Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Musa
(banana)

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Datasheet

Musa (banana)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Musa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • banana
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
M. textilis, fruiting plant.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleM. textilis - line drawing
CaptionM. textilis, fruiting plant. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
M. textilis, fruiting plant.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
M. textilis - line drawingM. textilis, fruiting plant. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. PROSEA Foundation
Musa (banana); bunches (hands) for sale on a Keralan store front. Kerala, India. October 2005.
TitleFruits for sale
CaptionMusa (banana); bunches (hands) for sale on a Keralan store front. Kerala, India. October 2005.
Copyright©Joe Zachs/wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Musa (banana); bunches (hands) for sale on a Keralan store front. Kerala, India. October 2005.
Fruits for saleMusa (banana); bunches (hands) for sale on a Keralan store front. Kerala, India. October 2005.©Joe Zachs/wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Musa (banana); fruits in a plantation. La Palma, Canary Islands. June 2004.
TitlePlantation
CaptionMusa (banana); fruits in a plantation. La Palma, Canary Islands. June 2004.
Copyright©Luc Viatour-2004/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Musa (banana); fruits in a plantation. La Palma, Canary Islands. June 2004.
PlantationMusa (banana); fruits in a plantation. La Palma, Canary Islands. June 2004.©Luc Viatour-2004/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
TitleRipe banana fruits
Caption
Copyright©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
Ripe banana fruits©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management
Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana.
TitleM. acuminata and M. balbisiana - colour illustration
CaptionMusa acuminata and M. balbisiana.
Copyright©Wilhelm Valder
Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana.
M. acuminata and M. balbisiana - colour illustrationMusa acuminata and M. balbisiana.©Wilhelm Valder

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Musa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • banana

International Common Names

  • English: plantain
  • Spanish: banano; plátano
  • French: bananier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bananenstaude

EPPO code

  • MUBSS (Musa sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Zingiberales
  •                         Family: Musaceae
  •                             Genus: Musa

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 18 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBananas production (2008) 200 MT (F)
AngolaPresentBananas production (2008) 300,000 MT (F)
BeninPresentBananas production (2008) 14,500 MT (F)
BurundiPresentBananas production (2008) 1,850,000 MT (F)
Cabo VerdePresentBananas production (2008) 6,800 MT (F)
CameroonPresentBananas production (2008) 860,000 MT (F)
Central African RepublicPresentBananas production (2008) 120,000 MT (F)
ComorosPresentBananas production (2008) 65,000 MT (F)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresentBananas production (2008) 87,000 MT (F)
Côte d'IvoirePresentBananas production (2008) 360,000 MT (F)
EgyptPresentBananas production (2008) 1,062,453 MT
Equatorial GuineaPresentBananas production (2008) 20,000 MT (F)
EswatiniPresentBananas production (2008) 500 MT (F)
EthiopiaPresentBananas production (2008) 261,059 MT
GabonPresentBananas production (2008) 13,000 MT (F)
GhanaPresentBananas production (2008) 57,500 MT (F)
GuineaPresentBananas production (2008) 162,000 MT (F)
Guinea-BissauPresentBananas production (2008) 5,200 MT (F)
KenyaPresentBananas production (2008) 593,370 MT (F)
LiberiaPresentBananas production (2008) 120,000 MT (F)
MadagascarPresentBananas production (2008) 325,000 MT (F)
MalawiPresentBananas production (2008) 390,000 MT (F)
MaliPresentBananas production (2008) 140,000 MT (F)
MauritiusPresentBananas production (2008) 10,463 MT
MoroccoPresentBananas production (2008) 214,712 MT
MozambiquePresentBananas production (2008) 90,000 MT (F)
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresentBananas production (2008) 10,000 MT (*)
RwandaPresentBananas production (2008) 50 MT (F)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentBananas production (2008) 30,000 MT (F)
SenegalPresentBananas production (2008) 40,000 MT
SeychellesPresentBananas production (2008) 2,000 MT (F)
SomaliaPresentBananas production (2008) 38,000 MT (F)
South AfricaPresentBananas production (2008) 337,622 MT
SudanPresentBananas production (2008) 74,000 MT (F)
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresentBananas production (2008) 19,500 MT (F)
UgandaPresentBananas production (2008) 615,000 MT (F)
ZambiaPresentBananas production (2008) 700 MT (F)
ZimbabwePresentBananas production (2008) 85,000 MT (F)

Asia

BahrainPresentBananas production (2008) 750 MT (F)
BangladeshPresentBananas production (2008) 877,123 MT
BhutanPresentBananas production (2008) 3,974 MT (F)
BruneiPresentBananas production (2008) 800 MT (F)
CambodiaPresentBananas production (2008) 130,000 MT (F)
ChinaPresentBananas production (2008) 8,042,702 MT
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresentBananas production (2008) 2,320,4800 MT (F)
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresentBananas production (2008) 5,741,352 MT
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresentBananas production (2008) 82,109 MT
JapanPresentBananas production (2008) 205 MT (F)
JordanPresentBananas production (2008) 41,540 MT
KuwaitPresentBananas production (2008) 0 MT (M)
LaosPresent
LebanonPresentBananas production (2008) 89,700 MT (F)
MalaysiaPresentBananas production (2008) 530,000 MT (F)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MaldivesPresentBananas production (2008) 821 MT
NepalPresentBananas production (2008) 53,257 MT (F)
OmanPresentBananas production (2008) 28,892 MT (F)
PakistanPresentBananas production (2008) 159,378 MT
PhilippinesPresentBananas production (2008) 8,687,624 MT
SingaporePresentBananas production (2008) 0 MT (M)
South KoreaPresentBananas production (2008) 0 MT (M)
SyriaPresentBananas production (2008) 800 MT (F)
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresentBananas production (2008) 200,0000 MT (F)
TurkeyPresentBananas production (2008) 201,115 MT
United Arab EmiratesPresentBananas production (2008) 200 MT (F)
VietnamPresentBananas production (2008) 1,355,000 MT (F)
YemenPresentBananas production (2008) 128,796 MT

Europe

CyprusPresentBananas production (2008) 7,150 MT
FrancePresent
GreecePresentBananas production (2008) 4,000 MT (F)
ItalyPresentBananas production (2008) 350 MT (F)
PortugalPresentBananas production (2008) 34,000 MT (F)
SpainPresentBananas production (2008) 359,200 MT (F)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentBananas production (2008) 220 MT (F)
BahamasPresentBananas production (2008) 3,750 MT (F)
BarbadosPresentBananas production (2008) 720 MT (F)
BelizePresentBananas production (2008) 68,053 MT
BermudaPresentBananas production (2008) 363 MT (F)
British Virgin IslandsPresentBananas production (2008) 360 MT (F)
Cayman IslandsPresentBananas production (2008) 210 MT (F)
Costa RicaPresentBananas production (2008) 1,881,783 MT
CubaPresentBananas production (2008) 280,800 MT
DominicaPresentBananas production (2008) 30,000 MT (F)
Dominican RepublicPresentBananas production (2008) 439,569 MT
El SalvadorPresentBananas production (2008) 65,000 MT (F)
GrenadaPresentBananas production (2008) 1,336 MT (F)
GuadeloupePresentBananas production (2008) 40,181 MT (F)
GuatemalaPresentBananas production (2008) 1,569,460 MT (F)
HaitiPresentBananas production (2008) 295,000 MT (F)
HondurasPresentBananas production (2008) 910,000 MT (F)
JamaicaPresentBananas production (2008) 125,000 MT (F)
MartiniquePresentBananas production (2008) 300,000 MT (F)
MexicoPresentBananas production (2008) 2,159,280 MT
MontserratPresentBananas production (2008) 160 MT (F)
NicaraguaPresentBananas production (2008) 36,285 MT
PanamaPresentBananas production (2008) 357,861 MT
Puerto RicoPresentBananas production (2008) 53,500 MT (F)
Saint LuciaPresentBananas production (2008) 54,000 MT (F)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentBananas production (2008) 7,000 MT (F)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentBananas production (2008) 0 MT (M)
United StatesPresentBananas production (2008) 7,890 MT
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBananas production (2008) 790 MT (F)
AustraliaPresentBananas production (2008) 213,193 MT (F)
-QueenslandPresent
Cook IslandsPresentBananas production (2008) 60 MT (F)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentBananas production (2008) 2,100 MT (F)
FijiPresentBananas production (2008) 6,500 MT (F)
French PolynesiaPresentBananas production (2008) 800 MT (F)
GuamPresentBananas production (2008) 350 MT (F)
KiribatiPresentBananas production (2008) 5,800 MT (F)
New CaledoniaPresentBananas production (2008) 1,685 MT (F)
NiuePresentBananas production (2008) 80 MT (F)
Papua New GuineaPresentBananas production (2008) 940,000 MT (F)
SamoaPresentBananas production (2008) 23,000 MT (F)
Solomon IslandsPresentBananas production (2008) 330 MT (F)
TokelauPresentBananas production (2008) 15 MT (F)
TongaPresentBananas production (2008) 840 MT (F)
TuvaluPresentBananas production (2008) 280 MT (F)
VanuatuPresentBananas production (2008) 14,500 MT (F)
Wallis and FutunaPresentBananas production (2008) 4,300 MT (F)

South America

ArgentinaPresentBananas production (2008) 182,000 MT (F)
BoliviaPresentBananas production (2008) 182,490 MT (F)
BrazilPresentBananas production (2008) 7,116,808 MT
-AlagoasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-RoraimaPresent
ColombiaPresentBananas production (2008) 1,819,874 MT (F)
EcuadorPresentBananas production (2008) 6,701,146 MT
French GuianaPresentBananas production (2008) 4,500 MT (F)
GuyanaPresentBananas production (2008) 5,892 MT (F)
ParaguayPresentBananas production (2008) 46,000 MT (F)
PeruPresent
SurinamePresentBananas production (2008) 88,724 MT
VenezuelaPresent

References

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Diekmann M, Putter CAJ, 1996. FAO/IPGRI technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm No. 15: Musa spp. FAO/IPGRI technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm No. 15: ^italic~Musa^roman~ spp., 26 pp.; many ref.

Gowen S ed, 1995. Bananas. London, UK: Chapman and Hall.

Jones DR, 1994. The improvement and testing of Musa: a global partnership. Proceedings of the First Global Conference of the International Musa Testing Program, FHIA, Honduras, 27-30 April 1994. The improvement and testing of ^italic~Musa^roman~: a global partnership. Proceedings of the First Global Conference of the International ^italic~Musa^roman~ Testing Program, FHIA, Honduras, 27-30 April 1994., 303 pp.; [ref. at ends of papers].

Jones DR, 1999. Diseases of banana, abacá and enset. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, xv + 544 pp.

Karamura DA, 1999. Numerical Taxonomic Studies of the East Arifrcan Highland Bananas (Musa AAA - East Africa) in Uganda. Montpellier, France: INIBAP, 192 pp.

Lebot V, Meilleur BA, Manshardt RM, 1994. Genetic diversity in eastern polynesian Eumusa bananas. Pacific Science, 48:16-31.

Maughan, S., 2003. Grafting bananas, New Scientist Letters, 22-Mar-2003:2387 https://www.newscientist.com/letter/mg17723874-500-grafting-bananas/

Paull, R. E., Duarte, O., 2010. Tropical fruits, Volume 1., Tropical fruits, Volume 1:viii + 391 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20103354984

Persley GJ, de Langhe EA, 1987. Banana and Plantain Breeding Strategies, ACIAR Proceedings No 21. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR, 187 pp.

Robinson, J. C., Sauco, V. Galán , 2010. Bananas and plantains., Bananas and plantains:vii + 297 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20103319750

Shepherd K, 1957. Banana culivars in East Africa. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 34:277-286.

Shepherd K, 1990. Observations on Musa taxonomy. In Jarret RL, ed., Identification of Diversity in the Genus Musa. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Los Ba±os, the Philippines, 5-10 September 1988. Montpellier, France: INIBAP, 158-165.

Starr, C., Taggart, R., Evers, C., 2012. Plant Structure and Function:112

Villain, L., Sarah, J. L., Hernández, A., Bertrand, B., Anthony, F., Lashermes, P., Charmetant, P., Anzueto, F., Carneiro, R. M. D. G., 2013. Diversity of root-knot nematodes parasitizing coffee in Central America. Nematropica, 43(2), 194-206. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82708/79652

Distribution References

Abdul Rahman S A S, Mohd Zain S N, Bilal Mat M Z, Sidam A K, Othman R Y, Mohamed Z, 2014. Population distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes of bananas in Peninsular Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana. 43 (2), 175-183. http://www.ukm.my/jsm/pdf_files/SM-PDF-43-2-2014/03%20S.A.%20Sayed%20Abdul%20Rahman.pdf

Adegbola R O, Ayodeji O, Awosusi O O, Atiri G I, Kumar P L, 2013. First report of Banana bunchy top virus in banana and plantain (Musa spp.) in Nigeria. Plant Disease. 97 (2), 290. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0745-PDN

Aguirre O, Chávez C, Giraud A, Araya M, 2016. Frequencies and population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes on banana (Musa AAA) plantations in Ecuador from 2008 to 2014. Agronomía Colombiana. 34 (1), 61-73. DOI:10.15446/agron.colomb.v34n1.53915

Almenares M, Pérez-Vicente L, 2019. Speckle by Corynespora torulosa (Syd.) Crous: a preharvest fruit disease of Musa spp. in Cuba. Revista de Protección Vegetal. 34 (3), http://scielo.sld.cu/pdf/rpv/v34n3/2224-4697-rpv-34-03-e06.pdf

Amin M, Bodlah I, Tamkeen A, Zafarullah, Ghilzai M Y, 2021. First record of banana lacewing bug, Stephanitis typica (Distant) from Pakistan (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Munis Entomology & Zoology. 16 (2), 811-815. https://www.munisentzool.org/Issue/abstract/first-record-of-banana-lacewing-bug-stephanitis-typica-distant-from-pakistan-hemiptera-tingidae-13659

Bananej K, Ghotbi T, Vahdat A, 2007. First report of Banana bunchy top virus infecting banana in Iran. Plant Pathology. 56 (4), 719. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01584.x

Basu M, Patro B, 2007. New records of host plants and natural enemies of Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera) from Orissa, India. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 4 (2), 74-80.

Chandrashekar Krishnappa, Dubey A K, Abhishek Verma, Mahapatro G K, 2021. Occurrence of exotic whitefly, Paraleyrodes minei Iaccarino (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and other whitefly species on fruit crops in Maharashtra, India. 3 Biotech. 11 (6), DOI:10.1007/s13205-021-02831-7

Chandrika Mohan, Josephrajkumar A, Singh L S, Alpana Das, 2018. New distributional record of rugose spiralling whitefly on coconut in Kamrup and Nalbari districts of Assam. Indian Coconut Journal. 61 (4), 19-21. http://www.coconutboard.nic.in

Chitamba J, Manjeru P, Chinheya C C, Mudada N, Handiseni M, 2013. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with banana (Musa spp.) in Rusitu Valley, Zimbabwe. Nematropica. 43 (1), 113-118. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82440/79474

Chittarath K, Mostert D, Crew K S, Viljoen A, Kong G, Molina A B, Thomas J E, 2018. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (VCG 01213/16) associated with Cavendish bananas in Laos. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 449-450. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1197-PDN

Davis R I, Grice K R E, Jacobson S C, Gunua T G, Rahamma S, 2000. Surveillance for black Sigatoka disease of banana in and near the Torres Strait. Australasian Plant Pathology. 29 (3), 225. DOI:10.1071/AP00042

Davis R I, Tupouniua S K, Smith L J, Bentley S, 2004. First record of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from Tonga. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (3), 457-458. DOI:10.1071/AP04029

Delgado R, Morillo E, Buitrón J, Bustamante A, Sotomayor I, 2014. First report of Moko disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 in plantain (Musa AAB) in Ecuador. New Disease Reports. 23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030023

Du Y X, Chen F R, Shi N N, Ruan H C, 2017. First report of Fusarium chlamydosporum causing banana crown rot in Fujian Province, China. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1048-1049. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-16-1674-PDN

Fan H C, Zeng L, Yang P W, Guo Z X, Bai T T, 2016. First report of banana soft rot caused by Klebsiella variicola in China. Plant Disease. 100 (2), 517. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0586-PDN

FAO, 2009. FAOSTAT Database., Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home

García-Bastidas F A, Quintero-Vargas J C, Ayala-Vasquez M, Schermer T, Seidl M F, Santos-Paiva M, Noguera A M, Aguilera-Galvez C, Wittenberg A, Hofstede R, Sørensen A, Kema G H J, 2020. First report of Fusarium wilt tropical race 4 in Cavendish bananas caused by Fusarium odoratissimum in Colombia. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 994-994. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1922-PDN

García-Bastidas F, Ordóñez N, Konkol J, Al-Qasim M, Naser Z, Abdelwali M, Salem N, Ploetz R C, Kema G H J, 2014. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 associated with Panama disease of banana outside Southeast Asia. Plant Disease. 98 (5), 694. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0954-PDN

Gavas Ragesh, Sanju Balan, 2020. The first report on fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as an invasive pest in banana from Kerala, South India and notes on its behaviour. Insect Environment. 20-24. https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/e32c3452-4e91-4d33-bdd5-d2fe34246a6c/downloads/Volume%2023(Dec%202020)%20Header.pdf?ver=1609760762498

Gebrehiwot Nega, Seifu Fetena, 2015. Root necrosis assessment of plant parasitic nematodes of banana (Musa spp.) at Arbaminch, Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 5 (15), 76-80. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/view/25108/25713

Ghotbi T, Bananej K, 2005. First report of Cucumber mosaic virus in banana from Iran. Plant Disease. 89 (8), 914. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0914A

Gondwe W T, Mwenebanda B M L, Natha E, Mutale P, 2007. Banana bunchy top disease in Mozambique and Zambia. Infomusa. 16 (1/2), 38-39.

Haque M A, Khalequzzaman K M, Islam M S, Hossain M M, 2003. Survey the prevalence of market diseases of banana. Pakistan Journal of Plant Pathology. 2 (3), 169-173. http://www.ansinet.org/ppj

Hermanto C, Sutanto A, Jumjunidang, Edison H S, Daniells J W, O'Neill W T, Sinohin V G O, Molina A B, Taylor P, 2011. Incidence and distribution of Fusarium wilt disease of banana in Indonesia. Acta Horticulturae. 313-322. http://www.actahort.org/books/897/897_43.htm

Higginson E J, Font C, Quiala I, Gonzalez G, Fonseca M A, Echemendía A L, Teycheney P Y, 2016. Presence of Banana streak viruses on the cultivar FHIA 23 in Cuba. Fitosanidad. 20 (2), 93-94. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=209155169005

Hord M J, García A, Villalobos H, Rivera C, Macaya G, Roossinck M J, 2001. Field survey of cucumber mosaic virus subgroups I and II in crop plants in Costa Rica. Plant Disease. 85 (9), 952-954. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.9.952

Hung T N, Hung N Q, Mostert D, Viljoen A, Chao C P, Molina A B, 2018. First report of Fusarium wilt on Cavendish bananas, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (VCG 01213/16), in Vietnam. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 448. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1140-PDN

Intan Sakinah M A, Suzianti I V, Latiffah Z, 2014. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp.) in Malaysia. Genetics and Molecular Research. 13 (2), 3627-3637. DOI:10.4238/2014.May.9.5

Ioos R, Hubert J, Abadie C, Duféal D, Opdebeeck G, Iotti J, 2011. First report of black sigatoka disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis on Martinique island. Plant Disease. 95 (3), 359. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-10-0850

Irish B M, Goenaga R, Ploetz R C, 2006. Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of black Sigatoka of Musa spp. found in Puerto Rico and identified by polymerase chain reaction. Plant Disease. 90 (5), 684. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0684A

Jabbar Khan, Rehana Gul, Khan M A, Khan I U, Khan S N, 2015. Survey of plant parasitic nematodes in different regions of Khyber-Pakhtun-Khwa. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 47 (4), 1201-1204. http://www.zsp.com.pk/pdf47/1181-1204%20%20(36)%20Short%20communications%2047%20(4)%202015.pdf

Jayanthi P D K, Reddy P V R, Vivek Kempraj, Shashank P R, 2015. Outbreak of banana skipper, Erionota torus Evans (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in southern India: evidence of expanded geographic range. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 21 (1), 95-97. http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/view/302/283

Jayashankar M, Mahesh V, Mahendra Devanda, 2018. Incidence of banana skipper, Erionota torus Evans, 1941 (Lepidoptera: Hesperidae) in Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 24 (1), 66-67. http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/view/823

Johanson A, Tushemereirwe W K, Karamura E B, 2000. Distribution of sigatoka leaf spots in Uganda as determined by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acta Horticulturae. 319-324.

Jooste A E C, Wessels N, Merwe M van der, 2016. First report of Banana bunchy top virus in banana (Musa spp.) from South Africa. Plant Disease. 100 (6), 1251-1252. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-15-1422-PDN

Kamira M, Hauser S, Asten P van, Coyne D, Talwana H L, 2013. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with banana and plantain in eastern and western Democratic Republic of Congo. Nematropica. 43 (2), 216-225. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82710/79654

Karangwa P, Mostert D, Ndayihanzamaso P, Dubois T, Niere B, Felde A Z, Schouten A, Blomme G, Beed F, Viljoen A, 2018. Genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in East and Central Africa. Plant Disease. 102 (3), 552-560. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-02-17-0282-re

Kilama P, Dubois T, Coyne D, Niere B, Gold C S, Adipala E, 2007. Antagonism of Paecilomyces spp. isolated from banana (Musa spp.) roots and rhizosphere against Radopholus similis. Nematropica. 37 (2), 215-225. http://palmm.fcla.edu/nematode/

Korayem A M, Youssef M M A, Mohamed M M M, Lashein A M S, 2015. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with different plants grown in newly reclaimed area in North West Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology. 14 (1), 127-136. http://nemasociety.com/en/wp-content/uploads/Plant-parasitic-nematodes16.pdf

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Lee Y A, Shiao Y Y, Chao C P, 2003. First report of Burkholderia cepacia as a pathogen of banana finger-tip rot in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 87 (5), 601. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.5.601A

Lima R da S, Muniz M de F S, Cunha e Castro J M da, Oliveira E R L de, Oliveira P G de, Siqueira K M S de, Machado A C Z, Costa J G da, 2013. Frequencies and population densities of the major phytonematodes associated with banana in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Nematropica. 43 (2), 186-193. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82707/79651

Lizanne A C M, Pai I K, 2014. A preliminary survey on soil and plant parasitic nematodes of southern Goa, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 6 (1), 5400-5412. DOI:10.11609/JoTT.o3568.5400-12

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Mastoi M I, Azura A N, Muhamad R, Idris A B, Ibrahim Y, 2014. Survey of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its natural enemies in Penninsular Malaysia. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering, Veterinary Sciences. 30 (2), 172-186. http://www.sau.edu.pk/sau_journal/2015/vol-30-2015/Paper-6%20vol.30(2)%20Dec.2014.pdf

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Mbaka J N, Nakato V G, Auma J, Odero B, 2009. Status of banana Xanthomonas wilt in western Kenya and factors enhancing its spread. In: 9th African Crop Science, Conference Proceedings, Cape Town, South Africa, 28 September - 2 October 2009 [9th African Crop Science, Conference Proceedings, Cape Town, South Africa, 28 September - 2 October 2009.], [ed. by Tenywa J S, Joubert G D, Marais D, Rubaihayo P R, Nampala M P]. Kampala, Uganda: African Crop Science Society. 673-676.

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Ordoñez N, García-Bastidas F, Laghari H B, Akkary M Y, Harfouche E N, Awar B N A, Kema G H J, 2016. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing Panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 209-210. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1356-PDN

Özarslandan M, Akgül D S, 2020. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4 causing Fusarium wilt disease of banana in Turkey. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 974-974. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1881-PDN

Parkunan V, Li S, Fonsah E G, Ji P, 2013. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States. Plant Disease. 97 (8), 1116-1117. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-13-0007-PDN

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Ploetz R C, 2004. First report of black Sigatoka of banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis on Grand Bahama Island. Plant Disease. 88 (7), 772. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.7.772C

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Renu Srivastava, Lal A A, 2009. Incidence of post-harvest fungal pathogens in guava and banana in Allahabad. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 4 (1), 85-89.

Rieux A, Hostachy B, Bellaire L de L de, Martin Y, Maratchia G, Dupuis A S, Ioos R, Jeandel C, Hubert J, 2019. First report of black Sigatoka disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis on Reunion Island. New Disease Reports. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2019.039.012

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Selvarajan R, Balasubramanian V, 2016. First report of Banana mild mosaic virus infecting banana in India. Plant Disease. 100 (6), 1254-1255. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-15-1117-PDN

Selvarajan R, Balasubramanian V, 2017. First report of Banana bract mosaic virus in banana in Assam, India. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (2), 534. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3857/2501

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Sudhi-Aromna S, Jumroenma K, Chaowattanawong P, Plodkornburee W, Sangchote Y, 2008. Studies on the biology and infestation of stem borer, Batocera rufomaculata, in durian. Acta Horticulturae. 331-337. http://www.actahort.org

Sun J M, Zhang Y, Zhang J Z, Lan X, Lu J, 2016. First report of freckle disease of banana caused by Phyllosticta capitalensis in Guangxi, Southwest China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (1), 175. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3501

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Zhang F, Yan S, Zhou Y, Guo G, Guo S, Jin Z, Zeng H, Peng D, Ruan L, Sun M, 2015. First report of Pratylenchus goodeyi on banana in Hainan Province, China. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 731-732. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-14-0874-PDN

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