993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foster, S. P., Denholm, I., Thompson, R., 2003. Variation in response to neonicotinoid insecticides in peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Pest Management Science, 59(2), 166-173. doi: 10.1002/ps.570

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foster, S. P., Harrington, R., Dewar, A. M., Denholm, I., Devonshire, A. L., 2002. Temporal and spatial dynamics of insecticide resistance in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Pest Management Science, 58(9), 895-907. doi: 10.1002/ps.553

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fuentes-Contreras, E., Figueroa, C. C., Silva, A. X., Bacigalupe, L. D., Briones, L. M., Foster, S. P., Unruh, T. R., 2013. Survey of resistance to four insecticides and their associated mechanisms in different genotypes of the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Chile. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(1), 400-407. doi: 10.1603/EC12176

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gabrid NV, 1989. Aphids of Trees and Shrubs of the Issyk-Kul' Region. Frunze, Ilim, SSR: Institut Biologii, Akademiya Nauk Kirgizskoi SSR.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gao XW, Zheng BZ, Cao BJ, 1992. Resistance in Myzus persicae to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 19(4):365-371; 11 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gatehouse AMR, Down RE, Powell KS, Sauvion N, RahbT Y, Newell CA, Merryweather A, Hamilton WDO, Gatehouse JA, 1996. Transgenic potato plants with enhanced resistance to the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 79(3):295-307; 53 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ghosh AK, 1975. Aphids of economic importance in India. Calcutta, India: The Agricultural Society of India.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ghosh LK, Verma KD, 1990. Discovery of sexual female of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with redescription of its alate male in India. Journal of Aphidology, 4(1-2):30-35.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gibson RW, Pickett JA, 1983. Wild potato repels aphids by release of aphid alarm pheromone. Nature, UK, 302(5909):608-609

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gilkeson LA, Hill SB, 1987. Release rates for control of green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphidae) by the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) under winter greenhouse conditions. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(1):147-150.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Glenn DM, Puterka GJ, 2005. Particle films: a new technology for agriculture. Horticultural Reviews, 31:1-44.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Granges A, Leger A, 1995. Seven years of experiments on biological-integrated control on tomatoes and cucumbers under glass at the Fougeres Centre at Conthey. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 27(3):189-191.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Griffiths DC, Pickett JA, Smart LE, Woodcock CM, 1989. Use of insect antifeedants against aphid vectors of plant virus disease. Pesticide Science, 27(3):269-276; 22 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gu ChunBo, Wang Gang, Wang KaiYun, Ma Hui, Guo QingLong, 2006. Studies on the resistance level of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in main tobacco regions of southwestern China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 33(1):77-80. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gupta BM, Yadava CPS, 1989. Role of coccinellid predators in regulating the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) population on cumin in field. Indian Journal of Entomology, 51(1):24-28.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gupta BM, Yadava CPS, 1990. Seasonal incidence of aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on cumin in semi arid Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Entomology, 52(3):465-469.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hagvar EB, Hofsvang T, 1991. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae): biology, host selection and use in biological control. Biocontrol News and Information, 12(1):13-42

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Halima-Kamel MBB, Hamouda MHB, 1993. Aphids from protected crops and their enemies in Tunisia. Tropicultura, 11(2):50-53.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hander CA, McLeod PJ, Scott HA, 1993. Incidence of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and associated potyviruses in summer squash in Arkansas. Journal of Entomological Science, 28(1):73-81.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Harrewijn P, Ouden Hden, Piron PGM, 1991. Polymer webs to prevent virus transmission by aphids in seed potatoes. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58(2):101-107.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Harrington R, Dewar AM, George B, 1989. Forecasting the incidence of virus yellows in sugar beet in England. Annals of Applied Biology, 114(3):459-469.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Heie OE, 1994. The Aphidoidea of Fennoscandia and Denmark. V. Family Aphididae: Part 2 of tribe Macrosiphini of subfamily Aphidinae. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 28:1-242.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Herron GA, Rophail J, 1994. Insecticide resistance detected in Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from New South Wales cotton. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 33(3):263-264.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hockland S, Hines C, Furk C, Devonshire AL, Devine GJ, Dewar AM, Read LA, 1992. Monitoring insecticide resistance of aphids in sugar beet and potatoes in England and Wales 1982-1991. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 32:81-88; 14 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hori, M., 1998. Repellency of rosemary oil against Myzus persicae in a laboratory and in a screenhouse. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 24(9), 1425-1432. doi: 10.1023/A:1020947414051

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Howling GG, Bale JS, Harrington R, 1994. Effects of extended and repeated exposures to low temperature on mortality of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Ecological Entomology, 19(4):361-366.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hu GuanFa, Liu MinYan, Zhang XinRui, Zhang YueLian, 2004. Screening of susceptible colonies of Myzus persicae and their evolution insecticide resistance. Plant Protection, 30(4):50-53.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hulle M, Robert Y, Gamon A, 1987. Developing the AGRAPHID database, the permanent suction trap network for monitoring alate aphids. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 73(7):59-70.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ilharco FA, 1982. Aphidofauna Aeoriana: Comentarios zoogeograficos. Boletim da Sociedade Portuguese de Entomologia, 7:275-285.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jansson, R. K., Smilowitz, Z., 1986. Influence of nitrogen on population parameters of potato insects: abundance, population growth, and within-plant distribution of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 15(1), 49-55. doi: 10.1093/ee/15.1.49

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kaakeh W, Hogmire HW, 1991. Biology and control of green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), on peach in West Virginia, USA. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 9(2):128-124

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kennedy, J. S. , Booth, C. O. , Kershaw, W. J. S. , 1959. Host finding by aphids in the field. I. Gynoparae of Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Annals of Applied Biology, 47(3), 410-423 pp. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1959.tb07276.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kish LP, Majchrowicz I, Biever KD, 1994. Prevalence of natural fungal mortality of green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on potatoes and nonsolanaceous hosts in Washington and Idaho. Environmental Entomology, 23(5):1326-1330

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kumar A, Kapoor VC, Laska P, 1987. Immature stages of some aphidophagous syrphid flies of India (Insecta, Diptera, Syrphidae). Zoologica Scripta, 16(1):83-88

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kumar KP, Reddy DJ, Narendranath VV, 2001. Bio-efficacy of selected insecticides against pest complex in chilli (Capsicum annuum Linn). Pesticide Research Journal, 13(1):36-41.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kumar NKK, Singh HS, Kalleshwaraswamy CM, 2010. Aphid (Aphididae: Homoptera) vectors of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), bionomics, transmission efficiency and factors contributing to epidemiology. Acta Horticulturae [II International Symposium on Papaya, Madurai, India, 9-12 December 2008.], No.851:431-443. http://www.actahort.org/books/851/851_67.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kuo MH, 1991. The effect of temperature and host plant on development and reproduction by Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Chinese Journal of Entomology, 11(2):118-129

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lakra BS, 2004. Health status of potato crop in Haryana - an overall view. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 33(3/4):294-296.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Layman, M. L., Lundgren, J. G., 2015. The influence of aphids (Myzus persicae) and pink lady beetle larvae (Coleomegilla maculata) on host plant preference of imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae). Arthropod - Plant Interactions, 9(5), 507-514. doi: 10.1007/s11829-015-9392-x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Li ZZ, Fan MZ, Qin CZ, 1992. New species and new records of Entomophthorales in China. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 11(3):182-187

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Liu AiZhi, Li SuJian, Wu YuQing, Li ShiGong, 2000. Comparison of the effects of several insecticides of a new type for controlling Myzus persicae. Plant Protection, 26(4):50.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loebenstein G, Manadilova A, 2003. Potatoes in the Central Asian Republics. In: Virus and virus-like diseases of major crops in developing countries [ed. by Loebenstein, G.\Thottappilly, G.]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 195-222.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lowery DT, Isman MB, Brard NL, 1993. Laboratory and field evaluation of neem for the control of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(3):864-870

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mackauer M, Way MY, 1976. Myzus persicae Sulz., an aphid of world importance. In: Delucchi VF, ed. Studies in Biological Control. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 51-119.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mandal SMA, Patnaik NC, 2006. Insect pests and natural enemies associated with cabbage in the coastal belt of Orissa. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 3(1):76-80.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Margaritopoulos JT, Tsitsipis JA, Goudoudaki S, Blackman RL, 2002. Life cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92(4):309-319.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Martínez-Torres, D., Foster, S. P., Field, L. M., Devonshire, A. L., Williamson, M. S., 1999. A sodium channel point mutation is associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Insect Molecular Biology, 8(3), 339-346. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2583.1999.83121.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Martins Ddos S, Ventura JA, Paula Rde CAL, Fornazier MJ, Rezende JAM, Culik MP, Ferreira PSF, Peronti ALBG, Carvalho RCZde, Sousa-Silva CR, 2016. Aphid vectors of Papaya ringspot virus and their weed hosts in orchards in the major papaya producing and exporting region of Brazil. Crop Protection, 90:191-196. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Michelotto MD, Busoli AC, 2003. Aphids diversity on cotton field in Campo Verde, Mato Grosso State. Bragantia, 62(1):75-79.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Millar IM, 1994. A catalogue of the aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea) of sub-Saharan Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 4. Pretoria, South Africa: Agricutural Research Council.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Musa F, Carli C, Karic N, 2003. Distribution of the aphids in potato crop in the climatic condition of Kosovo. (Rasprostranjenost lisnih usiju na usjevima krompira u klimatskim uvjetima Kosova.) Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Works of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sarajevo), 48(52):69-82.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Muška F, 2007. Damaging presence of aphids on sugarbeet and beet in Czech Republic - historical summary until 2005. (Škodlivé výskyty mšic na cukrové a krmné repe na území Ceské republiky - historický prehled do roku 2005.) Listy Cukrovarnické a Reparské, 123(9/10):284-287. http://www.cukr-listy.cz

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nakata T, 1995. Population fluctuations of aphids and their natural enemies on potato in Hokkaido, Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 30(1):129-138

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nauen R, 1995. Behaviour modifying effects of low systemic concentrations of imidacloprid on Myzus persicae with special reference to an antifeeding response. Pesticide Science, 44(2):145-153

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nieto Nafria JM, Mier Durante MP, Carnero Hernandez A, 1977. The aphid fauna of Macaronesia. In: Nieto Nafria JM, Mier Durante MP, Hernandez AC, ed. Nafria, J. M. Nieto; Durante, M. P. Mier: Studies on the aphids of the Canary Islands and of Macaronesia.: Estudios afidologicas de las Islas Canarias y de la Macaronesia. Cabildo Insular de Tenerife. Canary Islands, 55-65

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Olivo, V. I., Corronca, J. A., 2013. Importance of the managing and the crop margins in the fluctuation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphidae) and of his natural enemies in a smallholding agricultural system. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía (La Plata), 112(2), 68-78. http://www.agro.unlp.edu.ar/revista/index.php/revagro/article/view/33/14

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pajmon A, 1997. Appearance of aphids in seed potato crops. Sodobno Kmetijstvo, 30(2):75-78.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Parker WE, 2005. The direct feeding effects of aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae) on the yield of potato crops in the UK. Aspects of Applied Biology [Production and protection of sugar beet and potatoes, Homerton College, Cambridge, UK, 15 to 16 December 2005.], No.76:167-174.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Patel RK, Thakur BS, 2005. Insect pest complex and seasonal incidence in linseed with particular reference to bud fly (Dasineura lini Barnes). Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 2(2):102-107.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Peric P, Marcbreve~ic D, Prijovic M, Ogurlic I, Andric G, 2009. Effectiveness of biorational pesticides for controlling some vegetable pests in Serbia. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the IV Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 9-12 September 2008.], No.830:531-538. http://www.actahort.org/books/830/830_76.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pokhraj Patel, Ganguli RN, Jayalaxmi Ganguli, Dubey VK, 2005. Pest succession in cabbage at Raipur, Chhattisgarh (India). Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 16(1):28-29.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Powell W, Pell JK, 2007. Biological control. In: Aphids as crop pests [ed. by Emden, H. F. van\Harrington, R.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 469-513. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073204001

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prishchepa IA, Kolyadko NN, Novikova OT, Naumova GV, 2003. On the possibility of using preparations of plant origin for protection of vegetables from pests. Vestsi¯ Natsyyanal'nai Akademii Navuk Belarusi¯. Seryya Agrarnykh Navuk, No.3:61-65.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Radonjic S, Hrncic S, 2011. An overview of invasive species on vegetables in greenhouses in southern part of Montenegro. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Control in Protected crops, Temperate Climate", Sutton Scotney, UK, 18-22 September 2011.], 68:153-157. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2011_68_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Raj BT, 1989. Seasonal abundance of natural enemies of aphids infesting potato crop. Journal of Aphidology, 3(1-2):157-161

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ram Kishore, Parihar SBS, 2002. Aphids species infesting tomato and brinjal crops. Insect Environment, 8(1):8-9.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rashmi Pandey, Kuldeep Sharma, Deepti Chaudhari, Mayank Rai, 2008. Effect of weather parameters on incidence of Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae on potato. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 16(1):78-80. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reinhardt I, Kastirr R, Richter J, 1988. Studies on the detection by ELISA of beet yellows virus in its vector Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 24(6):467-473

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remaudiere G, Autrique A, 1985. Contribution à l'écologie des aphides africains. étude FAO Production Végétale et Protection des Plantes, 64: 1-214. Rome, Italy: FAO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remaudiere G, Remaudiere M, 1997. Catalogue of the world's Aphididae: Homoptera Aphidoidea. Catalogue des Aphididae du monde: Homoptera Aphidoidea., 473 pp.; 1275 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remaudiere G, Weemaels N, Nicolas J, 1991. Contribution to the knowledge of the aphid fauna of Bolivia (Homoptera: Aphididae). Parasitica, 47(1):19-46

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rubiano-Rodríguez, J. A., Fuentes-Contreras, E., Figueroa, C. C., Margaritopoulos, J. T., Briones, L. M., Ramírez, C. C., 2014. Genetic diversity and insecticide resistance during the growing season in the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on primary and secondary hosts: a farm-scale study in Central Chile. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 104(2), 182-194. doi: 10.1017/S000748531300062X

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sauvion, N., Rahbé, Y., Peumans, W. J., Damme, E. J. M. van, Gatehouse, J. A., Gatehouse, A. M. R., 1996. Effects of GNA and other mannose binding lectins on development and fecundity of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 79(3), 285-293. doi: 10.1007/BF00186287

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sexson DL, Wyman J, Radcliffe EB, Hoy CJ, Ragsdale DW, Dively GP, 2005. .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Shantibala T, Singh TK, Shah MAS, 2007. Insect pest complex of pea crop (Pisum sativum Linn.) and their succession in agro-ecosystem of Manipur. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 27(1):75-81.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sigaran Tarrago MF, Bredemeier D, Schafer PP, 1994. Chemical control of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776) (Homoptera - Aphididae) in tobacco crop. Ciencia Rural, 24(2):253-256

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Smith CF, Cermeli MM, 1979. An annotated list of Aphididae (Homoptera) of the Caribbean Islands and South and Central America. Technical Bulletin, North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, No. 259:[+]131 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Smith CF, Parron CS, 1978. An annotated list of Aphididae (Homoptera) of North America. Technical Bulletin, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 255:viii+428 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Song ChunMan, Wu XingFu, Deng JianHua, Lei ChaoLiang, 2006. Monitoring insecticide resistance of Myzus persicae in tobacco fields in Yunnan. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 43(4):500-503.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Srigiriraju, L., Semtner, P. J., Bloomquist, J. R., 2010. Monitoring for imidacloprid resistancein the tobacco-adapted form of the green peachaphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in the eastern United States. Pest Management Science, 66(6), 676-685. doi: 10.1002/ps.1929

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Srinivasan, R., Alvarez, J. M., Eigenbrode, S. D., Bosque-Pérez, N. A., 2006. Influence of hairy nightshade Solanum sarrachoides (Sendtner) and Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) on the host preference of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 35(2), 546-553. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-35.2.546

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Stoner KA, 1992. Density of imported cabbageworms (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), cabbage aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on glossy and trichome-bearing lines of Brassica oleracea. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3):1023-1030

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tabilio MR, Vita G, 1995. Osservazioni preliminari sulla possibilita di contenere gli afidi del pesco in pieno campo, con l'ausilio della Forficula decipiens Gene. Italus-Hortus, 2(5-6):28-31.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Takada H, Tamura M, 1987. Occurrence of tobacco-specific forms of Myzus persicae (Homoptera, Aphididae). Kontyu, 55(4):573-586

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tamaki G, Butt BA, Landis BJ, 1970. Arrest and aggregation of male Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63:955-960.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tao CC, 1991. Aphid Fauna of Taiwan Province, China. Taipei, Taiwan: Provincial Museum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trivedi TP, Khurana SMP, Puri SN, Bhar LM, Mehta SC, Jain RC, Singh G, Chaudhari SM, Mohasin M, Dhandapani A, Naveen Chona, 2002. Development of forewarning system of potato aphid (Myzus persicae) on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 72(6):341-345.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UC (University of California), 1986. IPM for Potatoes in the Western United States. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland, Statewide Integrated Pest Mangement Project, Pub. No. 3316.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. In: Mead's Milkweed (Asclepias meadii) Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 131 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/030922b.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vallejo RL, Collins WW, Moll RH, 1994. Inheritance of A and B glandular trichome density and polyphenol oxidase activity in diploid potatoes. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119(4):829-832; 25 ref.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    van Emden HF, Eastop VF, Hughes HD, Way MJ, 1969. The ecology of Myzus persicae. Annual Review of Entomology, 14:197-270.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Van Emden, H. F., Bashford, M. A., 1969. A comparison of the reproduction of Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae in relation to soluble nitrogen concentration and leaf age (leaf position) in the Brussels sprout plant. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 12(pt. 3), 351-364 pp. doi: 10.1007/BF00334956

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vehrs, S. L. C., Walker, G. P., Parrella, M. P., 1992. Comparison of population growth rate and within-plant distribution between Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) reared on potted chrysanthemums. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3), 799-807. doi: 10.1093/jee/85.3.799

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vereshchagin BV, Andreev AV, Vereshchagina AB, 1985. Aphids of Moldavia. Kishinev, USSR; "Shtiintsa", 157pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Verma KD, Das SM, 1992. The Aphidididae of North-West India. New Delhi, India: Ashish Publishing House.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vieira, E. R. D., Soares, M. A., Silva, E. de B., Assis Júnior, S. L., Barroso, G. A., 2016. First record of Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776) in Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo), 83, e0382015. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1808-16572016000100313&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wang DS, Kuang KY, Wu SC, Zhu ZY, Yuan YD, Chen YL, Yang XQ, 2000. The occurrence and control of dominant insect pests and diseases on sweet pepper in advanced greenhouses. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 16(Supplement):10-16.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wang YouNian, Xing YanFeng, Zhou ShiLong, Meng HaiLing, Guan Wei, Shi GuangLu, 2009. Structure, dynamics and niche of dominant population of insect community in peach orchards of Beijing. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 45(4):88-94. http://lyke.chinajournal.net.cn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Weber, G., 1985. Genetic variability in host plant adaptation of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 38(1), 49-56. doi: 10.1007/BF00163352

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wyatt, I. J., 1965. The distribution of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) on year-round chrysanthemums. I. Summer season. Annals of Applied Biology, 56, 439-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1965.tb01262.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Xin YF, 1986. Propagation of Aphidius qifuensis Ashmead using green peach aphid for greenhouse aphid control. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 2(3):108-111

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zhang Xiao, Xue Ming, Zhao HaiPeng, 2015. Species-specific effects on salicylic acid content and subsequent Myzus persicae (Sulzer) performance by three phloem-sucking insects infesting Nicotiana tabacum L. Arthropod - Plant Interactions, 9(4), 383-391. doi: 10.1007/s11829-015-9385-9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Distribution References

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Agarwala B K, 1983. Notes on some aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) affecting economically important plants in Bhutan. Indian Agriculturist. 27 (3), 261-262.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Albanese G, Schimio R, Fontana A, Ferretti L, Palmeri V, Campolo O, Barba M, 2010. Assessment of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) incidence in Calabria, southern Italy: results of a three-year survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 49 (1), 27-34. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ali H B, Agarwala B K, Kaddou I K, 2012. New records of aphids of the Subfamily Aphidinae (Homoptera: Aphididae) infested herbaceous plants and shrubs for Iraqi aphid fauna. Advances in Bio Research. 3 (4), 66-75. http://www.soeagra.com/abr/abrdec_2012/12.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Andreev R, Vasilev P, 2017. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on peach trees in Bulgaria. Agrarni Nauki. 9 (22), 29-36. http://agrarninauki.au-plovdiv.bg/2017/04_22/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Arvind Kumar, Singh C P, Renu Pandey, 2009. Insect pests of Ashwagandha, Withania somnifera Linn. in tarai region of Uttarakhand. Entomon. 34 (2), 115-118.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asare-Bediako E, Jones J E, Hambidge A J, Stevens M, Mead A, Jenner C E, Walsh J A, 2020. The incidence of turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape crops (Brassica napus L.) in three different regions of England over three consecutive growing seasons and the relationship with the abundance of flying Myzus persicae. Annals of Applied Biology. 176 (2), 130-137. DOI:10.1111/aab.12565

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bale J S, Harrington R, Clough M S, 1988. Low temperature mortality of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Ecological Entomology. 13 (2), 121-129. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1988.tb00340.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Balliu A, Çota E, 2007. Biological control of main greenhouse pests in Albania. Acta Horticulturae. 489-492. http://www.actahort.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bilal Atta, Muhammad Rizwan, Sabir A M, Ayub M A, Akhtar M F, Ayyub M B, Sajid Nadeem, 2019. Comparative incidence and abundance of aphids and their associated predators on canola in Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist. 41 (2), 147-152. http://www.pakentomol.com/cms/pages/tables/upload/file/5e4b8476c61ca13.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biswas A K, Mandal S K, 1992. Occurrence of insect pests in different types of tobacco cultivated in West Bengal. Crop Research (Hisar). 5 (1), 169-171.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman R L, Malarky G, Margaritopoulos J T, Tsitsipis J A, 2007. Distribution of common genotypes of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece, in relation to life cycle and host plant. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 97 (3), 253-263. DOI:10.1017/S0007485307004907

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Blackman R L, Spence J M, Field L M, Devonshire A L, 1995. Chromosomal location of the amplified esterase genes conferring resistance to insecticides in Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Heredity. 75 (3), 297-302. DOI:10.1038/hdy.1995.138

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Boukhris-Bouhachem S, Hullé M, Rouzé-Jouan J, Glais L, Kerlan C, 2007. Solanum elaeagnifolium, a potential source of Potato virus Y (PVY) propagation. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 37 (1), 125-128. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2007.01095.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cambra M, Gorris M T, Capote N, Asensio M, Martínez M C, Bertolini E, Collado C, Hermoso de Mendoza A, Mataix E, López A, 2004. Epidemiology of Plum pox virus in Japanese plums in Spain. Acta Horticulturae. 195-200. http://www.actahort.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Carver M, Hart P J, Wellings P W, 1993. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and associated biota from The Kingdom of Tonga, with respect to biological control. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 69 (3), 250-260.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cerkauskas R F, Koike S T, Azad H R, Lowery D T, Stobbs L W, 2006. Diseases, pests, and abiotic disorders of greenhouse-grown water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in Ontario and California. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 28 (1), 63-70. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cheng H K, Zhao J H, Xie M, Wei S X, Song X P, Wang J Z, 1992. Tests on the effect of releasing Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Dip.: Cecidomyiidae) to control the aphid, Myzus persicae, in greenhouses and plastic tunnels. Chinese Journal of Biological Control. 8 (3), 97-100.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Čuljak T G, Jelovčan S, Grubišić D, Badurina D, Sesvečanec M, 2008. Oilseed rape pests. (Štetnici uljane repice.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 8 (5), 285-296.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Daljeet Singh, Sandeep Kaur, Dhillon T S, Parminder Singh, Hundal J S, Singh G J, 2004. Protected cultivation of sweet pepper hybrids under net-house in Indian conditions. Acta Horticulturae. 515-521. http://www.actahort.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Deka T N, Gudade B A, Vijayan A K, Chhetri P, 2014. Mollitrichosiphum spp: a new record of aphid from Alder-large cardamom ecosystem in Sikkim. International Journal of Forestry and Crop Improvement. 5 (2), 94-97. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJFCI.htm DOI:10.15740/HAS/IJFCI/5.2/94-97

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Devine G J, Harling Z K, Scarr A W, Devonshire A L, 1996. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on NicotineTolerant Myzus nicotianae and Myzus persicae. 48 (1), 57-62. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199609)48:1<57::AID-PS435>3.0.CO;2-9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Djebara F, Benzahra A, Mimeche F, Saharaoui L, 2018. Diversity of entomofauna associated with greenhouse-grown tomatoes in Algiers (North Algeria). Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai, Biologia. 63 (2), 139-151. DOI:10.24193/subbbiol.2018.2.11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eigenbrode S D, Ding H J, Shiel P, Berger P H, 2002. Volatiles from potato plants infected with potato leafroll virus attract and arrest the virus vector, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 269 (1490), 455-460. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2001.1909

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Farzadfar S, Ahoonmanesh A, Mosahebi G H, Pourrahim R, Golnaraghi A R, 2007. Occurrence and distribution of Cauliflower mosaic virus on cruciferous plants in Iran. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad). 6 (1), 22-29. http://www.ansinet.org/ppj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Feng R, Isman M B, 1995. Selection for resistance to azadirachtin in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Experientia. 51 (8), 831-833. DOI:10.1007/BF01922438

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fenton B, Malloch G, Woodford J A T, Foster S P, Anstead J, Denholm I, King L, Pickup J, 2005. The attack of the clones: tracking the movement of insecticide-resistant peach-potato aphids Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 95 (5), 483-494. DOI:10.1079/BER2005380

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fenton B, Margaritopoulos J T, Malloch G L, Foster S P, 2010. Micro-evolutionary change in relation to insecticide resistance in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae. Ecological Entomology. 35 (s1), 131-146. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2009.01150.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fenton B, Woodford J A T, Malloch G, 1998. Analysis of clonal diversity of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in Scotland, UK and evidence for the existence of a predominant clone. Molecular Ecology. 7 (11), 1475-1487. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00479.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ffrench-Constant R H, Harrington R, Devonshire A L, 1988. Effect of repeated applications of insecticides to potatoes on numbers of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the frequencies of insecticide-resistant variants. Crop Protection. 7 (1), 55-61. DOI:10.1016/0261-2194(88)90039-7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foster S P, Denholm I, Thompson R, 2003. Variation in response to neonicotinoid insecticides in peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Pest Management Science. 59 (2), 166-173. DOI:10.1002/ps.570

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foster S P, Harrington R, Dewar A M, Denholm I, Devonshire A L, 2002. Temporal and spatial dynamics of insecticide resistance in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Pest Management Science. 58 (9), 895-907. DOI:10.1002/ps.553

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fuentes-Contreras E, Figueroa C C, Reyes M, Briones L M, Niemeyer H M, 2004. Genetic diversity and insecticide resistance of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations from tobacco in Chile: evidence for the existence of a single predominant clone. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 94 (1), 11-18. DOI:10.1079/BER2003275

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fuentes-Contreras E, Figueroa C C, Silva A X, Bacigalupe L D, Briones L M, Foster S P, Unruh T R, 2013. Survey of resistance to four insecticides and their associated mechanisms in different genotypes of the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Chile. Journal of Economic Entomology. 106 (1), 400-407. DOI:10.1603/EC12176

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gabrid NV, 1989. Aphids of Trees and Shrubs of the Issyk-Kul' Region., Frunze, Ilim, SSR, Institut Biologii, Akademiya Nauk Kirgizskoi SSR.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ghosh AK, 1975. Aphids of economic importance in India., Calcutta, India: The Agricultural Society of India.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Girish R, Srinivasa N, Shruthi H R, 2014. Occurrence and status of pests infesting chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Environment and Ecology. 32 (3), 916-919. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gu ChunBo, Wang Gang, Wang KaiYun, Ma Hui, Guo QingLong, 2006. Studies on the resistance level of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in main tobacco regions of southwestern China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica. 33 (1), 77-80. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gupta B M, Yadava C P S, 1990. Seasonal incidence of aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on cumin in semi arid Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Entomology. 52 (3), 465-469.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Guteta Negasu, Nigussie Banchiamlak, Mokonen Mihirat, 2016. Composition, distribution and economic importance of insect pests of prioritized aromatic plants in some growing of Ethiopia. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 4 (1), 1-9. http://ijabbr.com/article_19133_85f8504989297cb65dd635df30a3b874.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hajiabadi A M, Asaei F, Mandoulakani B A, Rastgou M, 2012. Natural incidence of tomato viruses in the North of Iran. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 51 (2), 390-396. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hander C A, McLeod P J, Scott H A, 1993. Incidence of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and associated potyviruses in summer squash in Arkansas. Journal of Entomological Science. 28 (1), 73-81.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Heie OE, 1994. The Aphidoidea of Fennoscandia and Denmark. V. Family Aphididae: Part 2 of tribe Macrosiphini of subfamily Aphidinae. In: Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 28 1-242.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Horn D J, Undated. Effect of weedy backgrounds on colonization of collards by green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and its major predators. Environmental Entomology. 10 (3), 285-289. DOI:10.1093/ee/10.3.285

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hu GuanFa, Liu MinYan, Zhang XinRui, Zhang YueLian, 2004. Screening of susceptible colonies of Myzus persicae and their evolution insecticide resistance. Plant Protection. 30 (4), 50-53.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ilharco FA, 1982. (Aphidofauna Aeoriana: Comentarios zoogeograficos). In: Boletim da Sociedade Portuguese de Entomologia, 7 275-285.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jansson R K, Smilowitz Z, 1986. Influence of nitrogen on population parameters of potato insects: abundance, population growth, and within-plant distribution of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology. 15 (1), 49-55. DOI:10.1093/ee/15.1.49

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kaakeh W, Hogmire H W, 1991. Biology and control of green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), on peach in West Virginia, USA. Arab Journal of Plant Protection. 9 (2), 128-124.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Karavina C, Ximba S, Ibaba J D, Gubba A, 2016. First report of a mixed infection of Potato virus Y and Tomato spotted wilt virus on pepper (Capsicum annuum) in Zimbabwe. Plant Disease. 100 (7), 1513. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-16-0185-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kephalogianni T E, Tsitsipis J A, Margaritopoulos J T, Zintzaras E, Delon R, Martin I B, Schwaer W, 2002. Variation in the life cycle and morphology of the tobacco host-race of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in relation to its geographical distribution. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 92 (4), 301-307. DOI:10.1079/BER2002172

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kish L P, Majchrowicz I, Biever K D, 1994. Prevalence of natural fungal mortality of green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on potatoes and nonsolanaceous hosts in Washington and Idaho. Environmental Entomology. 23 (5), 1326-1330. DOI:10.1093/ee/23.5.1326

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kök Ș, Kasap İ, Özdemİr I, 2016. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species determined in Çanakkale Province with a new record for the aphid fauna of Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 40 (4), 397-412. http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/entoted/article/view/5000199653/5000176936

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kollár J, 2007. The harmful entomofauna of woody plants in Slovakia. Acta Entomologica Serbica. 12 (1), 67-79. http://www.eds.org.rs/AES/vol12-1/09.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kumar K P, Reddy D J, Narendranath V V, 2001. Bio-efficacy of selected insecticides against pest complex in chilli (Capsicum annuum Linn). Pesticide Research Journal. 13 (1), 36-41.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kumar N K K, Singh H S, Kalleshwaraswamy C M, 2010. Aphid (Aphididae: Homoptera) vectors of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), bionomics, transmission efficiency and factors contributing to epidemiology. Acta Horticulturae. 431-443. http://www.actahort.org/books/851/851_67.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lakra B S, 2004. Health status of potato crop in Haryana - an overall view. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 33 (3/4), 294-296.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Li Z Z, Fan M Z, Qin C Z, 1992. New species and new records of Entomophthorales in China. Acta Mycologica Sinica. 11 (3), 182-187.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Liu AiZhi, Li SuJian, Wu YuQing, Li ShiGong, 2000. Comparison of the effects of several insecticides of a new type for controlling Myzus persicae. Plant Protection. 26 (4), 50.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Liu ShuSheng, Meng XueDuo, 1999. Modelling development time of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at constant and natural temperatures. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 89 (1), 53-63.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loebenstein G, Manadilova A, 2003. Potatoes in the Central Asian Republics. In: Virus and virus-like diseases of major crops in developing countries. [ed. by Loebenstein G, Thottappilly G]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 195-222.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mandal S M A, Patnaik N C, 2006. Insect pests and natural enemies associated with cabbage in the coastal belt of Orissa. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 3 (1), 76-80.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Margaritopoulos J T, Tsitsipis J A, Goudoudaki S, Blackman R L, 2002. Life cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 92 (4), 309-319.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Martínez-Torres D, Foster S P, Field L M, Devonshire A L, Williamson M S, 1999. A sodium channel point mutation is associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Insect Molecular Biology. 8 (3), 339-346. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2583.1999.83121.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Paula R de C A L, Fornazier M J, Rezende J A M, Culik M P, Ferreira P S F, Peronti A L B G, Carvalho R C Z de, Sousa-Silva C R, 2016. Aphid vectors of Papaya ringspot virus and their weed hosts in orchards in the major papaya producing and exporting region of Brazil. Crop Protection. 191-196. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194 DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2016.08.030

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Michelotto M D, Busoli A C, 2003. Aphids diversity on cotton field in Campo Verde, Mato Grosso State. Bragantia. 62 (1), 75-79. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0006-87052003000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0006-87052003000100010

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Millar I M, 1994. A catalogue of the aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea) of sub-Saharan Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Plant Protection Research Institute. 130 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Muhammad Arif, Attique Ahmad, Muhammad Ibrahim, Sher Hassan, 2005. Occurrence and distribution of virus and virus-like diseases of citrus in North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 37 (2), 407-421. http://www.pjbot.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Musa F, Carli C, Karić N, 2003. Distribution of the aphids in potato crop in the climatic condition of Kosovo. (Rasprostranjenost lisnih ušiju na usjevima krompira u klimatskim uvjetima Kosova.). In: Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Works of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sarajevo). 48 (52) Sarajevo, Bosnia-Hercegovina: Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Poljoprivredni Fakultet. 69-82.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Muška F, 2007. Damaging presence of aphids on sugarbeet and beet in Czech Republic - historical summary until 2005. (Škodlivé výskyty mšic na cukrové a krmné řepě na území České republiky - historický přehled do roku 2005.). Listy Cukrovarnické a Řepařské. 123 (9/10), 284-287. http://www.cukr-listy.cz

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nieto Nafria J M, Mier Durante M P, Carnero Hernandez A, 1977. The aphid fauna of Macaronesia. (La afidofauna macaronesica.). In: Nafria, J. M. Nieto; Durante, M. P. Mier: Studies on the aphids of the Canary Islands and of Macaronesia.: Estudios afidologicas de las Islas Canarias y de la Macaronesia. [ed. by Nieto Nafria J M, Mier Durante M P, Hernandez A C]. Canary Islands: Cabildo Insular de Tenerife. 55-65.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nono-Womdim R, Swai I S, Chadha M L, 2001. Occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus in Solanum aethiopicum in Tanzania. Plant Disease. 85 (7), 801. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.7.801A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Olivo V I, Corronca J A, 2013. Importance of the managing and the crop margins in the fluctuation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphidae) and of his natural enemies in a smallholding agricultural system. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía (La Plata). 112 (2), 68-78. http://www.agro.unlp.edu.ar/revista/index.php/revagro/article/view/33/14

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pajmon A, 1997. Appearance of aphids in seed potato crops. (Razširjenost listnih uši v nasadih semenskega krompirja.). Sodobno Kmetijstvo. 30 (2), 75-78.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Park ChungYoul, Kim JeongSun, Lee HongKyu, Oh JongHee, Lim SeungMo, Moon JaeSun, Lee SuHeon, 2018. Beet western yellows virus (BWYV): aspect of outbreak and survey, and first complete genome sequence of a Korea isolate of BWYV. Research in Plant Disease. 24 (4), 276-284. http://www.online-rpd.org/journal/view.html?uid=1626&sort=&scale=&key=year&keyword=&s_v=24&s_n=4&pn=vol&year=2018&vmd=Full

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Parker W E, 2005. The direct feeding effects of aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae) on the yield of potato crops in the UK. Aspects of Applied Biology. 167-174.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Patel R K, Thakur B S, 2005. Insect pest complex and seasonal incidence in linseed with particular reference to bud fly (Dasineura lini Barnes). Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 2 (2), 102-107.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Perić P, Marčić D, Prijović M, Ogurlić I, Andrić G, 2009. Effectiveness of biorational pesticides for controlling some vegetable pests in Serbia. Acta Horticulturae. 531-538. http://www.actahort.org/books/830/830_76.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pokhraj Patel, Ganguli R N, Jayalaxmi Ganguli, Dubey V K, 2005. Pest succession in cabbage at Raipur, Chhattisgarh (India). Journal of Applied Zoological Researches. 16 (1), 28-29.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pourrahim R, Farzadfar S, Golnaraghi A R, Ahoonmanesh A, 2007. Incidence and distribution of important viral pathogens in some Iranian potato fields. Plant Disease. 91 (5), 609-615. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-5-0609

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prishchepa I A, Kolyadko N N, Novikova O T, Naumova G V, 2003. On the possibility of using preparations of plant origin for protection of vegetables from pests. Vestsi¯ Natsyyanal'naĭ Akadėmii Navuk Belarusi¯. Seryya Agrarnykh Navuk. 61-65.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Raboudi F, Ben Moussa A, Makni H, Marrakchi M, Makni M, 2002. Serological detection of plant viruses in their aphid vectors and host plants in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP. 32 (3), 495-498. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2338.2002.00596.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Radonjić S, Hrnčić S, 2011. An overview of invasive species on vegetables in greenhouses in southern part of Montenegro. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 153-157. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2011_68_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rakauskas R, Aslan M M, Ișıkber A A, Zaremba A, Bernotienė R, 2015. Contribution to the knowledge of the orchard aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) fauna of Istanbul and Kahramanmaras. Kahramanmaraș Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi. 18 (1), 13-17. http://dergi.ksu.edu.tr/article/view/5000076786/5000135844

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rashmi Pandey, Kuldeep Sharma, Deepti Chaudhari, Mayank Rai, 2008. Effect of weather parameters on incidence of Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae on potato. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 16 (1), 78-80. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remaudiere G, Autrique A, 1985. (Contribution à l'écologie des aphides africains). In: étude FAO Production Végétale et Protection des Plantes, 64 Rome, Italy: FAO. 1-214.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remaudière G, Weemaels N, Nicolas J, 1991. Contribution to the knowledge of the aphid fauna of Bolivia (Homoptera: Aphididae). (Contribution à la connaissance de la faune aphidienne de la Bolivie (Homoptera: Aphididae).). Parasitica. 47 (1), 19-46.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rubiano-Rodríguez J A, Fuentes-Contreras E, Figueroa C C, Margaritopoulos J T, Briones L M, Ramírez C C, 2014. Genetic diversity and insecticide resistance during the growing season in the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on primary and secondary hosts: a farm-scale study in Central Chile. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 104 (2), 182-194. DOI:10.1017/S000748531300062X

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sánchez-Monge A, Retana-Salazar A, Brenes S, Agüero R, 2010. New records of aphid-plant associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Eastern Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist. 93 (4), 489-492. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ DOI:10.1653/024.093.0402

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sauvion N, Rahbé Y, Peumans W J, Damme E J M van, Gatehouse J A, Gatehouse A M R, 1996. Effects of GNA and other mannose binding lectins on development and fecundity of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 79 (3), 285-293. DOI:10.1007/BF00186287

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sawicki R M, Devonshire A L, Payne R W, Petzing S M, 1980. Stability of insecticide resistance in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Pesticide Science. 11 (1), 33-42. DOI:10.1002/ps.2780110108

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Schlinger E I , Mackauer M J P, 1963. Identity, distribution, and hosts of Aphidius matrìcariae Haliday, an important parasite of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hymenoptera: Àphidiidae-Homoptera: Aphidoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 56 (5), 648-653 pp. DOI:10.1093/aesa/56.5.648

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Shakti Khajuria, Rai A K, Kanak Lata, 2013. Occurrence and distribution of insect pests attacking solanaceous vegetables in semi-arid region of central Gujarat. Insect Environment. 19 (4), 248-249. http://www.currentbiotica.com/Insect/Volume19-4/IE-V19(4)-11.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Shamesa Maryam, Sandhu A A, Imran Bodlah, Aziz M A, Ayesha Aihetasham, 2019. Contribution to Aphid's fauna of Gujranwala (Punjab), Pakistan. Punjab University Journal of Zoology. 34 (1), 9-16. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/zology/PDF-FILES/2-34_1_19.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Shantibala T, Singh T K, Shah M A S, 2007. Insect pest complex of pea crop (Pisum sativum Linn.) and their succession in agro-ecosystem of Manipur. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 27 (1), 75-81.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sharma P, Verma R K, Mishra R, Choudhary D K, Gaur R K, 2013. First report of Turnip yellow virus (TuYV) in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) in India. New Disease Reports. 21. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2013.027.021

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Shigehara T, Takada H, 2003. Changes in genotypic composition of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on tobacco during the past two decades in Japan. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 93 (6), 537-544. DOI:10.1079/BER2003273

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Smith C F, Cermeli M M, 1979. An annotated list of Aphididae (Homoptera) of the Caribbean Islands and South and Central America. In: Technical Bulletin, North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, [+]131 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Smith C F, Parron C S, 1978. An annotated list of Aphididae (Homoptera) of North America. In: Technical Bulletin, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, viii+428 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Song ChunMan, Wu XingFu, Deng JianHua, Lei ChaoLiang, 2006. Monitoring insecticide resistance of Myzus persicae in tobacco fields in Yunnan. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 43 (4), 500-503.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Srigiriraju L, Semtner P J, Bloomquist J R, 2010. Monitoring for imidacloprid resistancein the tobacco-adapted form of the green peachaphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in the eastern United States. Pest Management Science. 66 (6), 676-685. DOI:10.1002/ps.1929

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Starowicz M, Kanturski M, Junkiert Ł, Wieczorek K, 2015. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidomorpha) of the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków. Polish Journal of Entomology. 84 (4), 325-338. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sunil Joshi, Sangma R H Ch, 2015. Natural enemies associated with aphids and coccids from Sikkim, India. Journal of Biological Control. 29 (1), 3-7. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/75778/59026

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Takada H, 2002. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae; Aphelinidae) of four principal pest aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse vegetable crops in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 37 (2), 237-249. DOI:10.1303/aez.2002.237

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tao CC, 1991. Aphid Fauna of Taiwan Province, China., Taipei, Taiwan: Provincial Museum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Taylor L R, 1977. Migration and the spatial dynamics of an aphid, Myzus persicae. Journal of Animal Ecology. 46 (2), 411-423. DOI:10.2307/3820

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Toor R F van, Foster S P, Anstead J A, Mitchinson S, Fenton B, Kasprowicz L, 2008. Insecticide resistance and genetic composition of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on field potatoes in New Zealand. Crop Protection. 27 (2), 236-247. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2007.05.015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trivedi T P, Khurana S M P, Puri S N, Bhar L M, Mehta S C, Jain R C, Singh G, Chaudhari S M, Mohasin M, Dhandapani A, Naveen Chona, 2002. Development of forewarning system of potato aphid (Myzus persicae) on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 72 (6), 341-345.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UC (University of California), 1986. IPM for Potatoes in the Western United States. In: Statewide Integrated Pest Mangement Project, Oakland, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UK, CAB International, 1979. Myzus persicae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 45 (Revised). DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600045

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vehrs S L C, Walker G P, Parrella M P, 1992. Comparison of population growth rate and within-plant distribution between Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) reared on potted chrysanthemums. Journal of Economic Entomology. 85 (3), 799-807. DOI:10.1093/jee/85.3.799

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vereshchagin B V, Andreev A V, Vereshchagina A B, 1985. Tli Moldavii. Kishinev, USSR: "Shtiintsa". 157pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Verma KD, Das SM, 1992. The Aphidididae of North-West India., New Delhi, India: Ashish Publishing House.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vieira E R D, Soares M A, Silva E de B, Assis Júnior S L, Barroso G A, 2016. First record of Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776) in Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo). e0382015. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1808-16572016000100313&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wang DongSheng, Kuang KaiYuan, Wu ShiChang, Zhu ZongYuan, Yuan YongDa, Chen YuLiang, Yang XiaoQing, 2000. The occurrence and control of dominant insect pests and diseases on sweet pepper in advanced greenhouses. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai. 16 (Supplement), 10-16.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wang YouNian, Xing YanFeng, Zhou ShiLong, Meng HaiLing, Guan Wei, Shi GuangLu, 2009. Structure, dynamics and niche of dominant population of insect community in peach orchards of Beijing. Scientia Silvae Sinicae. 45 (4), 88-94. http://lyke.chinajournal.net.cn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Weber G, 1985. Genetic variability in host plant adaptation of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 38 (1), 49-56. DOI:10.1007/BF00163352

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yoon J Y, Choi I Y, Jang S W, Park S H, Choi S K, 2018. First report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Chayote (Sechium edule) in Korea. Plant Disease. 102 (6), 1179-1180. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1234-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yovkova M, Petrović-Obradović O, Tasheva-Terzieva E, Pencheva A, 2013. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria. ZooKeys. 347-361. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4318/aphids-hemiptera-aphididae-on-ornamental-plants-in-greenhouses-in-bulgaria

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zhang Xiao, Xue Ming, Zhao HaiPeng, 2015. Species-specific effects on salicylic acid content and subsequent Myzus persicae (Sulzer) performance by three phloem-sucking insects infesting Nicotiana tabacum L. Arthropod - Plant Interactions. 9 (4), 383-391. DOI:10.1007/s11829-015-9385-9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zhu L, Xu Z P, Fei C Y, Xi D H, 2017. Characterization of a subgroup II isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from bitter gourd in China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (2), 505-508. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3870/2514

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Distribution Maps

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    You can pan and zoom the map
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save map
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Select a dataset
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Map Legends
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • CABI Summary Records
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Map Filters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Extent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Invasive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Origin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Third party data sources: