Invasive Species Compendium

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Mussaenda philippica
(Queen of Philippines)

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Datasheet

Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mussaenda philippica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Queen of Philippines
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Mussaenda philippica is a large shrub or small tree that is native to the Philippines and frequently cultivated as an ornamental in tropical regions. It can be found growing in parks, botanical gardens, private...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
HabitMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
HabitMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.
HabitMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit, grown as an ornamental. Bangalore, (Bengaluru), Karnataka, India. November 2017.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.
HabitMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.
Flowering habitMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit. Mira-Bhayandar, Maharashtra, India. November 2006.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Thane, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Thane, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Thane, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
Flowering habitMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Thane, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Malaysia. November 2011.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Malaysia. November 2011.
Copyright©Tu7uh (Hasan Sabran)/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Malaysia. November 2011.
Flowering habitMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines); flowering habit, white variety. Malaysia. November 2011.©Tu7uh (Hasan Sabran)/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mussaenda philippica A. Rich.

Preferred Common Name

  • Queen of Philippines

International Common Names

  • English: Bangkok rose; Buddha's lamp; Philippine mussaenda; Queen Sirikit

Local Common Names

  • Micronesia: amerok; batsch; petch
  • Palau: cherecheroi; ercherio; ereroi
  • Philippines: Doña Aurora

Summary of Invasiveness

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Mussaenda philippica is a large shrub or small tree that is native to the Philippines and frequently cultivated as an ornamental in tropical regions. It can be found growing in parks, botanical gardens, private and public gardens and along roadsides and highways. Although plants in cultivation usually do not produce fruits, they can spread vegetatively by stem fragments and cuttings. M. philippica is a species of environmental concern because it can grow up to 8 m tall and has a wide spreading crown that may shade out other vegetation including native plant species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Mussaenda
  •                                 Species: Mussaenda philippica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Rubiaceae comprises 611 genera and about 13,150 species distributed worldwide, but largely tropical. This family is especially diverse in Madagascar and the Andes (Davis et al., 2009; Stevens, 2017). Mussaenda is a tropical Old World genus consisting of about 185-200 species. Many species of Mussaenda are cultivated in gardens all over the world because of their resilience and long blooming period throughout almost the entire year. M. philippica is apparently the most commonly cultivated species and has numerous cultivar forms (Puff, 2007). More than 20 Mussaenda hybrids have been derived from crossing M. philippica with the African M. erythrophylla. These hybrids are known for their splendid and iridescent, enlarged calyx lobes (Alejandro et al., 2016). In the last taxonomic revision of the Philippine Mussaenda, three subspecific taxa for the species M. philippica are recognised (Alejandro et al., 2016): Mussaenda philippica var. aurorae, Mussaenda philippica var. philippica and Mussaenda philippica var. pubescens.

Description

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The following description is based on Fosberg et al. (1993). Large shrub or small tree, glabrous to minutely puberulent; leaves ovate-elliptic to elliptic, to 17 × 6 cm, strongly acuminate, base contracted to a slender petiole 1-1.5 cm long, veins 9 to 12 on a side; stipules sericeous, triangular, with a deeply bifid acumen; panicle about 4 times trichotomous, densely sericeous to soft-pubescent, bracts linear, bracteoles irregularly and inequally trifid, flowers apparently dioecious; calyx caducous, lobed almost to base, principal lobes 5, outer one greatly enlarged and showy on a few flowers, calyx usually somewhat less sericeous than cyme and hypanthium, small extra subulate lobes accompanying the enlarged leaf-like lobe, which is up to 9 cm long, broadly ovate, acuminate, somewhat cordate or rounded or obtuse at base, stipitate (“petiolate”), white, membranous, thinly sericeous, veins prominent; corolla 2-3 cm long, densely but shortly pubescent without, limb ovoid in bud, acuminate, tips of lobes separate, lobes ovate acuminate, bright yellow and densely puberulent within, centre of staminate flowers shortly bearded and throat densely yellow hirsute within, 7 mm long, tube glabrous within, 2 cm long, anthers 4-5 mm long, linear or subulate; pistillodes about 5-7 mm long, glabrous; pistillate corollas with tube and throat subequal, about 1 cm long, throat somewhat yellow puberulent within, no beard, tube glabrous within, antherodes subulate, 4 mm long; pistil with glabrous filiform style and subexserted stigma about 7 mm long, linear, bifid almost to base into slender blunt lobes papillate on inner surfaces and margins; fruit ellipsoid, 2 cm long, 13 mm wide at middle, thickly beset with white lenticels.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Mussaeade philippica is native to the Philippines. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental and has been introduced mainly to tropical regions of the Americas, Asia, Australia and Malesia (Ogbu, 2011; Randall, 2017; Govaerts, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; Atlas of Living Australia 2018; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 18 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresentIntroducedOgbu (2011)Cultivated
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasiveTassin et al. (2006)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Cultivated
Hong KongPresentIntroducedVan Langenberg (2006)Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedNegi and Hajra (2007)Cultivated
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedRandhawa and Mukhopadhyay (2004)Cultivated
-KeralaPresentIntroducedRandhawa and Mukhopadhyay (2004)Cultivated
-West BengalPresentIntroducedRandhawa and Mukhopadhyay (2004)Cultivated
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedCreuwels (2018)Record based on herbarium collections
MyanmarPresentIntroducedKress et al. (2003)Cultivated
PhilippinesPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SingaporePresentIntroducedCreuwels (2018)Record based on herbarium collections
ThailandPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated
MexicoPresentIntroducedRed de Herbarios del Noroeste de México (2017)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedTulig et al. (2017)Cultivated
United StatesPresentIntroducedMcLaughlin and Garofalo (2004)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedMcLaughlin and Garofalo (2004)Cultivated

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia (2018)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia (2018)Listed as an environmental weed
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
-YapPresentFosberg et al. (1993)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
PalauPresentFosberg et al. (1993)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedCreuwels (2018)Record based on herbarium collections
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedForzza and Dalcin (2018)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedForzza and Dalcin (2018)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)Cultivated
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedGuézou et al. (2010)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of M. philippica is high. This species is extensively commercialized as an ornamental and has attained significant economic importance in the nursery and landscape trade. Thus, new introductions as well as the colonization by this species of new areas especially those near cultivated areas are possible and highly likely to occur (Puff, 2007Ogbu, 2011).

Habitat

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Mussaenda philippica can be found growing in semi-shaded or open areas in secondary and primary forests, savannahs, forest edges, coastal scrubs and thickets, disturbed areas, roadsides, ravines and riparian sites at elevations from sea level to 1400 m (Alejandro et al., 2016).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. philippica is 2n=22 (Philip and Mathew, 1988).

Reproductive Biology

Mussaenda species are often pollinated by butterflies (Naiki and Kato, 1999; Borges et al., 2003).

Physiology and Phenology

Within its native distribution range in the Philippines, M. philippica flowers throughout the year and fruits from January to February, April to June and August to December (Alejandro et al., 2016). When growing in cultivation, M. philippica produces flowers throughout the year, but rarely produces fruits (Fosberg et al., 1993; Alejandro et al., 2016). In Puerto Rico it has been recorded flowering from April to November (Hume, 1951). In Nigeria it produces flowers almost throughout the year (Ibironke and Victor, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Mussaenda philippica grows best in humid habitats with full sunlight, but can tolerate some partial shade. It prefers well-drained clay, loamy or sandy soils with pH in the range 5.0-6.0. It has moderate tolerance to salt spray (Alejandro et al., 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 25

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall9503000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Maconellicoccus hirsutus Herbivore not specific
Paratachardina pseudolobata Herbivore not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Although Mussaenda species are relatively pest- and disease-free, scale insects, mealybugs and mites are sometimes a problem. Two pests recently introduced into South Florida, the pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) and the lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata) have been known to infest mussaendas (McLaughlin and Garofalo, 2004).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Mussaenda philippica spreads by seeds. However, plants in cultivation rarely produce fruits and propagation is mostly by stem fragments and cuttings. In the Philippines, birds have been observed eating the ripe fruits of several Mussaenda species and may be important disseminators of the seeds (Alejandro et al., 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceOften grown along roadsides, forest edges and ruderal sites Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Garden waste disposalSeeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Hedges and windbreaksPlanted as a fence shrub Yes Yes Ibironke and Victor, 2016
HorticultureWidely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Intentional releaseWidely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Internet salesSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes
Nursery tradeWidely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Ornamental purposesWidely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Seed tradeSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
MailSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes
Host and vector organismsSeeds may be dispersed by birds Yes Alejandro et al., 2016

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Mussaenda philippica is a species of environmental concern because it can grow up to 8 m tall and has a wide spreading crown that may shade out other vegetation including native plant species (Alejandro et al., 2016; Randall, 2017; GRIIS, 2018). It has been listed as invasive and potentially invasive in Reunion, Seychelles and the Marshall Islands (Tassin et al., 2006; GRIIS, 2018) and as an environmental weed in Queensland, Australia (Atlas of Living Australia, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Mussaenda philippica is extensively grown as an ornamental in botanical gardens, parks, gardens and along roadsides, byways and highways (Puff, 2007Ogbu, 2011; Alejandro et al., 2016; Ibironke and Victor, 2016). Leaves, flowers, fruits and sap are used in traditional Filipino and African medicine (Fosberg et al., 1993; Alejandro et al., 2016; Ibironke and Victor, 2016). In Nigeria, this species is used to treat dysentery, as an antidote for snakebites, affections of the chest and lungs and stomachache (Ibironke and Victor, 2016).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

References

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Alejandro, G. J. D., Meve, U., Liede-Schumann, S., 2016. A taxonomic revision of Philippine Mussaenda (Rubiaceae, Mussaendeae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 101(3), 457-524. http://www.bioone.org/loi/mobt

Atlas of Living Australia, 2018. Atlas of Living Australia. In: Atlas of Living Australia Canberra, ACT, Australia: GBIF.www.ala.org.au

Borges RM, Gowda V, Zacharias M, 2003. Butterfly pollination and high-contrast visual signals in a low-density distylous plant. Oecologia, 136(4), 571-573.

Davis AP, Govaerts R, Bridson DM, Ruhsam M, Moat J, Brummitt NA , 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 96(1), 68-78.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Fosberg, FR, Sachet, MH, Oliver, RL, 1993. Flora of Micronesia. Part 5. Bignoniaceae-Rubiaceae. In: Smithsonian Contributions in Botany , 81(5) . 1-135.

Govaerts, R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Guézou, A., Trueman, M., Buddenhagen, C. E., Chamorro, S., Mireya Guerrero, A., Pozo, P., Atkinson, R., 2010. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of Galapagos. PLoS ONE, (No.April), e10276. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010276

Hume, E. P., 1951. Some ornamental shrubs for the tropics. Circular. Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Federal Station, Mayaguez, 34, 151 pp.

Ibironke OA, Victor OO, 2016. Effect of media and growth hormones on the rooting of Queen of Philippines (Mussaenda philippica). Journal of Horticulture, 21, 1-5.

Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R. D. C., Callejas Posada, R., Merello, M., 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia.939 pp.

Kress, W. J., Defilipps, R. A., Farr, E., Kyi, D. Y. Y., 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar, 590 pp.

McLaughlin, J, Garofalo, J, 2004. Mussaendas for South Florida landscapes. Miami Dade, USA: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service.8 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Naiki, A., Kato, M., 1999. Pollination system and evolution of dioecy from distyly in Mussaenda parviflora (Rubiaceae). Plant Species Biology, 14(3), 217-227. doi: 10.1046/j.1442-1984.1999.00021.x

Negi, P. S., Hajra, P. K., 2007. Alien flora of Doon Valley, Northwest Himalaya. Current Science, 92(7), 968-978. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Ogbu, JU, 2011. Ornamental Mussaenda spp for Nigeria’s gardens and landscape environment. In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, 24-28 October 2011, Sokoto, Nigeria . Umuahia, Nigeria: Agricultural Society of Nigeria. 316-319.

Philip KO, Mathew PM, 1988. Cytology of the south Indian Rubiaceae and its bearing on the evolution and systematics of the family. In: Glimpses in Plant Research, 8. 177-244.

Puff C, 2007. Flora of Thailand: Rubiaceae. https://homepage.univie.ac.at/christian.puff/_FTH-RUB/FTH-RUB_HOME.htm

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tassin, J., Rivière, J. N., Cazanove, M., Bruzzese, E., 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on Réunion Island. Weed Research (Oxford), 46(5), 388-403. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2006.00522.x

Distribution References

Atlas of Living Australia, 2018. Atlas of Living Australia. In: Atlas of Living Australia. Canberra, ACT, Australia: GBIF. www.ala.org.au

Creuwels J, 2018. Naturalis Biodiversity Center (NL) - Botany. Leiden, Netherlands: Naturalis Biodiversity Center (NL). https://doi.org/10.15468/ib5ypt

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Forzza R, Dalcin E, 2018. RB - Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden Herbarium Collection. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. https://doi.org/10.15468/7ep9i2

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver RL, 1993. Flora of Micronesia. Part 5. Bignoniaceae-Rubiaceae. In: Smithsonian Contributions in Botany, 81 (5) 1-135.

Govaerts R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Guézou A, Trueman M, Buddenhagen C E, Chamorro S, Mireya Guerrero A, Pozo P, Atkinson R, 2010. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of Galapagos. PLoS ONE. e10276. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0010276 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010276

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz R D C, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia. 939 pp.

Kress W J, Defilipps R A, Farr E, Kyi D Y Y, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. 590 pp.

McLaughlin J, Garofalo J, 2004. Mussaendas for South Florida landscapes., Miami Dade, USA: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 8 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Negi P S, Hajra P K, 2007. Alien flora of Doon Valley, Northwest Himalaya. Current Science. 92 (7), 968-978. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Ogbu JU, 2011. Ornamental Mussaenda spp for Nigeria’s gardens and landscape environment. In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, 24-28 October 2011, Sokoto, Nigeria [Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, 24-28 October 2011, Sokoto, Nigeria], Umuahia, Nigeria: Agricultural Society of Nigeria. 316-319.

Randhawa GS, Mukhopadhyay A, 2004. Floriculture in India. New Delhi, India: Allied Publishers PVT Ltd.

Red de Herbarios del Noroeste de México, 2017. (Flora del Noroeste dé Mexico)., Sonora, Mexico: Herbario de la Universidad de Sonora. http://herbanwmex.net/portal/taxa/index.php

Tassin J, Rivière J N, Cazanove M, Bruzzese E, 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on Réunion Island. Weed Research (Oxford). 46 (5), 388-403. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=wre DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3180.2006.00522.x

Tulig M, Ramirez J, Watson K, 2017. The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium (NY). Herbarium collections for Puerto Rico. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. https://doi.org/10.15468/6e8nje

Van Langenberg A, 2006. Urban Gardening. A Hong Kong Gardener’s Journal. Shatin, Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

Contributors

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16/04/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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