Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Murdannia nudiflora
(doveweed)

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Datasheet

Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Murdannia nudiflora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • doveweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. nudiflora is classified as one of the world's worst weeds by Holm et al. (1977), infesting no less than 16 crop...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan

Preferred Common Name

  • doveweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Aneilema compressum Dalzell
  • Aneilema diversifolium Hassk.
  • Aneilema junghunianum Miq.
  • Aneilema lancifolium Griff.
  • Aneilema malabaricum (L.) Merr.
  • Aneilema minutum (Blume) Kunth
  • Aneilema nudicaule (Burm. f.) G. Don
  • Aneilema nudiflorum (L.) Sweet
  • Aneilema nudiflorum (L.) Wall
  • Aneilema radicans D.Don
  • Aneilema trichocoleum Schauer
  • Callisia parvula Brandegee
  • Commelina chinensis Osbeck
  • Commelina minuta Blume
  • Commelina nudicaulis Burm.f.
  • Commelina nudiflora L.
  • Commelina radicans (D.Don) Spreng.
  • Commelina sellowii Schltdl.
  • Cyanotis gueinzii Hassk.
  • Ditelesia nudiflora (L.) Raf.
  • Murdannia malabarica (L.) Brückn.
  • Phaeneilema diversifolium (Hassk.) G.Brückn.
  • Phaeneilema malabaricum (L.) V.Naray.
  • Phaeneilema nudiflorum (L.) G.Brückn.
  • Stickmannia guyanensis Raf.
  • Stickmannia longicollis Raf.
  • Tradescantia malabarica L.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: anagalide azul (Mexico); cohitre; comelina; maclalillo
  • French: herbe aux archons
  • Chinese: luo hua shui zhu ye

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: kundali
  • Brazil: trapoeraba
  • Colombia: pinita
  • India: choti kankaua
  • Indonesia: rumput lidah lembu; rumput tapak burung
  • Malaysia: rumput kupu-kupu; rumput sur
  • Mauritius: herbe aux archons
  • Mexico: cohitre; comelina; maclalillo
  • Philippines: alibangon; bangar na lalake; katkatauang; kohasi; kolasi; olikbangon
  • Suriname: gadodede
  • Thailand: kinkung noi; phak-prap
  • Uganda: Mickey Mouse; vanda
  • USA: nakedstem dewflower; spreading dayflower
  • Venezuela: suelda con suelda
  • Vietnam: loa-trai hoa-tran

EPPO code

  • MUDNU (Murdannia nudiflora)

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. nudiflora is classified as one of the world's worst weeds by Holm et al. (1977), infesting no less than 16 crops in 23 countries. It is a major weed species in rice and other crops (Moody, 1989), and is a moderately invasive weed species both in agricultural crops and non-agricultural areas in South and South-east Asia (Waterhouse, 1993). Its special ability to root easily at the nodes, propagating clonally through cut stems and dispersal during tillage and land preparation make this weed difficult to control. This trait coupled with its ability to adapt and survive a wide ecological window of soil types, pH, moisture availability and soil drainage makes M. nudiflora a weed to watch for potential spread into new areas in near future, and a species under the 'alert list' by the Invasive Species Specialist Group. Oliveira Pellegrini et al. (2016) recognize M. nudiflora as one of two Murdannia species invasive in the Neotropics.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Commelinales
  •                         Family: Commelinaceae
  •                             Genus: Murdannia
  •                                 Species: Murdannia nudiflora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous monocots with approximately 40 genera and 650 species (Stevens, 2012). Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan is one of the 53 species comprising the genus Murdannia. Several Murdannia species were previously included in the genus Commelina before being transferred. Murdannia species can be identified from other genera in Commelinaceae by their three-lobed or spear-shaped antherodes (Faden, 1998).

Commelina nudiflora L. is correctly a synonym of M. nudiflora. Commelina nudiflora auct. non L. (and C. communis) have occasionally been used as synonyms of Commelina diffusa Burm. f., but these names have been used by different authors for more than one taxon and are incorrect when applied to C. diffusa.

Description

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M. nudiflora is an annual or perennial herb, 8-115 cm tall, with a basal leaf rosette, disappearing or absent in older plants, with one to several creeping leafy branches, being either erect, semi-erect, ascendant, or at the base. Leaves are alternately arranged, sessile, larger ones linear-lanceolate, smaller ones oblong-ovate, glabrous, or with sparsely-arranged trichomes or hairs, 1.7-28 or 1.7-45 cm x 5-25 mm, with a broad leaf base, acute apex, short leaf sheath, and villous. Roots are normal, not swollen. Inflorescences terminally- or axillary-arranged, either unbranched or with 2-3 branches, no large cucullate bracts; bracts 25-35 mm oblong-cucullate, rather thin, membranous, caducous, located at the base of 25-40 mm long, glabrous pedicels, sepals 3, green, oblong, obtuse, glabrous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, petals 3, oblong to ovate-oblong, obtuse, purplish to magenta in colour, 4.5-5.5 mm long. Stamens free, 2 fertile with densely long-hairy filaments and bluish-coloured anthers; staminoids 4, with long-bearded filaments, the 3 opposite the petals with thickened, 3-lobed, light yellow coloured top, the fourth much reduced in size. The ovary is glabrous. Fruits condensed, ellipsoid-globose, shortly acuminate, glabrous, 4-6 mm in diameter, 3-loculate, each cell with 1-2 seeds, rarely with more than 6 seeds per fruit. Seeds smooth to coarse reticulate, ribbed.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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M. nudiflora is native to tropical and subtropical Asia, from China to India, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines (Govaerts, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). It has now spread to other tropical and sub-tropical parts of Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central, North and South America, and the West Indies, where it is invading both the agricultural and non-agricultural areas (Holm et al., 1977; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017; PIER, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). In the New World it is found between the southeastern USA and Argentina (Oliveira Pellegrini et al., 2016).

While USDA-ARS (2017) lists M. nudiflora as native in Japan, Nakamura (2015) suggests that it is a new record for Japan when found newly naturalized in northern Kyushu.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeHolm et al., 1977; Galinato et al., 1999; Karim, 2003
BhutanPresentNative Not invasive Noltie, 1994
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroducedWaterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
-AssamPresentNilendu et al., 2004
-BiharPresentNativeHolm et al., 1977; Satpathi, 1999
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
-KarnatakaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
-KeralaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
-Uttar PradeshPresent Not invasive Pandey and Shukla, 2001
-West BengalPresentNative Not invasive Holm et al., 1977; Satpathi, 1999
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-Irian JayaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Soerjani et al., 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; Galinato et al., 1999
-JavaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Soerdasan et al., 1974; Holm et al., 1977; Soerjani et al., 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; Galinato et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2017
-KalimantanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Soerjani et al., 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; Galinato et al., 1999
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-SumatraWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Soerjani et al., 1987; Waterhouse, 1993
JapanPresentIntroduced2014Nakamura, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2017Shinaikawa, Kurume-shi, Fukuoka Pref., northern Kyushu
-KyushuPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
MalaysiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
-Peninsular MalaysiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Baki and Khir, 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; Baki et al., 1997
-SabahWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993
-SarawakWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Not invasive Waterhouse, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2017
NepalPresentDangol, 2001; USDA-ARS, 2017
PakistanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Waterhouse, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2017
PhilippinesWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Moody, 1989; Waterhouse, 1993; Pancho and Obien, 1995; Govaerts, 2017
Sri LankaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Moody, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2017
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
ThailandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Moody, 1989; Galinato et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2017
VietnamWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Moody, 1989; Galinato et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2017

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
BeninPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
BurundiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
CameroonWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
ChadPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017
CongoWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977
Congo Democratic RepublicWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977
GambiaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
GhanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
GuineaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
KenyaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
MadagascarPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017Naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1977
NigeriaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced Not invasive Brennan, 1968
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017
TanzaniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977
UgandaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977

North America

MexicoWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977; Baker and Zettler, 1988
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-FloridaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1977; Baker and Zettler, 1988; USDA-NRCS, 2017
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedRojas et al., 2002
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017Naturalized
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017Naturalized
HaitiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017Naturalized
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017Naturalized
PanamaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017Naturalized
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2002
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-AcrePresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-BahiaPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-CearaPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-GoiasPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-ParaPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-ParanaPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini, 2015
ColombiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Bastidas-Lopez, 1996; Holm et al., 1977; Plaza and Forero, 1998
French GuianaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
GuyanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
SurinamePresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1977
VenezuelaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977

Europe

Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIntroduced Not invasive Baker and Zettler, 1988
PortugalRestricted distributionIntroducedGovaerts, 2017Madeira
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017
SpainRestricted distributionIntroducedGovaerts, 2017Canary Islands

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2017
AustraliaPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia, 2017Naturalized
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia, 2017Naturalized
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia, 2017Naturalized
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia, 2017Naturalized
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017
FijiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1977
GuamPresentIntroducedBrennan, 1968
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentNativePIER, 2017
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1977
PalauPresentNativePIER, 2017
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2017
Solomon IslandsPresentNativePIER, 2017
TongaPresentPIER, 2017

Risk of Introduction

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The relatively free or unrestricted movement of plants or plant parts within each country in Asia, Africa or Latin America makes it possible that both seeds and vegetative parts of M. nudiflora can be transported or dispersed to different parts of those countries where the weed is prevalent, unhindered, principally through its use as animal fodder. Sharing of agricultural implements, especially those tillage and harvesting implements among farmers either through the hire-for-service by private individuals or cooperatives may also help to disperse the propagules from one locality to another.

Habitat

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M. nudiflora can be found naturalized across the tropics and subtropics on derelict or abandoned land, roadsides, and often in moist, waterlogged places being almost sub-aquatic, along the banks of irrigation canals, ditches and dikes, in rice paddies and in other lowland crops, field borders and wet pasturelands. In Brazil, it is found in disturbed vegetation, roadsides and near rice crops (Oliveira Pellegrini et al., 2016). In temperate regions, it is widespread in moist, often waterlogged, arable and non-arable lands in open places (Atkinson, 2017; PIER, 2017). Within its native distribution range, M. nudiflora also grows as a weed on wet and waterlogged places, grasslands, and damp prairies at elevations up to 1500 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; India Biodiversity Portal, 2017).  

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. nudiflora is a principal weed of peanuts, lowland and upland rice, tea, and maize in Indonesia, Philippines and Sri Lanka (Soerdarsan et al., 1974; Baki and Md Khir, 1983; Soerjani et al., 1987; Pancho and Obien, 1995). It is a weed of rice in the eastern plains of Colombia (Bastidas-Lopez, 1996; Plaza and Forero, 1998), bananas, citrus, sugarcane, vegetables, rice, maize and coffee in Mexico (Holm et al., 1977), pineapples in Hawaii, Indonesia, South Africa, Malaysia and the Philippines (Holm et al., 1977; Pancho and Obien, 1995; Baki et al., 1997), and taro in Fiji and Hawaii (Holm et al., 1977). Galinato et al. (1999) reported widespread occurrence of the weed in teak, tea, oil palm, chincona, cotton and coffee plantations, and in arable lands. In the United States, it has historically been a problematic weed in turfgrass systems, but it has become increasingly more common in North Carolina in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and soyabean (Glycine max) plantations (Wilson et al., 2006).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. nudiflora is 2n = 20 (Renugadevi and Sampathkumar, 1986).

Physiology and Phenology

Flowers open only for a few hours, and then wilt. The weed produces 500-2,200 seeds per plant, and there are 1,000 seeds/g. In India, it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from September to November (India Biodiversity Portal, 2017).  In China, its flowers and set fruits from June to October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). In Central America, flowers and fruits are produced from July to January (Davidse et al., 1994).

Reproductive Biology

Although M. nudiflora reproduces through seed and vegetative propagation, the time- and environment-mediated loss of seed viability limits population increase by sexual means. Flowers open only for a few hours, and then wilt. An unpublished study recorded that a single plant of M. nudiflora produced less than 100 seeds per plant in 3.5 months of its growth cycle (M Azmi, MARDI Food and Industrial Crops Research Centre, Penang, Malaysia, personal communication, 2003).

Arguably, the species has to rely on vegetative propagation to ensure a continuous population increase, and there is a need to obtain essential plant resources through roots produced at the stolon nodes. Seeds and stolon parts are dispersed principally via wind and water, and through human activities such as agriculture. The weed is hydrochorous: the mode of propagation and dispersal is through seeds and stolon fragments. The plant roots easily at the nodes of the creeping stolons, and will do so when cut or broken, especially during cultivation and tillage operations. In fact these stem cuttings may survive for several days to several weeks on the soil surface before eventually taking root, notably under moist or waterlogged conditions.

Longevity

In tropical and subtropical areas, M. nudiflora is mostly a perennial plant, whereas it becomes an annual in temperate regions (Atkinson, 2014). Under suitable condition (e.g. high humidity or irrigation), it behaves as a fast-growing herb (Atkinson, 2014).

Activity Patterns

Less than 60% of the seeds produced remained viable after 6 months under ambient temperature of 23°C (night) and 35°C (day). Seed viability was less than 15% when buried in moist paddy soil for 6 months, underlying high percentages of seed decay when exposed to the soil environment. No seeds were viable a year after production, irrespective of whether they were exposed to the soil environment or kept under the ambient temperature stated above (M Azmi, MARDI Food and Industrial Crops Research Centre, Penang, Malaysia, personal communication, 2003).  Greenhouse and laboratory experiments have showed that germination in this species was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 35/25°C (95%) than at 30/20°C (72%), and no germination occurred at 25/15°C. Light strongly influenced germination (95%) and dark completely inhibited germination (Wilson et al., 2006; Ahmed et al., 2015).

Environmental Requirements

M. nudiflora prevails under a wide range of environmental conditions with varying soil types, pH, moisture conditions, nutrient status, high light exposure or shade, and competition with crops and other plants. These crops include rubber, oil palm, cocoa, coffee and groundnuts, which are generally planted in well-drained soils, in either lowland or higher altitudes, and the weed occurs under varying degrees of shade. In non-crop situations, the weed can tolerate soil pH ranging from <4.0 (peat soil) (Masayu, 1995; Baki et al., 1997) to >7.0 (calcareous soils). In rice or on the banks of irrigation canals and drains, rivers, etc., populations of M. nudiflora prevail under wet or waterlogged conditions where soil pH is often low (acidic). It appears tolerant to a wide range of conditions, either in open situations or in rather deeply shaded sites, and at low altitude or at altitudes of 1800 m or higher.

Associations

M. nudiflora as a component of weed flora, together with other weed species prevailing on arable peat, and lowland irrigated and non-irrigated rice in Malaysia (Baki et al., 1997), displayed an aggregated pattern of spatial distribution based on Lloyd's mean crowding, Lloyd's patchiness or variance-to-mean ratio dispersion indices. Negative associations were observed between Boerhavia diffusa and several weed species, one of which was M. nudiflora in highly disturbed sites in Uttar Pradesh, India (Pandey and Shukla, 2001).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
0 0 0 0

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 33
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 33 38
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 12

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall2752500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Bastidas-Lopez (1996) cited the prevalence of phytophagous insects as natural enemies on weeds, including M. nudiflora, in the eastern plain of Colombia. M. nudiflora is also a host of nematodes such as Pratylenchus pratensis and Meloidogyne arenaria (Valdez, 1968), the fungus Pythium arrhenomanes (Sideris, 1931), and the viruses Cucumber mosaic virus (Anon, 1960), Southern celery mosaic virus (King, 1966), Tomato mosaic virus and Clover yellow-vein virus (Baker and Zettler, 1988). M. nudiflora is an ovipositional host of the plant hopper Nisia carolinensis that is common in rice field habitats, and is a host of the hairy caterpillar Diacrisia obliquais also noted as feeding on aerial parts of the plant, mostly leaves and stems, in West Bengal, India but is not specific to this genus (Satpathi, 1999). The weed is also a host to rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani [Thanatephorus cucumeris] (Galinato et al., 1999).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. nudiflora spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stolon or stem fragments (Atkinson, 2014).

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Floods and running water or wind can help to disperse seeds, and water may be an important means for dispersal of vegetative propagules, notably the stolons and other plant parts of M. nudiflora.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Animal grazing and/or trampling can produce many stolon fragments which can root easily at the nodes, given enough moisture and the availability of safe sites (sensu Harper, 1977), leading to the production of numerous viable propagules. M. nudiflora is used as fodder for animals and as a food and medicine by man (Burkill, 1935; Holm et al., 1977; Soerjani et al., 1987) and vegetative parts of the weed easily are thus dispersed or moved from place to place by both man and animals. It is not known whether seeds are dispersed through faecal droppings of animals or by other means.

Agricultural Practices

It is possible that the weed can be dispersed during tillage or land preparation or harvests through tillage and harvesting implements. This is especially so for the stem cuttings produced through trampling or land preparation by draught animals or tillage and harvesting implements.

Accidental Introduction

Grain and seed imports may bring in seeds of M. nudiflora as impurities when the weed is prevalent in areas where the original grain or seed were harvested (SS Sastroutomo, CABI-SEARC, Malaysia, personal communication, 2003).

Intentional Introduction

No records of intentional introduction of M. nudiflora have been found.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelSoil and water. Yes
Water Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Wind Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017

Plant Trade

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Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Livestock production Negative
Native flora Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page It is a principal weed, reducing economic yields of peanuts, lowland and upland rice, tea, and maize, in Indonesia, Philippines and Sri Lanka (Soerdarsan et al., 1974; Baki and Md Khir, 1983; Soerjani et al., 1987; Pancho and Obien, 1995). Plant growth and height of rice is reduced in rice in the Eastern Plains of Colombia (Bastidas-Lopez, 1996; Plaza and Forero, 1998). The weed has negative effects on bananas, citrus, sugarcane, vegetables, rice and coffee in Mexico (Holm et al., 1977); pineapples in Hawaii, Indonesia, South Africa, Malaysia and the Philippines (Holm et al., 1977; Pancho and Obien, 1995; Baki et al., 1997) and taro in Fiji and Hawaii (Holm et al., 1977).

The weed is also a host of various crop pests and pathogens which have effects on crop growth and production. These include Pratylenchus pratensis and Meloidogyne arenaria (Valdez, 1968), Pythium arrhenomanes (Sideris, 1931), cucumber mosaic virus (Anon, 1960), southern celery mosaic virus (King, 1966), tomato mosaic virus, and clover yellow vein virus (Baker and Zettler, 1988).

Economic Impact

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M. nudiflora is a principal weed, reducing economic yields of groundnuts, lowland and upland rice, tea, and maize, in Indonesia, Philippines and Sri Lanka (Soerdarsan et al., 1974; Baki and Md Khir, 1983; Soerjani et al., 1987; Pancho and Obien, 1995). Plant growth and height of rice is reduced in rice in the Eastern Plains of Colombia (Bastidas-Lopez, 1996; Plaza and Forero, 1998). The weed has negative effects on bananas, citrus, sugarcane, vegetables, rice and coffee in Mexico (Holm et al., 1977); pineapples in Hawaii, Indonesia, South Africa, Malaysia and the Philippines (Holm et al., 1977; Pancho and Obien, 1995; Baki et al., 1997) and taro in Fiji and Hawaii (Holm et al., 1977). In the United States, it has historically been a problematic weed in turfgrass systems and residential lawns, but it has become increasingly more common in North Carolina in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and soybean (Glycine max) plantations (Wilson et al., 2006; Len and Unruh, 2015).

The weed is also a host of various crop pests and pathogens which have effects on crop growth and production. These include Pratylenchus pratensis and Meloidogyne arenaria (Valdez, 1968), Pythium arrhenomanes (Sideris, 1931), cucumber mosaic virus (Anon, 1960), southern celery mosaic virus (King, 1966), tomato mosaic virus, and clover yellow vein virus (Baker and Zettler, 1988).

Environmental Impact

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M. nudiflora is an aggressive weed that grows forming dense, pure stands, which smother all other plant species, including native species.  It can grow rapidly over desirable species outcompeting them for light and nutrients (Holm et al., 1977; Atkinson, 2014).

M. nudiflora invades open spaces in both agricultural and non-agricultural land. Serious competition and replacement of native species by M. nudiflora has been recorded in Singapore, Hawaii, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, and the United States (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). Pandey and Shukla (2001) cited negative associations between M. nudiflora and Boerhavia diffusa in low, moderately, and highly disturbed grasslands in north east Uttar Pradesh, India.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page Being a moderately invasive species, M. nudiflora invades open spaces in both agricultural and non-agricultural lands. Serious competition and replacement of endemic species in parks and protected areas by M. nudiflora have not been recorded to date. Pandey and Shukla (2001) cited negative associations between M. nudiflora and Boerhavia diffusa in low, moderately, and highly disturbed grasslands in north east Uttar Pradesh, India.

Social Impact

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M. nudiflora is prevalent as a principal weed in rice, coffee, maize, tea, and a host of other economic crops, reducing crop growth and yields: weeding operations are thus an important and necessary post-planting activity among farmers. Weeding of course reduces the time otherwise available for other social or economic activities for farmers. It is also an aggressive weed in residential lawns (Leon and Unruh, 2015).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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M. nudiflora is used as fodder for animals in several countries, but Holm et al. (1977) considered that the high moisture content meant that it was not of much forage value. It is eaten as a vegetable during famine in India, considered as a palatable vegetable elsewhere and leaves are used as poultice in Indonesia (Holm et al., 1977; Soerjani et al., 1987).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. nudiflora is similar to Murdannia spirata (L.) G. Brückn., although the latter species has very shortly pedunculate inflorescences, persistent floral bracts, 3 fertile stamens, and non-congested fruits with more than 6 seeds per fruit (Soerjani et al., 1987). Occasionally M. nudiflora is mistakenly identified as Commelina diffusa (Everaarts, 1981), despite quite distinct morphological differences between them, the former with narrow leaf blades and yellowish petals in the flowers as opposed to wide size leaf blades, and bright blue petals in the latter species. M. nudiflora was treated together with the closely-related species Commelina benghalensis and C. diffusa by Holm et al. (1977) though easily separated morphologically. 

Oliveira Pellegrini et al. (2016) say that M. nudiflora can be easily identified by its "caduceus bracteoles, single terminal cincinni, two fertile stamens and four staminodes, and capsules with 2-seeded locules".

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

Burning of straw, stubble and weeds after harvesting rice, maize or vegetables prior to tillage operations and replanting/sowing of new crops are a common practice in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and elsewhere. Where M. nudiflora does manage to survive, the populations are much reduced or controllable in the following season. Grazing by animals may help reduce weed populations, either in post-harvest in rice, maize, vegetables, or within plantation crops (rubber, oil palm, cocoa). Exploitation by animals (grazing, used as poultices and harvested animal fodder), or man (eaten as palatable vegetable in Indonesia and India) also reduces the effects of the weed though does not eliminate it (Burkill, 1935; Holm et al., 1977; Soerjani et al., 1987).

Mechanical Control

Farmers in Indonesia, the Philippines and elsewhere control M. nudiflora manually by hand weeding, hoeing or cutting with machete (Wilson, 1981; Soerjani et al., 1987; Pancho and Obien, 1995).

Chemical Control

Wilson (1981) reported that bentazone applied as an early post-emergence herbicide either singularly or in mixtures was particularly effective in controlling M. nudiflora and other species of the family Commelinaceae. Also, metribuzin applied as pre-emergence alone or in mixtures gave satisfactory control in many countries. The efficacy of triazines and 2,4-D against the weed were variable, although these herbicides were moderately effective when applied in mixtures. Good control of the weed can be achieved with 2,4-D or MCPA applied 20-30 days after emergence (Galinato et al., 1999).

In tea plantations in Indonesia, glyphosate was effective as a broad-spectrum herbicide, controlling several weed species including M. nudiflora (Soerdasan et al., 1974). However, other studies have shown that even when glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide for control of annual grasses and broad-leaved weed species, M. nudiflora and other members of the Commelinaceae are tolerant and thus not adequately controlled by glyphosate (Wilson et al., 2006; Atkinson, 2014). Atkinson et al. (2017) found that M. nudiflora in turfgrass was tolerant to glyphosate, but that two applications of 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba + carfentrazone or thiencarbazone + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron provided ∼80% control 6 weeks after initial treatment. In Brazil, Volf et al. (2017) found that only atrazine gave efficient control in soyabean, and that glyphosate gave poor control even mixed with imazethapyr. Yu and McCullough (2016) found that M. nudiflora was less tolerant to atrazine than to simazine.

Biological Control

There is no published information available on the biological control of M. nudiflora.

Integrated Control

There is no available information on research and practices pertaining to the integrated control of M. nudiflora per se in the field. However, tillage operation, stubble or straw burning after harvest, animal grazing, and chemical, mechanical, and manual weeding, employed alone, or in sequence to each other are being practised by farmers to control weeds and in cases where M. nudiflora is incidentally prevalent.

References

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Contributors

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08/05/17 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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