Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Moringa oleifera
(horse radish tree)

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Datasheet

Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Moringa oleifera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • horse radish tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. oleifera is a perennial tree thought to be native to India but now widely introduced and naturalized across the tropics and subtropics. It is also widely cultivated for a range of purposes including for huma...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); habit of tree in an agroforestry system, Philippines.
TitleHabit
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); habit of tree in an agroforestry system, Philippines.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); habit of tree in an agroforestry system, Philippines.
HabitMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); habit of tree in an agroforestry system, Philippines.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); coppice planted in garden.
TitleCoppice
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); coppice planted in garden.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); coppice planted in garden.
CoppiceMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); coppice planted in garden.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); live fence.
TitleLive fence
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); live fence.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); live fence.
Live fenceMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); live fence.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); foliage.
TitleFoliage
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); foliage.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); foliage.
FoliageMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); foliage.©A.R. Pittaway
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flower colour may vary from white to creamy yellow.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flower colour may vary from white to creamy yellow.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flower colour may vary from white to creamy yellow.
FlowersMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flower colour may vary from white to creamy yellow.©A.R. Pittaway
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers
TitleFlowers
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers
FlowersMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers©A.R. Pittaway
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers.
FlowersMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); flowers.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); the mature long, thin, fruits may grow up to 50cm.
TitleFruit
CaptionMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); the mature long, thin, fruits may grow up to 50cm.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); the mature long, thin, fruits may grow up to 50cm.
FruitMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree); the mature long, thin, fruits may grow up to 50cm.©Rafael T. Cadiz
1. leaf
2. inflorescence
3. fruit
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. leaf 2. inflorescence 3. fruit
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. leaf
2. inflorescence
3. fruit
Line artwork1. leaf 2. inflorescence 3. fruitPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Moringa oleifera Lam.

Preferred Common Name

  • horse radish tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Guilandina moringa L.
  • Hyperanthera moringa (L.) Vahl
  • Moringa zeylanica Burmann

International Common Names

  • English: behen tree; behn tree; ben-oil tree; benzolive tree; bridal veil; cabbage tree; clarifier tree; drumstick tree; moringa; mother's best friend; neverdie; radish tree; West Indian ben
  • Spanish: moranga; paraíso blanco; paraíso francés; reseda
  • French: acacia blanc; ben ailé; ben oléifère; brede morongy; moringa a grains tripteres; moringa ailé; moringa oleifère; mouroungue; pois quénique
  • Arabic: rawag; ruwag
  • Chinese: nugge
  • Portuguese: acacia branca; moringuero; muringueiro
  • German: behenbaum; behennussbaum; meerrettichbaum
  • Thai: marum

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: quiabo-da-quina
  • Cambodia: mrum'
  • China: la mu
  • Comoros: mondjé
  • Costa Rica: marango
  • Cuba: acacia; ben; flor de los masones; jazmín de España; moringa; palo blanco; palo jeringa; palo nefrítico; tilo francés
  • Dominican Republic: libertad; olive; palo de abeja; palo de aceite
  • Egypt: shagara al rauwaq
  • Germany: pferderettichbaum
  • Ghana: bagaruwar masar; barambo; bararuwar maka; gawara; gigandjah; habiwal hausa; konamarade; okwe; ovivo; rini maka; shipka hali; shuka halinka; vevu-ti; zogall-gandi
  • Guatemala: perlas
  • Honduras: maranga calalu
  • India: achajadha; midhosaragavo; mulaga; munaga; munga ara; munga-arak; mungna; murinna; murungai; sahijan; saijan; saijna; sainjina; sajina; sanjina; segra; sekta ni sing; shajmah; shajna; shajua; shekta; shevgi; shobhanjana; sigru; soanjina; sobhanjana; sohnja; sondha; suhujna; tellamunaga
  • Indonesia: daem mrom; kalor; kelor; marunga
  • Jamaica: ben nut tree
  • Kenya: mlonge; mlongo; mronge; mzunze
  • Laos: 'ii h'um
  • Malawi: chamwamba; kangaluni; sangoa
  • Malaysia: gemunggai; meringgai; muringa
  • Myanmar: dandalonbin; dan-da-lun
  • Niger: zôgala gandi
  • Nigeria: alim; bagaruwar maka; chigban wawa; danga; halim; idagbo monoye; koraukin zaila; okwe oyibo; rimin nacara; rimin turawa; samarin; zogale; zogalla-gandi
  • Palau: malungkai
  • Panama: árbol de las perlas; árbol do los aspáragos; jacinto
  • Philippines: malungai; malungay; malunggai; malunggay; marunggai; murunga kai
  • Puerto Rico: angela; jazmín francés; sen
  • Senegal: ben alle; neverdaya
  • Somalia: agomago; ewe igbale; ewe ile; idaga manoye; mirongo; mrongo
  • Sudan: ghaliah; habbah halim; shagara al ruway
  • Tanzania: mlonje
  • Thailand: ma rum; makhonkom; phak nuea kai; phakihum; se cho ya
  • Togo: bagaelan; baganlua
  • Vietnam: chum ngây
  • Zimbabwe: zakalanda

EPPO code

  • MOHOL (Moringa oleifera)

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. oleifera is a perennial tree thought to be native to India but now widely introduced and naturalized across the tropics and subtropics. It is also widely cultivated for a range of purposes including for human consumption, as livestock feed and for use in cosmetics. Its increasing commercialisation and international trade are likely to result in further spread of this species, though its sensitivity to low temperatures may restrict its distribution to tropical and subtropical regions. 

There is conflicting information about the invasive nature and potential spread of this species. It is listed as invasive in the British Indian Ocean Territory, China, Philippines, Palau, the Solomon Islands and Cuba; though there is a lack of information about its invasive nature or its effect on native flora and natural habitats in these countries. Furthermore, despite being listed as a weed in many countries, it has not been observed invading intact habitats or displacing native flora. As a result, M. oleifera should be regarded at present as a widely cultivated species with low invasive potential.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Moringaceae
  •                             Genus: Moringa
  •                                 Species: Moringa oleifera

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Moringa oleifera is one of 13 species in the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae (PROTA, 2017). According to Olson (2017) there are likely to be more species that have not yet been described, particularly in Africa. M. pterygosperma is an illegitimate name that has been wrongly attributed as a synonym of M. oleifera (Olson, 2017). The genus Moringa is derived from the Malayalam word 'muringo' from southern India (ICFRE, 1995). Olson (2002) suggested the use of informal terms to describe three sections within the genus: the 'bottle tree clade' with four species, the 'slender tree clade' with three, including M. oleifera, and the 'tuberous clade' with six species native to northeast Africa. This grouping was based on the use of DNA sequences, but was largely congruent with a previous study of wood anatomy (Olen and Carlquist, 2002). There are numerous common names for M. oleifera in its native India and in all countries where it has been introduced. In English, the names 'drumstick tree', 'horse radish tree' and the simple 'moringa' are all widely used.

Description

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M. oleifera is a small, fast-growing, drought-deciduous tree or shrub, often 8-10 m tall, sometimes to 12-18 m. It has a wide-open, typically umbrella-shaped crown, usually with a single clear bole, with smooth, light coloured or greyish-green bark. It tends to be deep-rooted (Dalla Rosa, 1993). Leaves imparipinnate, rachis 12-25 cm long, pubescent, 2-6 pairs of pinna 3-6 mm long, each with 3-5 pairs of pale green, obovate leaflets 1-2 cm long, terminal leaflets slightly larger, basal leaflet pairs sometime tripinnate (von Maydell, 1986). The foliage is light and moves in the slightest breeze giving light shade. The description by ICFRE (1995) of M. oleifera from India differs in part from that of African M. oleifera by von Maydell (1986), with more pairs of pinna (5-10 pairs) and leaflets (6-9 pairs). Sweet-scented flowers, cream white, arranged in panicles, with 5 unequal petals slightly larger than the sepals (von Maydell, 1986), yellow dots at the base (Vogt, 1996), petals narrowly spathulate, veined, white, bracts linear, calyx 5-lobed, linear-lanceolate, reflexed, puberulous outside, 5 stamens, fertile alternating with 5-7 staminodes, filaments villous at the base, ovary 1-celled, oblong, villous, ovules many, style slender (ICFRE, 1995). The long, pointed and triangular cross-section fruits are very distinctive, up to 1-2 cm broad, often 30-50 cm long, up to 120 cm long in some cultivated varieties, containing oily black seeds up to 1 cm in diameter in a typical 3-winged seed coat. Unripe green pods are somewhat fleshy, becoming fibrous and greyish when mature, persistent on the tree. In India, trees shed leaves in December-January followed by regrowth in February-March; flowering is in January-March with ripe fruits in April-June, but all year round in irrigated conditions (ICFRE, 1995).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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M. olerifera is found worldwide in the tropics and subtropics. The species is present in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America and Oceania (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Godino et al., 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; PIER, 2017; PROTA, 2017). There is some dispute between authors on the extent of the native distribution of M. oleifera; India is the only country common to all proposed distributions. Vogt (1996) noted that the tree is thought to originate from northern India, and this restricted native range is followed in the distribution list. Von Maydell (1986) and Dalla Rosa (1993) suggest the origin as India and Arabia, whereas others consider East African and/or South East Asian populations as native. According to studies by Olson (2017), M. oleifera is only found in the wild in the hilly lowlands of northwestern India and elsewhere where it is listed as growing in the wild, the species is either found as a cultivated plant or as a remnant of old cultivation. It is possible that there could be wild populations in eastern Pakistan but there is no conclusive evidence to support this.

It is reported to be invasive in British Indian Ocean Territory, China, the Philippines, Cuba, Palau and the Solomon Islands (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced Natural PROTA, 2017
BangladeshPresentIntroduced Natural PROTA, 2017
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive Natural PIER, 2017Also cultivated. Diego Garcia Island
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2017
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-HainanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Planted Amaglo et al., 2017
-YunnanPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Not invasive Natural PIER, 2017Also cultivated. Garden escape
IndiaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-Andhra PradeshPresent only in captivity/cultivation Natural Tak and Maurya, 2017
-AssamPresentNative Natural PROTA, 2017
-GujaratPresentNative Natural India Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative Natural Ganesan et al., 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentNative Natural PROTA, 2017
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative Natural EOL, 2017
-KarnatakaPresentNative Natural India Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-KeralaPresentNative Natural India Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative Natural India Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-MaharashtraPresentNative Natural PROTA, 2017
-OdishaPresentNative Natural PROTA, 2017
-RajasthanPresent only in captivity/cultivation Natural Tak and Maurya, 2017
-Tamil NaduPresent only in captivity/cultivation Natural Tak and Maurya, 2017
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative Natural PROTA, 2017
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
-JavaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
IranPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
IsraelPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1950 Planted Makin and Solowey, 2017
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
MaldivesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PROTA, 2017
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
NepalPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
OmanPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
PakistanPresentIntroducedPlanted, NaturalMissouri Botanical Gardens, 2017
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated. Planted throughout settlement areas
QatarPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedPlanted, NaturalMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
ThailandPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
VietnamPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
YemenPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
CameroonPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
ChadPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
ComorosPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
EgyptPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
EritreaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
GabonPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
GambiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
GhanaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
GuineaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
KenyaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
LiberiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
MalawiPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
MaliPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
MauritaniaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
NigerPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017Also a field crop
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
SenegalPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
SomaliaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
South AfricaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Planted Motis et al., 2017
SudanPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
-ZanzibarPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
TogoPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
UgandaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced1915 Planted NMNH, 2017
MexicoPresentIntroduced1894 Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Yucatán
USAPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-District of ColumbiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Planted NMNH, 2017
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-HawaiiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Planted PIER, 2017
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Antigua
BahamasPresentIntroduced1903 Planted Missouri Botanical Gardens, 2017
BarbadosPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Gardens, 2017
BonairePresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Naturalized. Tortola and Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced1891 Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Guanacaste, Puntarenas
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; NMNH, 2017
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced1901 Planted NMNH, 2017
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1971 Planted NMNH, 2017
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanic Garden, 2017Ahuachapán, La Libertad, San Miguel, Usulután
GrenadaPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced Planted Broome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced1892 Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Jutaipa, Petén, Retalhuleu, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Zacapa
HaitiPresentIntroduced1901 Planted NMNH, 2017
HondurasPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Choluteca, Valle
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentIntroduced1907 Planted NMNH, 2017
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Carazo, Estelí, Granada, Jinotega, León, Managua, Matagalpa, Rivas
PanamaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Coclé
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1885 Planted Axelrod, 2011; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; NMNH, 2017Coamo, Guánica, Lajas, Mayagüez, Ponce, Salinas. Sierra de Naguabo
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Sint EustatiusPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Sint MaartenPresentIntroduced Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1895 Planted Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; NMNH, 2017St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-ParanaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Planted Silva et al., 2011
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
-Sao PauloPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Planted Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition, 2017
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Antioquia, Bolívar
French GuianaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
GuyanaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
ParaguayPresentIntroduced1913 Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Cook IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Rarotonga Island
FijiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated. Viti Levu Island
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated. Raiatea and Tahiti Islands
GuamPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017
KiribatiPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated. Ralik and Ratak Chains
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017
NauruPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated
New ZealandPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Planted Amaglo et al., 2017
NiuePresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Rota and Saipan Islands
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated. Invasive at Kayangel Islet
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2017
SamoaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted PIER, 2017
TongaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted PIER, 2017Also cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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Godino et al. (2017) report that M. oleifera was introduced from India to Africa, the southeast of Asia and the Philippines in ancient times. They also report that it was introduced into the Americas and Europe with the arrival of the Spanish to the Philippines. However, current records suggest that this species does not occur in Europe. It has since been widely introduced and is probably present in most countries with a tropical climate (Csurhes and Navie, 2016; PROTA, 2017). M. oleifera was introduced as an ornamental plant from India to some African countries by the British (Adu-Dapaah et al., 2017). It had been introduced to Niger by the beginning of the 20th Century (Pasternak et al., 2017). There are records of the species from the late 1800s to early 1900s in the Caribbean, Mexico and Central America (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; NMNH, 2017). In Australia, it is reported as spreading slowly, forming dense thickets around parent plants (Csurhes and Navie, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Israel 1950 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No Makin and Solowey (2017)
Mexico 1894 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Bahamas 1903 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Bermuda 1915 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No NMNH (2017)
Cayman Islands 1891 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Cuba 1907 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
Yes No NMNH (2017)
Curaçao 1901 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No NMNH (2017)
Dominican Republic 1871 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No NMNH (2017)
Guatemala 1872 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Haiti 1901 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No NMNH (2017)
Montserrat 1907 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No NMNH (2017)
Puerto Rico 1885 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
Yes No NMNH (2017)
United States Virgin Islands 1895 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No NMNH (2017)
Paraguay 1913 Crop production (pathway cause) ,
Horticulture (pathway cause)
No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)

Risk of Introduction

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Conflicting information about where M. oleifera is invasive and where it is naturalized complicates the assessment of its risk of introduction. It is reported as invasive by some authors (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2017), but elsewhere it is reported as having a low risk of spread, being cultivated rather than naturalized or as having no effect on natural vegetation (Csurhes and Navie, 2016; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017; Olson, 2017). Nevertheless, its importance as a multi-use tree and its commercialisation could promote its introduction and use (Csurhes and Navie, 2016). Some organisations are actively promoting its use, for example, in home gardens as a source of nutrition (Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition, 2017). Godino et al. (2017) list its sensitivity to low temperatures as the most important limiting factor for its distribution, limiting its occurrence to tropical and subtropical areas. However, its distribution range could expand as active research is being carried out to create cultivars for different purposes (Godino et al., 2017; Palada et al., 2017). Its popularity makes the species a medium to high introduction risk.

Habitat

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In its native range, M. oleifera is found in the tropical moist deciduous forests, southern tropical dry deciduous forests and primary seral type forests in northern India (ICFRE, 1995). Where introduced in Africa, it is often found growing along stream banks or in savannas (von Maydell, 1986). It also occurs along roadsides, in urban areas, wastelands and coastal areas (Csurhes and Navie, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Most of the genetic variation of M. oleifera is reported in India (Ganesan et al., 2014; PROTA, 2017). The species has various cultivars, including some allowing its cultivation as an annual in temperate climates (Godino et al., 2017). The chromosome numbers reported for the species are n=11 and 2n=28 (PROTA, 2017). DNA barcode information for the species is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD, 2017).

Germplasm collections are stored at various facilities worldwide (Patricio and Palada, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). The World Vegetable Center at Taiwan maintains collections of four Moringa species, the majority of which are M. oleifera and are used for research and to supply germplasm material to universities, governmental and non-governmental organisations and private companies in 15 countries (Palada et al., 2017). Collections are also maintained at the International Moringa Germplasm Collection in Mexico as well as in Burkina Faso and the Philippines (IMGC, 2017; PROTA, 2017).  

Reproductive Biology

M. oleifera reproduces by seed and vegetatively by cuttings (PROTA, 2017). Discarded branches can remain viable for long periods (Csurhes and Navie, 2016). In vitro propagation procedures for the species have been developed and are discussed by Al-Khalifah and Shanavaskhan (2017). Both geitonogamy and xenogamy are reported for M. oleifera (Jyothi et al., 1990). Sunbirds have been reported as pollinators for this species (PROTA, 2017), however further information about the pollinators of M. oleifera is unclear. Bhattacharya and Mandal (2017) argue that a large number of insects from the orders Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are needed for successful pollination. Jyothi et al. (1990) list Xylocopa and Amegilla bees as the major pollinators. Krieg et al. (2017) list bees as possible pollinators.

Physiology and Phenology

M. oleifera lives up to 20 years from seed and about 10-15 years from cuttings (Godino et al., 2017). Since it is a fast-growing plant, some cultivars are grown as annuals in temperate regions (Olson, 2017).

In India, trees shed leaves in December-January followed by regrowth in February-March; flowering is in January-March with ripe fruits in April-June, but all year round in irrigated conditions (ICFRE, 1995). Pollen viability is over 88% (Silva et al., 2011). The seeds of M. oleifera do not have a significant dormancy, they lose viability relatively fast and are are usually not viable after two years (Csurhes and Navie, 2016).

Associations

M. oleifera forms endophytic associations with species of Fusarium, Xylaria, Pestalotiopsis, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Stachybotrys, Rhizoctonia and Macrophomina (Carbungco et al., 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
32 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 25 35
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 38 48
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -1 -3

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5002200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphis gossypii Herbivore Stems not specific
Batocera rubus Herbivore not specific
Bemisia Herbivore Leaves not specific
Ceroplastodes cajani Herbivore Stems not specific
Cochliobolus hawaiiensis Pathogen Fruits/pods not specific
Diplodia Pathogen Roots not specific
Eupterote mollifera Herbivore Leaves not specific
Formica rufa Herbivore Leaves not specific
Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Stems not specific
Gitona distigma Herbivore Fruits/pods not specific
Indarbela tetraonis Herbivore Stems not specific
Lagria villosa Herbivore Leaves not specific
Leptoglossus phyllopus Herbivore Leaves not specific
Leveillula taurica Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Metanastria hyrtaca Herbivore Leaves not specific
Musca domestica Herbivore Leaves not specific
Myllocerus Herbivore Leaves not specific
Noorda blitealis Herbivore Leaves to genus
Oedaleus nigeriensis Herbivore Leaves not specific
Pericallia ricini Herbivore Leaves not specific
Ruspolia nitidula Herbivore Leaves not specific
Streblote siva Herbivore Leaves not specific
Tetranychus urticae Herbivore Leaves not specific
Ulopeza phaeothoracica Herbivore Leaves not specific
Zonocerus variegatus Herbivore Leaves not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A range of natural enemies of M. oleifera are reported by Mridha and Barakan (2017) including the pathogens Fusarium pallidoroseum, Cochliobolus hawaiiensisLeveillula taurica and species in the genus Diplodia as well as a range of pests including Gitona distigma, Noorda blitealis, Eupterote molliferaAphis gossypii, Ceroplastodes cajani, Myllocerus spp., Tetranychus urticae, Leptoglossus phyllopus, Bemisia spp., Ulopeza phaeothoracica, Zonocerus variegatus and Formica rufa.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

M. oleifera seeds are winged and can be dispersed over short distances by wind. The wings also aid seed dispersal in streams. The pods float on water helping the dispersal of the species (Csurhes and Navie, 2016).

Accidental Introduction

Populations of M. oleifera have been observed near dumpsites, which suggests the species is establishing from seeds or cuttings from garden waste (Csurhes and Navie, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

Most of the current distribution of M. oleifera is as a result of its deliberate introduction for cultivation (Csurhes and Navie, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes Adu-Dapaah et al., 2017; NMNH, 2017
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes Palada et al., 2017
Crop production Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Disturbance Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Escape from confinement or garden escapeDisturbed areas near cultivated land Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Medicinal useCommercial and ethnobotanical uses Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Off-site preservation Yes Yes Palada et al., 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Research Yes Yes Palada et al., 2017
Seed tradeVia internet and through organizations Yes Yes Palada et al., 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and cuttings associated with its cultivation Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Floating vegetation and debrisSpecies commonly found near waterways Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Germplasm Yes Yes Palada et al., 2017
MailInternet trade Yes Yes ,
Mulch, straw, baskets and sodMulch Yes Ranjan et al., 1999; Singh and Singh, 2001
Soil, sand and gravelSoil debris from cultivation Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Water Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
WindSeeds are winged and disperse over short distances Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016

Economic Impact

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M. oleifera is one of the host plants of Leveillula taurica, which causes major damage to papaya (Carica papaya). Caution is needed when the species occurs near papaya plantations (Mridha and Barakan, 2017).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

The species is considered by Csurhes and Navie (2016) as a potentially invasive or moderately invasive plant in tropical regions, and a species that is spreading but still occurs in low densities and is not considered an immediate problem. According to the Flora of North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017), the species is occasionally reported to be established along roadways and disturbed areas, but without reports of it invading intact habitats. Olson (2017) reports that the species only reproduces around houses, vacant lots, roads and margins of agricultural fields close to sites where it is cultivated; it has never been observed invading intact primary habitats or displacing native flora.

Although M. oleifera is not considered an invasive species in Australia, Csurhes and Navie (2016) report that M. oleifera might pose a threat to the natural systems of the country. Heuzé et al. (2017) report that more research is needed when used for water purification in fish ponds as it was found that regrowth of bacteria is promoted when its use is combined with chlorine treatments.

Impact on Biodiversity

M. oleifera seed powder can be toxic to animals, especially to fish (Heuzé et al., 2017). Because of this, its use has been recommended for the control of predators in fish ponds.

The possibility of the clearing of areas for the cultivation of M. oleifera could impact native vegetation.

Social Impact

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According to Olson (2017) although there are few side effects from the consumption of M. oleifera it has shown an abortifacient potential at high doses.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact mechanisms
  • Pollen swamping
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Most of the production and international trade of Moleifera comes from India, in canned produce, fresh fruits, oil, seeds and leaf powder (PROTA, 2017). India has an annual production of 1.1-1.3 million tons of tender pods (Tak and Maurya, 2017). In Africa, the species is produced for both local and international trade, mainly for the leaves and fruits (PROTA, 2017). Ghana is one of the African countries where the species is commercialized for the local and international markets, including the USA (Adu-Dapaah et al., 2017). In Niger the demand is higher than the current level of production and efforts are being made to increase its cultivation, as about half of the moringa consumed is imported from Nigeria (Pasternak et al., 2017). Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP) is the most common food additive product in Europe. As a result, Moritz (2017) outlines the need for quality control measurements to comply with the laws and regulations of Europe. The leaf powder is also increasing in popularity in other countries. For example, it is becoming more frequently available in stores in the USA.

Its commercialisation is under evaluation in other countries including the Philippines and Israel (Dar, 2017; Makin and Solowey, 2017; Patricio et al., 2017). It has a growing use as a cosmetic (Amaglo et al., 2017). The commercialisation of M. oleifera has also been proposed on a large scale for biofuel production and as a flocculant (Csurhes and Navie, 2016; Heuzé et al., 2017; PROTA, 2017).

Social Benefit

M. oleifera is a small, fast-growing tropical tree, well-known for its multi-purpose attributes, wide site adaptability and ease of establishment (PROTA, 2017). Amaglo et al. (2017) report over 140 organisations worldwide that have initiatives to introduce Moringa species to communities to lessen malnutrition, to purify water and to produce oils for cooking and as a biodiesel. 

The principal value of M. oleifera lies in the multitude of non-wood products that can be made from every part of the tree (Heuzé et al., 2017; PROTA, 2017). Its high nutritional value and the use of the leaves, pods and flowers for human consumption as well as for livestock feed all add to its value (EOL, 2017; PROTA, 2017). The leaves of M. oleifera are very nutritious, with a taste resembling watercress, and are sometimes eaten as a salad or in soups. They contain 15-20% protein and 50% nitrogen-free extract (dry weight) and are rich in micronutrients and vitamins (Barminas et al., 1999Tarwadi and Agte, 2003) including carotene and ascorbic acid (ICFRE, 1995). In African countries, moringa leaves are used as a flavouring, and can be added to meat preparations. The dried leaves can be used as tea and also as a pot herb in the preparation of soup and porridge. After grinding, dried leaves store well for a long time and can be used as a flavouring or as a health supplement, for which use there are also capsule and tablet preparations (Ambrose et al., 2016). The green pods can be picked and eaten when they first appear to when they become too woody to snap easily (HDRA, 2002). They can be boiled as green beans, an essential ingredient in the making of 'sambhar', a south Indian curry, and are a valuable addition to the diet especially during the dry season when the pods are available. However, the pods of some varieties are bitter and may be harmful if eaten in large quantities (Dalla Rosa, 1993). The green seeds are also shelled and eaten as peas. The flowers can be made into a drink. The roots are also edible, with the mashed, peeled root producing a seasoning similar to horseradish sauce (Armoracia rusticana).

Apart from being used as a food, the leaves are also fed as mulch to animals to increase their milk yield. They also assist nitrogen fixation in the soil when used as manure. The wood is of limited use. M. oleifera is grown in home gardens, as a hedging plant in and around fields and as a shade tree. It is also used for supports for vine crops such as pepper (Piper spp.) (Mathew et al., 1996).

The seed powder is a coagulant, well known for its ability to purify water and so has great potential for improving livelihoods in countries where it is present (Folkard and Sutherland, 1996). In the Nile Valley, the common name for M. oleifera is 'shagara al rauwaq', meaning 'tree for purifying' (von Maydell, 1986). Powder from dehusked seeds is stirred in a little water for half an hour, and the resulting solution is added to a large vessel of water to be cleaned, where it is left for 24 hours. The solution clarifies high and medium turbid water and reduces acidity (Oluwalana et al., 1999). M. oleifera also inhibits bacterial populations in dirty water (Kumar and Gopal, 1999).

The seed contains approximately 40% oil, the 'ben-oil' or 'behen oil' that is highly valued in India for a variety of uses. It is used by perfume makers for its ability to absorb and retain fragrance and for making cosmetics and soaps (Dastur, 1951). It is also used by watchmakers as a very fine lubricant (Ramachandran et al., 1980) and in oil lamps where it burns without smoking. It is also a cooking oil, with an oleic acid content similar to olive and avocado oil (Banerji et al., 2003). The resulting oil press-cake is not suitable as a feed due to high levels of saponin and alkaloids, but can be used as a mineral-rich fertilizer.

M. oleifera produces a mucilaginous exudate gum ('ben gum'), which is white, changing to reddish-brown or brownish-black on exposure to air. This gum is used for a large variety of uses, such as seasoning, medicine for stomach ailments (Dalla Rosa, 1993), tanning leather and in calico printing (Nautiyal and Venhataraman, 1987) where it replaces 'tragacanth' gum, which it resembles (ICFRE, 1995).

The bark is used for preparing fibres for rope making and as a source of tannin (Heuzé et al., 2017). Seed husks, a by-product of seed production, are a source of high quality activated carbon produced by steam pyrolysis (Warhurst et al., 1997). Crushed leaves have even been reported as a cleaning agent for cooking pans and walls. After leaf fall, the leaves act as a mulch and improve soil nutrition, and studies have shown some biopesticidal effects of M. oleifera plant extracts on crop pests including Alternaria alternata (Ranjan et al., 1999) and Heterodera cajani (Singh and Singh, 2001). Extracts from the leaves have been shown to enhance the growth of various species of agricultural importance, including peanut, soybean, sugarcane and coffee (Heuzé et al., 2017).

Most parts of the tree can be used in a variety of medicinal preparations (Chopra et al., 1956Lizzy et al., 1968Perry, 1980Singh et al., 1983; PROTA, 2017), and are known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-tumour effects. M. oleifera extracts have been recorded as a treatment for a range of ailments including anaemia, mouth sores, rheumatism, diabetes, venomous bites, scurvy, heart problems and skin disorders.

The leaves, pods, flowers and small twigs are a useful fodder for cattle, sheep, goats, camels (Negi, 1977), poultry and even fish (Richter et al., 2003). It is a good feed supplement for livestock and poultry species, providing proteins, vitamins and minerals (Briones et al., 2017). However, priority use of the leaves and pods as a human food means that only excess production will be used as fodder.

The species has also been used as a model plant for undergraduate student’s classes at Penn State University, USA (Bates and Bicksler, 2017).

Environmental Services

The flowers are a valuable bee forage (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; PROTA, 2017).

M. oleifera has a high rate of carbon dioxide absorption, which makes the species an important resource for the mitigation of climate change (Amaglo et al., 2017). Caceres et al. (1991) suggest that the species could be used in reforestation programs.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fishmeal
  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Wildlife habitat
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Biofuels
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Research model
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Food additive
  • Fruits
  • Gum/mucilage
  • Honey/honey flora
  • Leaves (for beverage)
  • Oil/fat
  • Root crop
  • Seeds
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Cosmetics
  • Dyestuffs
  • Fertilizer
  • Fibre
  • Green manure
  • Gums
  • Lipids
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Mulches
  • Oils
  • Resins
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp
  • Short-fibre pulp

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Fences
  • For light construction

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. oleifera is sometimes misidentified as a member of either the Fabaceae or Bignoniaceae families due to similarities in fruit morphology. M. oleifera can be distinguished from these families by the stalked glands at the leaf base and rachis articulations; the three-valved fruits; the three-winged seeds and by a pungent horseradish odour from the leaves (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is some contradictory information about the invasive nature of M. oleifera.

References

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Adu-Dapaah, H., Osei-Bonsu, I., Oduro, I., Asiedu, J., 2017. Recent advances in production, processing and utilization of Moringa oleifera in Ghana. Acta Horticulturae, (No.1158), 179-186. http://www.actahort.org/books/1158/1158_21.htm doi: 10.17660/actahortic.2017.1158.21

Al-Khalifah, N. S., Shanavaskhan, A. E., 2017. Moringa oleifera Lam., a promising crop species for arid conditions of Saudi Arabia and Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori, a native wild species for crop improvement. Acta Horticulturae, (No.1158), 159-169. http://www.actahort.org/books/1158/1158_19.htm doi: 10.17660/actahortic.2017.1158.19

Amaglo, N. K., Deng, J., Foidl, N., 2017. The potential of moringa in climate change, sustainable livelihood and food security - a review. Acta Horticulturae, (No.1158), 455-465. http://www.actahort.org/books/1158/1158_53.htm doi: 10.17660/actahortic.2017.1158.53

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
The International Moringa Germplasm Collectionhttp://moringaceae.org/index.html

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03/12/17 Updated by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico - Recinto Universitario de Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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