Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

 

Continuing to use www.cabi.org  means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Horizon Scanning Tool (beta) for prioritizing invasive species threats

Datasheet

Mus musculus (house mouse)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mus musculus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • house mouse
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Mus musculus (the house mouse) probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apar...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mus musculus (house mouse); adult, captured specimen. This small rodent probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with man which extends back at least 8,000 years. They do considerable damage by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosytems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in its success is it behavioural plasticity, brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments. Aranda, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. April 2018
TitleAdult
CaptionMus musculus (house mouse); adult, captured specimen. This small rodent probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with man which extends back at least 8,000 years. They do considerable damage by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosytems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in its success is it behavioural plasticity, brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments. Aranda, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. April 2018
Copyright©Donald Hobern/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); adult, captured specimen. This small rodent probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with man which extends back at least 8,000 years. They do considerable damage by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosytems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in its success is it behavioural plasticity, brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments. Aranda, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. April 2018
AdultMus musculus (house mouse); adult, captured specimen. This small rodent probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with man which extends back at least 8,000 years. They do considerable damage by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosytems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in its success is it behavioural plasticity, brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments. Aranda, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. April 2018©Donald Hobern/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); adult. (note injury to the right hind foot). Northern Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. July 2010.
TitleAdult
CaptionMus musculus (house mouse); adult. (note injury to the right hind foot). Northern Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. July 2010.
Copyright©4028mdk09/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); adult. (note injury to the right hind foot). Northern Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. July 2010.
AdultMus musculus (house mouse); adult. (note injury to the right hind foot). Northern Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. July 2010.©4028mdk09/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); infestation. Mouse plagues erupt in the grain-growing regions of Australia causing massive disruption to communities and losses to farmers. Darling Downs, Australia.
TitleInfestation
CaptionMus musculus (house mouse); infestation. Mouse plagues erupt in the grain-growing regions of Australia causing massive disruption to communities and losses to farmers. Darling Downs, Australia.
Copyright©Grant Singleton/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); infestation. Mouse plagues erupt in the grain-growing regions of Australia causing massive disruption to communities and losses to farmers. Darling Downs, Australia.
InfestationMus musculus (house mouse); infestation. Mouse plagues erupt in the grain-growing regions of Australia causing massive disruption to communities and losses to farmers. Darling Downs, Australia.©Grant Singleton/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); skull. Note the diagnostic notch (arrowed)on the inner face of  the upper incisors. Museum specimen. Museum Wiesbaden, Germany.
TitleSkull
CaptionMus musculus (house mouse); skull. Note the diagnostic notch (arrowed)on the inner face of the upper incisors. Museum specimen. Museum Wiesbaden, Germany.
Copyright©Klaus Rassinger and Gerhard Cammerer/Museum Wiesbaden, Germany - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); skull. Note the diagnostic notch (arrowed)on the inner face of  the upper incisors. Museum specimen. Museum Wiesbaden, Germany.
SkullMus musculus (house mouse); skull. Note the diagnostic notch (arrowed)on the inner face of the upper incisors. Museum specimen. Museum Wiesbaden, Germany.©Klaus Rassinger and Gerhard Cammerer/Museum Wiesbaden, Germany - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mus musculus (house mouse); damage in pea crop. Australia.
TitleDamage in peas
CaptionMus musculus (house mouse); damage in pea crop. Australia.
Copyright©Grant Singleton/CSIRO
Mus musculus (house mouse); damage in pea crop. Australia.
Damage in peasMus musculus (house mouse); damage in pea crop. Australia.©Grant Singleton/CSIRO
Mus musculus (house mouse); damage in wheat crop. Australia.
TitleDamage in wheat
CaptionMus musculus (house mouse); damage in wheat crop. Australia.
Copyright©Grant Singleton/CSIRO
Mus musculus (house mouse); damage in wheat crop. Australia.
Damage in wheatMus musculus (house mouse); damage in wheat crop. Australia.©Grant Singleton/CSIRO
Mus musculus (house mouse); damage in maize crop. Australia.
TitleDamage in maize
CaptionMus musculus (house mouse); damage in maize crop. Australia.
Copyright©Grant Singleton/CSIRO
Mus musculus (house mouse); damage in maize crop. Australia.
Damage in maizeMus musculus (house mouse); damage in maize crop. Australia.©Grant Singleton/CSIRO

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • house mouse

Other Scientific Names

  • Mus domesticus
  • Mus molossinus
  • Mus musculus domesticus

International Common Names

  • English: common mouse; field mouse; mice; mouse
  • Spanish: arrierito; raton casero; raton domestico; ratón doméstico; ratoncito
  • French: souri domestique; souris; souris commune; souris domestique

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: husmus
  • Dominican Republic: biganuelo
  • Finland: kotihiiri
  • Germany: Hausmaus; Maus, Haus-
  • Iran: musche khanegi
  • Israel: achbar habayit hamatzui
  • Italy: topo domestico; topolino delle case
  • Netherlands: muis
  • New Zealand: kiore-iti
  • Norway: husmus
  • Sweden: husmus

EPPO code

  • MUSXMU (Mus musculus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Mus musculus (the house mouse) probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with humans which extends back at least 8,000 years. They do considerable damage by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosytems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in the success of Mus musculus is its behavioural plasticity brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments. This species has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Rodentia
  •                         Family: Muridae
  •                             Subfamily: Murinae
  •                                 Genus: Mus
  •                                     Species: Mus musculus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The taxonomy of the genus Mus is still not entirely clear and the last 30 years have seen a continuing reduction in the number of species recognised and a rearrangement of the phylogenetic tree. The confusion arises because of the gross morphological similarity of many Mus species, many of which are only (relatively) distantly related and the phenotypic plasticity within the various species themselves. It is now accepted that the genus Mus is actually comprised of 4 subgenera - Pyromys, Coelomys, Mus, and Nannomys - containing, in total, approximately 40 species plus an unknown number of subspecies (Nowak, 1991).

Silver (1995), drawing on detailed genetic analysis, lists 8 true species in the Mus subgenus plus 4 morphologically and biochemically distinct Mus musculus subspecies that together form an M. musculus species group. These are Mus mus musculus, M. m. domesticus, M. m. castaneus, and M. m. bactrianus. He relegates M. m. molossinus, found throughout Japan, to faux-species status as it has been found to be a hybrid between M. m. musculus and M. m. castaneus. Furthermore, the genetic evidence supports the Indian subcontinent as the centre of radiation for the M. musculus species group, M. m. bactrianus being the founder population. The members of the M. musculus group would have occupied non-overlapping ranges within the Indian subcontinent until Neolithic human population expansion and migration approximately 10,000 yrs BP facilitated their dispersal.

The two species found in Europe - M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus - accompanied humans migrating into the area approximately 4,000 yrs BP. It is predominantly these two species that have become invasive throughout the world, primarily aided by past European colonial expansion. Recently genetic methods have been used to trace the colonisation history on mice in New Zealand and the United Kindom (Searle et al. 2008a, 2008b).

Description

Top of page

A long tail (60-105mm - approximately equal to its head and body length of 65-95mm), large prominent black eyes, round ears and a pointed muzzle with long whiskers. Adults 12-30 g. Wild mice are commonly light brown to black; belly fur white, brown, or grey. Colour of tail also lighter below than above.

Distribution

Top of page

Native range: Native to the Indian subcontinent.
Known introduced range: The house mouse has accompanied humans to, and colonised, tropical, temperate, semi-desert, desert, and sub-antarctic regions throughout the world.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-XinjiangPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
IsraelPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TurkeyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Africa

Crozet IslandsPresentIntroduced19 century Invasive ISSG, 2011
EgyptPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MauritiusRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MayottePresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
RéunionPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced1599 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-AscensionPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
-Tristan Da CunhaPresentIntroducedpre-1885 Invasive ISSG, 2011
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedEarly 1600'sISSG, 2011
CanadaPresentCAB Abstracts
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MexicoRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
USAPresentCAB Abstracts
-AlaskaPresentIntroduced1872 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-IllinoisPresent

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced1503 Invasive ISSG, 2011
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
DominicaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuadeloupePresent
HaitiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Daltry, 2009
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
ColombiaPresentSchotman, 1989
Falkland IslandsPresentIntroducedlate 18th centuryISSG, 2011
South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsPresentIntroduced19th century Invasive ISSG, 2011
VenezuelaPresentSchotman, 1989

Europe

Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCAB Abstracts
FranceAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive ISSG, 2011
HungaryPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Isle of Man (UK)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
RomaniaPresentLaiu and Murariu, 2000
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Balearic IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UKPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Searle and Jones, 2002
UKPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Searle and Jones, 2002

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
-Lord Howe Is.Restricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-VictoriaPresentCAB Abstracts
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesPresentIntroduced19 century Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedpre-1932 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedpre-1932 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Midway IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
New ZealandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedpre-1931 Invasive ISSG, 2011
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroducedc. 1942ISSG, 2011
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
TuvaluPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedpre-1924 Invasive ISSG, 2011
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Habitat

Top of page

As commensal animals, house mice live in close association with man — in houses, outbuildings, stores and other structures. Mice are not limited to commensal situations and feral house mice are found in many different habitats in a number of regions of the world. Mice are found throughout New Zealand in habitats ranging from rank coastal grasslands and dunes to sub-alpine tussock. They can reach very high densities in some habitats, particularly those with dense ground cover. In Australia mice are commonly found in arable crop fields and can reach enormous densities in these areas. Mice are also found on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have become a major conservation concern.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details
Riverbanks Present, no further details
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
stored products (dried stored products)Main

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Nutrition
Wild mice eat many kinds of vegetable matter, such as, fleshy roots, leaves, and stems. Insects and some meat may be eaten when available. Commensal mice feed on any human food that is accessible, as well as paste, glue, soap, and other household materials. Cereals are preferred to foods containing higher proportions of fat or protein. A large part of the water requirement of mice is met by the moisture content of their food as they have the ability to concentrate their urine and this has enabled them to colonise semi-desert areas. Mice on a seed diet of 12% protein can survive without free water, but above this level of protein require 3-13 g water per day.

    Reproduction
    Placental. Sexual. Endogenous reproductive cycle most likely modulated by nutrition and, possibly, population density.
    15-150+ young per female adult per year, depending on conditions. Females as young as 5 weeks can breed. The pre-independence mortality rate is typically 60-70%. Population densities range from 10 per sq metre for commensal populations to 1 per 100 sq metres in feral populations. Given ideal conditions populations can errupt spectacularly and numbers can exceed 200,000 per hectare.
    While favourable conditions (e.g. nutrition) determine reproduction in commensal populations, free-living (feral) populations are seasonal breeders, and reproduction is probably influenced by a combination of day length and nutrition (Pillay, N., pers. comm., 2004).

      Lifecycle stages
      Depending on prevailing environmental conditions, house mice occur alone, in pairs, in small family parties, or several families co-exist at very high densities (Pillay, N., pers. comm., 2004). Breeding takes place throughout the year in laboratory, most commensal, and some wild populations. The oestrus cycle is 4-6 days, with oestrus lasting less than one day. The oestrus cycle stops during lactation except for one oestrus 12-20 hours postpartum. Gestation period is 19-21 days, although this may be extended by several days if the female is lactating. There are usually 5-10 litters per year, depending on conditions, but up to 14 may be produced. Litters range from 3-12, but usually consist of 5-6, young. Newborn mice weigh around 1 g, are naked except for short vibrissae, and their eyes and ears are closed. They are fully furred after 10 days and by 14 days old their eyes and ears are open, and their incisor teeth have erupted. The young are weaned and start to leave the nest at 20-23 days old, weighing around 6 g, and can reach sexual maturity at 5-7 weeks. In the wild mice rarely live longer than 18 months. Captive mice live 2 years on average although there are records of some individuals living up to 6 years.

        Natural enemies

        Top of page
        Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
        Capillaria hepatica Parasite Australia
        Mycoplasma pulmonis Pathogen
        Thelohania apodemi Pathogen
        Tyto alba Predator

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

        Top of page

        It has been estimated that in the USA seven mice are transported per 100 tonnes of grain and 70 per 100 tonnes of hay or straw. In one year 550,000 tonnes of hay and straw were exported from the USA potentially containing many thousands of house mice (Baker 1994 cited in Pocock et al. 2005).

        Introduction pathways to new locations
        Aircraft:
        Ignorant possession:
        Military:
        Road vehicles (long distance):
        Seafreight (container/bulk):

        Local dispersal methods
        Boat:
        Escape from confinement:
        Natural dispersal (local):
        Off-road vehicles:
        Road vehicles:

          Pathway Causes

          Top of page
          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
          Military movements Yes

          Pathway Vectors

          Top of page
          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Aircraft Yes
          Bulk freight or cargo Yes
          Land vehicles Yes

          Impact Summary

          Top of page
          CategoryImpact
          Crop production Negative

          Impact

          Top of page

          House mice are major economic pests, consuming and despoiling crops and human foodstuffs, and they are host to a range of diseases and parasites infectious to humans, the most serious being bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) and salmonella (Salmonella spp.). However, mice are considered relatively unimportant as vectors for their transmission to humans.

          Mice have also been implicated in extirpations and/or extinctions of indigenous species in ecosystems they have invaded and colonised which are outside their natural range. Angel et al (2009) reviewed mouse impacts on islands in the Southern Ocean and found that mice had negative impacts on plants, invertebrates, land birds and sea birds. An important finding of this review is that when mice are the only introduced species on an island their behaviour is more similar to that of rats and has a much larger impact on the native ecosystem. When mice are part of a complex of invasive species their densities are suppressed and their impacts are not as great. On Juan de Nova Island in the Mozambique Channel cats have a major impact on the sooty tern (Sterna fuscata) colonies through predation. Peck et al (2008) found that introduced mice and rats supported the cat population through the tern non-breeding season meaning the cat population was large throughout the year. This effect is known as hyperpredation and the authors suggest removing mice andsand rats may help preserve the tern colony.

          Recent research and video evidence from Gough Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, has shown conclusively that mice are responsible for widespread breeding failures and that predation of seabird chicks by mice occurs at levels that are probably driving population decreases. Please follow this link to view the video Wanless mouse attack on albatross chick recorded by Ross Wanless and Andrea Angel on Gough Island (Viewer discretion is advised).
          Please follow this link for terms and conditions of use of the video.

          Species affected on Gough Island include the 'Crtically endangered (CR)' Tristan albatross (see Diomedea dabbenena) and the 'Endangered (EN)' Atlantic petrel (see Pterodroma incerta). Other species believed to be subject to mouse predation include the two winter breeders - the 'Near Threatened (NT)' grey petrel (see Procellaria cinerea) and the great-winged petrels (see Pterodroma macroptera) (Wanless et al. 2007). M. musculus may pose the greatest present threat to the 'Critically endangered (CR)' Gough bunting (see Rowettia goughensis) through competition and predation (Birdlife International, 2004).

          A study of seed predation by mice in a New Zealand forest found that mice were able to consume almost the entire seed crop of some species therefore having important implications for tree population dynamics (Wilson et al 2007). Another study in New Zealand found that mice were predating upon lizards and that adults were more susceptible than juveniles (Newman 1994).

          Threatened Species

          Top of page
          Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
          Diomedea dabbenenaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Predation,
          Procellaria cinereaNT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Predation,
          Pterodroma incertaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Predation
          Pterodroma macropteraLC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)Predation
          Rowettia goughensisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Predation
          Newcombia cumingi (Newcomb's tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
          Osmoxylon mariannenseCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007b
          Perognathus longimembris pacificus (Pacific pocket mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
          Peromyscus polionotus allophrys (Choctawhatchee beach mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSACompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
          Peromyscus polionotus ammobates (Alabama beach mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabamaCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
          Peromyscus polionotus peninsularis (St. Andrew beach mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009e
          Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis (Perdido Key beach mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007a
          Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
          Pritchardia remota (Remota loula palm)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiRootingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
          Schiedea nuttalliiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009c
          Schiedea verticillataUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009d
          Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
          Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaPest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004
          Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b

          Risk and Impact Factors

          Top of page Invasiveness
          • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
          • Has high reproductive potential
          Impact outcomes
          • Threat to/ loss of native species
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Competition - smothering
          • Competition
          • Pest and disease transmission
          • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
          • Predation
          • Rooting

          Prevention and Control

          Top of page

          House mice are controlled by poisoning, fumigation, trapping and repellents. Thirty eight percent of mouse eradication attempts on islands worldwide have failed (17 out of 45 attempts), but there doesn't seem to be a consistent simple operational explanation for these failures. Eradications should be attempted provided sufficient planning and preparation has taken place to rule out failure due to operational errors or factors that can be controlled for. Factors to consider in order to maximise the likelihood of success include:
          o Will the chosen poisoning method allow every mouse on the island access to poison?
          o Take genetic samples prior to the eradication attempt. This allows the distinction to be made between eradication failure and a re invasion and also can be used to determine sub-species.
          o Consider the effects of other mammals. Will they prevent mice accessing poison?
          o Will the mice eat the bait? Consider bait trials to check for poison palatability and cereal aversion.
          o Are there areas which may require extra poison? Dense grassland can support very high numbers of mice and may require more poison than forest areas (MacKay et al., 2007).

          Preventative measures: House mice are able to stow away in very small spaces so there is a constant threat of invasion or reinvasion. Visitors to areas that are at risk of mouse invasion should be encouraged to check all baggage and pockets for mice before heading to such places. Mouse free areas that are considered at risk of invasion should implement a programme of regular monitoring to identify mouse invasions early.

          Chemical: House mice have been successfully eradicated from 28 islands worldwide. In all these cases some form of anticoagulant poison was used (MacKay et al. 2007). Brodifacoum was the most commonly used poison, other successful attempts used pindone, warfarin, bromodiolone and floccoumafen. Brodifacoum is a very widely used toxin but there are some concerns about it building up in ecosystems (Hoare and Hare, 2006). Fisher (2005) discusses the susceptibility of mice to a variety of anticoagulant poisons; Morriss et al. (2008) updates this study by investigating factors that affect the palatability of different baits to house mice and rat species.

          Biological: Virally vectored immunocontraception using a modified murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has been investigated in Australia to control mouse plagues in the grain growing regions but results are not promising. Viral transmission rates are too slow to effectively control fertility on the population (Arthur et al. 2009). A review of fertility control in rodents is available (Jacob et al. 2010).

          Integrated management: The abundance of M. musculus will increase dramatically where a significant number of rats are removed from an area, perhaps due to an improved food supply or a release from predation pressure (Caut et al. 2007, Witmer et al. 2007). It is important to attempt to remove mice at the same time as rats to prevent large populations of mice appearing following rat removal.

          Bibliography

          Top of page

          Amos, J. BBC News. 2005. Albatross Chicks Attacked by Mice.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Taylor, R. H. 1991. Distribution of alien mammals on New Zealand islands. Lower Hutt and Nelson, DSIR Land Resources.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Towns, D. R. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: Pacific rat. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31(1): 99-109.

          Atkinson, I. and Atkinson, T. J., 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on the islands of the South Pacific. In: The Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (tech. ed). Published in June 2000 by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP).

          Bell, 2002. The eradication of alien mammals from five offshore islands, Mauritius, Indian Ocean. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 40-45. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          BirdLife International 2004. Rowettia goughensis. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/150172/0

          BirdLife International 2005. Diomedea dabbenena. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/150500/0

          BirdLife International 2006. Pterodroma incerta. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144858/0

          Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

          Caut, S., Casanovas, J.G., Virgos, E., Lozano, J., Witmer, G.W. & Courchamp, F., 2007. Rats dying for mice: Modelling the competitor release effect. Austral Ecology 32, 858-868.

          Chapuis, J., Boussès, P., & Barnaud, G. 1994. Alien mammals, impact and management in the French Subantartic Islands. Biological Conservation, 67, 97-104.

          CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras en México. Especies invasoras - Mamíferos. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos

          Cooper, J., and P. G. Ryan. 1994. Management Plan for the Gough Island Wildlife Reserve. Government of Tristan da Cunha, Edinburgh, Tristan da Cunha.

          Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.

          Department of Conservation (DOC) 13th June 2007 Media release Mice eradication to make Abel Tasman islands predator-free http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/news.aspx?id=44096

          Fisher, P. and A.T. Airey ., 2009. Factors affecting 1080 pellet bait acceptance by house mice (Mus musculus). DOC Research & Development Series 306. 22 p. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds306entire.pdf

          Fitzgerald, B. M., Meads, M. J. and Murphy, E. C. in press. Changes in arthropod populations after the eradication of house mice (Mus musculus) from Allports Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. Biological Conservation.

          Gargominy, O. (Ed.). 2003. Biodiversité et conservation dans les collectivités françaises d'outre-mer. Comité français pour l'UICN, Paris. http://www.uicn.fr/Biodiversite-outre-mer-2003.html

          Gargominy, O., Bouchet, P., Pascal, M., Jaffre, T. and Tourneu, J. C. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie.. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51: 375-401.

          Guide to the Identification and Distribution of New Zealand Rodents. By D.M. Cunningham and P.J. Moors.

          Hoare, J.M. & Hare, K.M., 2006. The impact of brodifacoum on non-target wildlife: gaps in knowledge. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 30, 157-167.

          Hook, T. and Todd, P. 1992. Mouse eradication on Mana Island. In Veitch, C. R., Fitzgerald, M., Innes, J. and Murphy, E. (eds) Proceedings of the national predator management workshop. Threatened Species Occasional Publication 3. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 33pp.

          IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/

          IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

          Le Roux, V., Chapuis, J.L., Frenot, Y., & Vernon, P. 2002. Diet of the house mouse (Mus musculus) at Guillou Island, Kerguelen archipelago, Subantartic. Polar Biol., 25, 49-57.

          Lorvelec, O. & Pascal, M. 2006. Les vertébrés de Clipperton soumis à un siècle et demi de bouleversements écologiques. Revue d'Ecologie (La terre et la Vie), 61, 2

          Lorvelec, O., Delloue, X., Pascal, M., & mege, S. 2004. Impacts des mammiferes allochtones sur quelques especes autochtones de l'Isle Fajou (Reserve Naturelle du Grand Cul-de-sac Marin, Guadeloupe), etablis a l'issue d'une tentative d'eradication. Revue D'Ecologie - La Terre et La Vie 59(1-2): 293-307.

          Louette M. 1999. La Faune terrestre de Mayotte - Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 247 p.

          MacKay, J.W.B., Russell, J.C. & Murphy, E.C., 2007. Eradicating house mice from islands: successes, failures and the way forward. In: Managing vertebrate invasive species: an international symposium (eds K.A. Fagerstone and G.W. Witmer). USDA, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO., Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wildlife_damage/nwrc/symposia/invasive_symposium/content/MacKay294_304_MVIS.pdf

          Marris, E. 2005. Mice Gang up on Endangered Birds. Nature Publishing Group (news@nature.com).

          Mills, K. L.; P. Pyle, W. J. Sydeman, J. Buffa, and M. J. Rauzon., 2002. Direct and indirect effects of house mice on declining populations of a small seabird, the ashy storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa), on Southeast Farallon Island, California, USA. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414 IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Moverly, A.V. (1953) Pitcairn Island: An economic survey. Transactions of the Fiji Society 4: 61-67. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom

          Murphy, E. C. and Pickard, C. R. 1990. House mouse. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford University Press, Auckland: 225–242.

          Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Mus musculus. Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel, site Web : http://inpn.mnhn.fr. Document téléchargé le 28 mars 2008 . http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=61568

          Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world (5th Edition). Volume 2. 858-862.

          Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006. Eradicating invasive species from Kayangel Atoll, Palau http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/kayangel.html

          Pascal, M., Barré, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Frétey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements néo-calédoniens de vertébébrés : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les espèces envahissantes dans l’archipel néo-calédonien, Paris, IRD Éditions, 260 p.+ cédérom

          Pascal, M., Lorvelec, O., Borel, G., & Rosine, A. 2004. Structures spécifiques des peuplements de rongeurs d'agro-écosystèmes et d'écosystèmes "naturels" de la Guadeloupe et de la Martinique. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 59, 283-292.

          Probst J.-M. 1997. Animaux de la Réunion. Azalées Editions. 168 pp.

          Silver, L. M. 1995. Mouse genetics: concepts and applications.

          Sowls, A. L. and G. V. Byrd., 2002. Preventing rat introductions to the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414 IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Springer, Keith, 2006. Macquarie Island - Mammalian Pests: Past, Present and Future. 2006, ALIENS 23 (Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Special Issue).

          Tershy, B. R., C. J. Donlan, B. S. Keitt, D. A. Croll, J. A. Sanchez, B. Wood, M. A. Hermosillo, G. R. Howald, and N. Biavaschi., 2002. Island conservation in north-west Mexico: a conservation model integrating research, education and exotic mammal eradication. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 293-300. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT)., 2007. Exotic vertebrate species in Garry oak and associated ecosystems in British Columbia http://www.goert.ca/pubs_invasive.php#vertebrate_species

          The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Undated. Home > Our work > Science > Ecology of threatened species > Work from 2001 > Gough Island> Research and Monitoring.

          Torr, 2002. Eradication of rabbits and mice from subantarctic Enderby and Rose Islands. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 311-318. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660

          Veitch, C. R., 2002a. Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from Motuihe Island, New Zealand In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 381-388. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Veitch, C. R., 2002c. Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from Browns Island (Motukorea), Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 381-388. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Wanless Ross M., Andrea Angel, Richard J. Cuthbert, Geoff M. Hilton and Peter G. Ryan., 2007. Can predation by invasive mice drive seabird extinctions? Biology Letters. (2007) 3, 241–24 doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0120 Published online 3 April 2007

          Witmer, G.W., Boyd, F. & Hillis-Starr, Z., 2007. The successful eradication of introduced roof rats (Rattus rattus) from Buck Island using diphacinone, followed by an irruption of house mice (Mus musculus). Wildlife Research 34, 108-115.

          Zavaleta, E.S., 2002. It's often better to eradicate, but can we eradicate better? In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 381-388. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Zeppelini, Douglas; Rita Mascarenhas & Guntram G. Meier, 2007. Rat Eradication as Part of a Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) Conservation Program in an Urban Area in Cabedelo, Paraíba State, Brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter No. 117, 2007 - Page 5 and 6 http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn117/

          Amos, J. BBC News. 2005. Albatross Chicks Attacked by Mice.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Taylor, R. H. 1991. Distribution of alien mammals on New Zealand islands. Lower Hutt and Nelson, DSIR Land Resources.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Towns, D. R. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: Pacific rat. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31(1): 99-109.

          Atkinson, I. and Atkinson, T. J., 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on the islands of the South Pacific. In: The Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (tech. ed). Published in June 2000 by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP).

          Bell, 2002. The eradication of alien mammals from five offshore islands, Mauritius, Indian Ocean. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 40-45. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          BirdLife International 2004. Rowettia goughensis. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/150172/0

          BirdLife International 2005. Diomedea dabbenena. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/150500/0

          BirdLife International 2006. Pterodroma incerta. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144858/0

          Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

          Caut, S., Casanovas, J.G., Virgos, E., Lozano, J., Witmer, G.W. & Courchamp, F., 2007. Rats dying for mice: Modelling the competitor release effect. Austral Ecology 32, 858-868.

          Chapuis, J., Boussès, P., & Barnaud, G. 1994. Alien mammals, impact and management in the French Subantartic Islands. Biological Conservation, 67, 97-104.

          CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras en México. Especies invasoras - Mamíferos. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos

          Cooper, J., and P. G. Ryan. 1994. Management Plan for the Gough Island Wildlife Reserve. Government of Tristan da Cunha, Edinburgh, Tristan da Cunha.

          Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.

          Department of Conservation (DOC) 13th June 2007 Media release Mice eradication to make Abel Tasman islands predator-free http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/news.aspx?id=44096

          Fisher, P. and A.T. Airey ., 2009. Factors affecting 1080 pellet bait acceptance by house mice (Mus musculus). DOC Research & Development Series 306. 22 p. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds306entire.pdf

          Fitzgerald, B. M., Meads, M. J. and Murphy, E. C. in press. Changes in arthropod populations after the eradication of house mice (Mus musculus) from Allports Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. Biological Conservation.

          Gargominy, O. (Ed.). 2003. Biodiversité et conservation dans les collectivités françaises d'outre-mer. Comité français pour l'UICN, Paris. http://www.uicn.fr/Biodiversite-outre-mer-2003.html

          Gargominy, O., Bouchet, P., Pascal, M., Jaffre, T. and Tourneu, J. C. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie.. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51: 375-401.

          Guide to the Identification and Distribution of New Zealand Rodents. By D.M. Cunningham and P.J. Moors.

          Hoare, J.M. & Hare, K.M., 2006. The impact of brodifacoum on non-target wildlife: gaps in knowledge. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 30, 157-167.

          Hook, T. and Todd, P. 1992. Mouse eradication on Mana Island. In Veitch, C. R., Fitzgerald, M., Innes, J. and Murphy, E. (eds) Proceedings of the national predator management workshop. Threatened Species Occasional Publication 3. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 33pp.

          IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/

          IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

          Le Roux, V., Chapuis, J.L., Frenot, Y., & Vernon, P. 2002. Diet of the house mouse (Mus musculus) at Guillou Island, Kerguelen archipelago, Subantartic. Polar Biol., 25, 49-57.

          Lorvelec, O. & Pascal, M. 2006. Les vertébrés de Clipperton soumis à un siècle et demi de bouleversements écologiques. Revue d'Ecologie (La terre et la Vie), 61, 2

          Lorvelec, O., Delloue, X., Pascal, M., & mege, S. 2004. Impacts des mammiferes allochtones sur quelques especes autochtones de l'Isle Fajou (Reserve Naturelle du Grand Cul-de-sac Marin, Guadeloupe), etablis a l'issue d'une tentative d'eradication. Revue D'Ecologie - La Terre et La Vie 59(1-2): 293-307.

          Louette M. 1999. La Faune terrestre de Mayotte - Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 247 p.

          MacKay, J.W.B., Russell, J.C. & Murphy, E.C., 2007. Eradicating house mice from islands: successes, failures and the way forward. In: Managing vertebrate invasive species: an international symposium (eds K.A. Fagerstone and G.W. Witmer). USDA, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO., Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wildlife_damage/nwrc/symposia/invasive_symposium/content/MacKay294_304_MVIS.pdf

          Marris, E. 2005. Mice Gang up on Endangered Birds. Nature Publishing Group (news@nature.com).

          Mills, K. L.; P. Pyle, W. J. Sydeman, J. Buffa, and M. J. Rauzon., 2002. Direct and indirect effects of house mice on declining populations of a small seabird, the ashy storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa), on Southeast Farallon Island, California, USA. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414 IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Moverly, A.V. (1953) Pitcairn Island: An economic survey. Transactions of the Fiji Society 4: 61-67. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom

          Murphy, E. C. and Pickard, C. R. 1990. House mouse. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford University Press, Auckland: 225–242.

          Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Mus musculus. Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel, site Web : http://inpn.mnhn.fr. Document téléchargé le 28 mars 2008 . http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=61568

          Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world (5th Edition). Volume 2. 858-862.

          Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006. Eradicating invasive species from Kayangel Atoll, Palau http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/kayangel.html

          Pascal, M., Barré, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Frétey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements néo-calédoniens de vertébébrés : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les espèces envahissantes dans l’archipel néo-calédonien, Paris, IRD Éditions, 260 p.+ cédérom

          Pascal, M., Lorvelec, O., Borel, G., & Rosine, A. 2004. Structures spécifiques des peuplements de rongeurs d'agro-écosystèmes et d'écosystèmes "naturels" de la Guadeloupe et de la Martinique. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 59, 283-292.

          Probst J.-M. 1997. Animaux de la Réunion. Azalées Editions. 168 pp.

          Silver, L. M. 1995. Mouse genetics: concepts and applications.

          Sowls, A. L. and G. V. Byrd., 2002. Preventing rat introductions to the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414 IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Springer, Keith, 2006. Macquarie Island - Mammalian Pests: Past, Present and Future. 2006, ALIENS 23 (Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Special Issue).

          Tershy, B. R., C. J. Donlan, B. S. Keitt, D. A. Croll, J. A. Sanchez, B. Wood, M. A. Hermosillo, G. R. Howald, and N. Biavaschi., 2002. Island conservation in north-west Mexico: a conservation model integrating research, education and exotic mammal eradication. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 293-300. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT)., 2007. Exotic vertebrate species in Garry oak and associated ecosystems in British Columbia http://www.goert.ca/pubs_invasive.php#vertebrate_species

          The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Undated. Home > Our work > Science > Ecology of threatened species > Work from 2001 > Gough Island> Research and Monitoring.

          Torr, 2002. Eradication of rabbits and mice from subantarctic Enderby and Rose Islands. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 311-318. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660

          Veitch, C. R., 2002a. Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from Motuihe Island, New Zealand In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 381-388. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Veitch, C. R., 2002c. Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from Browns Island (Motukorea), Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 381-388. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Wanless Ross M., Andrea Angel, Richard J. Cuthbert, Geoff M. Hilton and Peter G. Ryan., 2007. Can predation by invasive mice drive seabird extinctions? Biology Letters. (2007) 3, 241–24 doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0120 Published online 3 April 2007

          Witmer, G.W., Boyd, F. & Hillis-Starr, Z., 2007. The successful eradication of introduced roof rats (Rattus rattus) from Buck Island using diphacinone, followed by an irruption of house mice (Mus musculus). Wildlife Research 34, 108-115.

          Zavaleta, E.S., 2002. It's often better to eradicate, but can we eradicate better? In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 381-388. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Zeppelini, Douglas; Rita Mascarenhas & Guntram G. Meier, 2007. Rat Eradication as Part of a Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) Conservation Program in an Urban Area in Cabedelo, Paraíba State, Brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter No. 117, 2007 - Page 5 and 6 http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn117/

          References

          Top of page

          Anderson PK, 1961. Density, social structure, and non social environment in house-mouse populations and the implications for regulation of numbers. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series II, 23:447-451.

          Balbaa M, Zakaria M, 1983. Trapping as an effective method for mouse control in poultry farms. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Recent Advances in Rodent Control. State of Kuwait: Ministry of Public Health, 19-26.

          Berry RJ, 1987. House mouse. Biologist, 34:177-186.

          Berry RJ, ed, 1981. Biology of the House Mouse. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, Number 47. London, UK: Academic Press.

          Bomford M, Redhead TD, 1987. A field experiment to examine the effects of food quality and population density on reproduction of wild house mice. Oikos, 48:304-311.

          Bonhomme F, Catalan J, Britton-Davidian J, Chapman VM, Moriwaki K, Nevo E, Thaler L, 1984. Biochemical diversity and evolution in the genus Mus. Biochemical Genetics, 22:275-303.

          Brooks JE, Rowe FP, 1979. X Commensal Rodent Control. WHO/VBC/79.726. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

          Buckle AP, Smith RH, eds, 1994. Rodent Pests and Their Control. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International.

          Cantrill S, 1991. The Population Dynamics of the House Mouse (Mus domesticus) in an Unstable Agricultural Ecosystem. PhD Thesis, School of Life Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane.

          Catling PC, 1991. Ecological effects of prescribed burning practices on the mammals of southeastern Australia. In: Lunney D, ed. Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna. Mosman, Australia: Royal Zoological Society of NSW, 353-363.

          Caughley J, Monamy V, Heiden K, 1994. Impact of the 1993 mouse plague. GRDC Occasional Paper Series No. 7. Canberra, Australia: GRDC.

          Corbet, 1990. Opinion 1607. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 47:171-172.

          Croft D, Caughley J, 1995. A survey of the MIA mouse plague-at what cost?. Farmers' Newsletter, Large Area, No. 145:40-41; 1 ref.

          Daltry JC, 2009. The Status and Management of Saint Lucia's Forest Reptiles and Amphibians. SFA 2003/SLU/BIT-04/0711/EMF/LC., Finland: FCG Fauna & Flora, 80 pp. http://www.bananatrustslu.com/index.php?link=doccentre&project=sfa2003

          Elias DJ, Fall MW, 1988. The rodent problem in Latin America. In: Prakash I, ed. Rodent Pest Management. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 13-28.

          Elton CS, 1953. The use of cats in farm rat control. British Journal of Animal Behaviour, 1:151-155.

          Ferris SD, Sage RD, Prager EM, Ritte U, Wilson AC, 1983. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in mice. Genetics, 105:681-721.

          Fitzgerald BM, Karl BJ, Moller H, 1981. Spatial organization and ecology of a sparse population of house mice (Mus musculus) in a New Zealand forest. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50:489-518.

          Gomez GV, 1984. National rat and mouse control programme, Cuba 1981-1982. Proceedings of a Conference on the Organisation and Practice of Vertebrate Pest Control, 30 August - 3 September 1982, Elvetham Hall, Hampshire, England. Haslemere, UK: ICI, 151-161.

          Hoque MM, Sanchez FF, Benigno EA, 1988. Rodent problems in selected countries in Southeast Asia and islands in the Pacific. Rodent pest management., 85-99; 45 ref.

          ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

          Jeffrey SM, 1977. Rodent ecology and land use in western Ghana. Journal of Applied Ecology, 14:741-756.

          Krebs CJ, Kenney AJ, Singleton GR, 1995. Movements of feral house mice in agricultural landscapes. Australian Journal of Zoology, 43(3):293-302; 38 ref.

          Laiu L, Murariu D, 2000. Food of the little owl (Athene noctua Scop., 1769) (Aves: Strigiformes) in the surroundings of Bucharest (Romania). Travaux du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", 42:185-193.

          Lund M, 1994. Commensal rodents. In: Buckle AP, Smith RH, eds. Rodent Pests and their Control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 23-44.

          Marshall JT, 1981. Taxonomy. In: Foster HL, Small JD, Fox JG, eds. The Mouse in Biomedical Research. Vol. 1: History, Genetics and Wild Mice. New York, USA: Academic Press, 17-26.

          Marshall JT, Sage RD, 1981. Taxonomy of the house mouse. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, 47:15-25.

          Meehan AP, 1984. Rats and mice. Their biology and control. Rats and mice. Their biology and control. Rentokil Ltd. East Grinstead UK, 383

          Minette HP, 1964. Leptospirosis in rodents and mongooses on the island of Hawaii. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 13:626-632.

          Moulia C, Le Brun N, Dallas J, Orth A, Renaud F, 1993. Experimental evidence of genetic determinism in high susceptibility to intestinal pinworm infection in mice: a hybrid zone model. Parasitology, 106:387-393.

          Murphy EC, Pichard CR, 1990. House mouse. In: King CM, ed. The Handbook on New Zealand Mammals. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press, 225-242.

          Mutze G, 1991. Mouse plagues in South Australian cereal-growing areas. III. Changes in mouse abundance during plague and non-plague years, and the role of refugia. Wildlife Research, 18:593-604.

          Newsome AE, 1969a. A population study of house-mice temporarily inhabiting a South Australian wheatfield. Journal of Animal Ecology, 38:341-359.

          Newsome AE, 1969b. A population study of house-mice permanently inhabiting a reed-bed in South Australia. Journal of Animal Ecology, 38:361-377.

          Posamentier H, van Elsen A, 1984. Rodent Pests, Their Biology and Control in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Plant Protection Division, Department of Agricultural Extension.

          Prakash I, 1988. Changing patterns of rodent populations in India. In: Prakash I, ed. Rodent Pest Management. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press Inc., 179-190.

          Redhead TD, 1988. Prevention of plagues of house mice in rural Australia. In: Prakash I, ed. Rodent Pest Management. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press Inc., 191-206.

          Redhead TD, Enright N, Newsome AE, 1985. Causes and predictions of outbreaks of Mus musculus in irrigated and non-irrigated cereal farms. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 173:123-127.

          Rowe FP, 1967. Notes on the rats in the Solomon and Gilbert Islands. Journal of Mammalogy, 48:649-650.

          Sage RD, 1981. Wild mice. In: Foster HL, Small JD, Fox JG, eds. The Mouse in Biomedical Research. Vol. 1: history, Genetics and Wild Mice. New York, USA: Academic Press, 39-90.

          Sage RD, Heyneman D, Kee-Chong Lim, Wilson AC, 1986b. Wormy mice in a hybrid zone. Nature, 324:60-63.

          Sage RD, Whitney JB III, Wilson AC, 1986a. Genetic analysis of hybrid zone between domesticus and musculus mice (Mus musculus complex): Hemoglobin polymorphisms. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 127:75-85.

          Salit AM, 1983. Epidemiological significance of interspecific replacement of domestic and wild rodents in newly reclaimed areas in the Arab World. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Recent Advances in Rodent Control. State of Kuwait: Ministry of Public Health, 183-190.

          Saunders GR, Giles JR, 1977. A relationship between plagues of the house mouse, Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) and prolonged periods of dry weather in south-eastern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research, 4:241-147.

          Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

          Schwarz E, Schwarz H, 1943. The wild and commensal stocks of the house mouse, Mus musculus Linnaeus. Journal of Mammalogy, 24:59-72.

          Searle JB, Jones RM, 2002. Sex chromosome aneuploidy in wild small mammals. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 96(1/4):239-243.

          Sinclair ARE, Olsen PD, Redhead TD, 1990. Can predators regulate small mammal populations? Evidence from house mouse outbreaks in Australia. Oikos, 59(3):382-392; 35 ref.

          Singleton GR, 1989. Population dynamics of an outbreak of house mice (Mus domesticus) in the mallee wheatlands of Australia - hypothesis of plague formation. Journal of Zoology (London), 219:495-515.

          Singleton GR, 1994. The prospects and associated challenges for the biological control of rodents. Proceedings of 16th Vertebrate Pest Conference Santa Clara, California, USA, 1-3 March 1994, 301-307.

          Singleton GR, 1995. House mouse. In: Strachan R, ed. The Complete Book of Australian Mammals, 2nd edn. Sydney, Australia: Reed Books, 646-647.

          Singleton GR, Chambers LK, Spratt DM, 1995. An experimental field study to examine whether Capillaria hepatica (Nematoda) can limit house mouse populations in Eastern Australia. Wildlife Research, 22(1):31-53

          Singleton GR, Hay DA, 1983. The effect of social organization on reproductive success and gene flow in colonies of wild house mice, Mus musculus. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 12:49-56.

          Singleton GR, Redhead TD, 1989. House mouse plagues. In: Noble JC, Bradstock RA, eds. Mediterranean Landscapes in Australia: Mallee Ecosystems and their Management. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 418-433.

          Singleton GR, Redhead TD, 1990. Structure and biology of mouse populations that plague irregularly: an evolutionary perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 41:285-300.

          Singleton GR, Smith AL, Shellam GR, Fitzgerald N, Müller WJ, 1993. Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia. Epidemiology and Infection, 110:399-417.

          Smith AL, Singleton GR, Hansen GM, Shellam G, 1993. A serologic survey for viruses and Mycoplasma pulmonis among wild house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 29(2):219-229; 33 ref.

          Tann CR, Singleton GR, Coman BC, 1991. Diet of the house mouse (Mus domesticus) in the mallee wheatlands of north-western Australia. Wildlife Research, 18:1-12.

          Tuisuga PQ, 1977. Rodent damage in Western Samoa. Proceedings 2nd Regional Training Seminar on Field Rat Control and Research. 16-25 March, Manila, Philippines.

          Twigg LE, Singleton GR, Kay BJ, 1991. Evaluation of bromadiolone against house mice (Mus domesticus) populations in irrigated soybean crops. I. Efficacy of control. Wildlife Research, 18:265-274.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. In: Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 138 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. In: Recovery Plan for Multi-Island Plants. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 206 pp. + appendices.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. In: Choctawhatchee Beach Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus allophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 25 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Perdido Key beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 27 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 86 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Alabama Beach Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates, Bowen 1968). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 34 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Pritchardia remota (Lo`ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 16 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Schiedea nuttallii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 13 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Schiedea verticillata (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 13 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: St. Andrew beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus peninsularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 28 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Pacific Pocket Mouse (Perognathus longimembris pacificus). 5-Year review: summary and evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 86 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 121 pp.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15 Species on Hawaii Island; Final Rule. 78(209) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 64638-64690. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-29/pdf/2013-24103.pdf

          Wace NM, Holgate MW, 1976. Man and Nature in the Tristan da Cunha Islands. IUCN Monograph No. 6. Morges, Switzerland.

          Weber WJ, 1982. Diseases transmitted by rats and mice. Fresno, California, USA: Thomas Publications.

          Yan Zhitan, 1985. Some data concerning mass-outbreaks of house mice in the agricultural regions of North Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Chinese Journal of Agricultural Science, 2:86-92.

          Yonekawa H, Moriwaki K, Gotoh O, Hayashi JI, Watanabe J, Miyashita N, Petras ML, Tagashira Y, 1981. Evolutionary relationships among five subspecies of Mus musculus based on restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of mitochondrial DNA. Genetics, 98:801-816.

          Contributors

          Top of page
            Reviewed by: Prof. Neville Pillay School of Animal, Plant & Environmental Sciences University of the Witwatersrand South Africa.
            Compiled by: Jamie MacKay, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
            Last Modified: Friday, September 17, 2010

          Distribution Maps

          Top of page
          You can pan and zoom the map
          Save map
          Download KML file Download CSV file
          Creative Commons Licence
          This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

          Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

          Creative Commons Licence
          This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

          Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT