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Datasheet

Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 August 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Morinda citrifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian mulberry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Morinda citrifolia is a shrub or small tree that in recent years has attained significant economic importance worldwide due to the great variety of health and cosmetic products made from its leaves and fruits....

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.
HabitMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2004.
TitleHabit
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2004.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2004.
HabitMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); habit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2004.©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); branches and foliage. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleBranches and foliage
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); branches and foliage. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); branches and foliage. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Branches and foliageMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); branches and foliage. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); leaves and flowers. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.
TitleLeaves
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); leaves and flowers. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr- 2006 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); leaves and flowers. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.
LeavesMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); leaves and flowers. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr- 2006 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); fruiting habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
TitleFruiting habit.
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); fruiting habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2016 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); fruiting habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
Fruiting habit.Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); fruiting habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.©Forest & Kim Starr-2016 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
TitleFlowers, fruits and foliage
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2016 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
Flowers, fruits and foliageMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.©Forest & Kim Starr-2016 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and unripe fruit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.
TitleFlowers and fruit
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and unripe fruit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and unripe fruit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.
Flowers and fruitMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and unripe fruit. Waianapanapa, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and ripening fruit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.
TitleFlowers and fruit
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and ripening fruit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and ripening fruit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.
Flowers and fruitMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers and ripening fruit. LaPerouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2016 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
FlowersMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); flowers. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.©Forest & Kim Starr-2016 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); ripe fruit, showing seed and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleRipe fruit
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); ripe fruit, showing seed and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); ripe fruit, showing seed and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Ripe fruitMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); ripe fruit, showing seed and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); seeds and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleSeeds and pulp
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); seeds and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); seeds and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Seeds and pulpMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); seeds and pulp. Waianapanapa State Park Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); in pots, for sale. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.
TitlePotted plants
CaptionMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); in pots, for sale. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); in pots, for sale. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.
Potted plantsMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); in pots, for sale. Hoolawa Farms, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Morinda citrifolia L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian mulberry

Other Scientific Names

  • Morinda bracteata Roxb.
  • Morinda litoralis

International Common Names

  • Spanish: ruibarbo Caribe (Mexico)

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: nhoër srôk; nhoër thôm'
  • Cuba: árbol de queso; mora de la India; noni
  • Malaysia: mengkudu besar; mengkudu jantan
  • Philippines: apatot ; bankoro; tumbong-aso

EPPO code

  • MOJCI (Morinda citrifolia)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Morinda citrifolia is a shrub or small tree that in recent years has attained significant economic importance worldwide due to the great variety of health and cosmetic products made from its leaves and fruits. Consequently, it has been extensively introduced in cultivation and can be found cultivated and naturalized across tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Groenendijk, 1991; Nelson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2017).  

M. citrifolia is a species that can tolerate and thrive in very harsh conditions.  It is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions and soil types. It can grow in infertile, acidic, and alkaline soils, and in areas with climates ranging from very dry to very wet. It is also tolerant to fire, waterlogging, wind, shaded conditions (>80% shade) and salt spray (Francis, 2004; Nelson, 2006; PROTA, 2017). For instance, M. citrifolia is one of the first plants to colonize harsh waste areas or lava flows on islands across the Pacific region and is also one of the few species that can thrive beneath the canopy of the allelopathic tree Casuarina equisetifolia (Nelson, 2006). Additionally, M. citrifolia has a deep taproot and an extensive and aggressive root system and once established it is very persistent and difficult to eradicate. Seeds have a distinct air chamber and can retain viability even after floating in water for months, facilitating the wide distribution and occurrence of this species on many seashores worldwide (Nelson, 2006).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Species: Morinda citrifolia
  •                                 Species: Morinda citrifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Rubiaceae is a family of flowering plants comprising 611 genera and 13,150 species of herbs, shrubs, trees and lianas distributed worldwide but largely tropical, especially diverse in Madagascar and the Andes (Stevens, 2012). The genus Morinda includes about 100 species of climbing shrubs, erect shrubs, or small trees (The Plant List, 2013).

There are forms of M. citrifolia previously recognized as botanical varieties (M. citrifolia var. citrifolia, M. citrifolia var. bracteata and M. citrifolia var. elliptica) and one cultivar (M. citrifolia cultivar Potteri) (Nelson, 2006; The Plant List, 2013), but now regarded as synonyms. The former var. bracteata is a small fruited variety with conspicuous bracts subtending the fruit. It is found in Indonesia and other parts of the region between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is cultivated in some locations. The former var. potteri is an ornamental, small-fruited, narrow-leafed type with green-and-white leaf variegation, which is distributed throughout the Pacific (Janick and Paull, 2008).

A proposal was been made to conserve the name Morinda citrifolia with a conserved type (Razafimandimbison et al., 2011). If this proposal had been rejected the name would have been applied to the species known as M. coreia and the species presently known as M. citrifolia would have to be renamed M. nodosa, which would cause confusion in this widely cultivated species.

Description

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Morinda citrifolia is a small tree or large evergreen shrub approximately 3–10 m in height at maturity and 15 cm or more in stem diameter. The plant sometimes finds support on other plants as a liana. The sapwood is soft and yellow-brown and the bark relatively smooth to slightly rough and grey or light brown. The light green, four-angled twigs have opposite, pinnately veined, glossy leaves attached by stout petioles, 1.5–2 cm long. Stipules are connate or distinct, 10–12 mm long, the apex entire or two- to three-lobed. The membranous, glabrous leaf blades range from elliptic to elliptic-ovate and range in size from 20 to 45 cm long and 7–25 cm wide. The tubular flowers are perfect, with about 75–90 in ovoid to globose heads. Peduncles are 10–30 mm long; the calyx a truncated rim. The corolla is white, five lobed, with the tube greenish white, 7–9 mm long and lobes oblong-deltate, approximately 7 mm long. There are five stamens, scarcely exserted and the style is about 15 mm long. Fruit (a syncarp) are yellowish white and fleshy, 5–14 cm long, about 3–7.5 cm in diameter, soft and fetid when ripe. Seeds are brown, about 4–9 mm long and have a distinct air chamber. The plant has a rooting habit similar to citrus and coffee, with an extensive lateral root system and a deep taproot (Janick and Paull, 2008).

Plant Type

Top of page Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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M. citrifolia is native to tropical and subtropical Asia and Australia and now has a pantropical distribution (Govaerts, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017), occurring roughly between latitudes 19°N and S. The Indo-Pacific distribution includes Eastern Polynesia (e.g. Hawaii, the Line Islands, Marquesas, Society Islands, Australs, Tuamotus, Pitcairn and the Cook islands), Melanesia (e.g. Fiji, Vanuatu, New Guinea, New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands), Western Polynesia (e.g. Samoa, Tonga, Niue, ‘Uvea/Futuna, Rotuma and Tuvalu) and Micronesia (e.g. Pohnpei, Guam, Chuuk, Palau, the Marshall Islands and the Northern Marianas), Indonesia, Australia and South-east Asia. The species has also become naturalized on the open shores of Central and South America (from Mexico to Panama, Venezuela and Surinam) and on many islands of the West Indies, the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Florida Keys and parts of Africa (Janick and Paull, 2008).

A study of nucleotide sequence data by Razafimandimbison et al. (2010) suggests a Micronesian origin for M. citrifolia. Large fruited var. citrifolia may have been present in the Pacific before the arrival of Micronesian and Polynesian ancestors from South East Asia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentNative
IndonesiaPresent Natural
MalaysiaPresent Natural

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresent Natural
Papua New GuineaPresent Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Plants begin flowering and producing fruit in the first year after transplanting. Flowers and fruit are produced throughout the year. Dispersal of seeds in native habitats is probably by birds, rats, bats and other mammals. Unripe fruit are light green, turning whitish yellow when ripe. Fruit when harvested at the ‘hard white’ stage turn soft and translucent yellow within a few days. No published information exists on pollination and fruit set, or on the time required from initial flowering to maturation and ripening of fruit. However, in Hawaii flowers on individual M. citrifolia trees are produced over a span of several weeks (or more) as fruit expand in size (Janick and Paull, 2008). Ripe fruit are distributed by several animals including fruit bats. The seeds have an air chambers and float, facilitating their dispersal via oceanic currents (Macpherson et al., 2007).

Qualitative and compositional changes were determined in harvested fruits and ripening went through three stages: no significant softening, significant softening and dramatic softening (Cárdenas-Coronel et al., 2016). Ripening was accompanied by accumulation of acidity and soluble solids, and the activity of pectinases and hemicellulases promoted the differential disassembly of cell wall polymers resulting in fruit softening.

M. citrifolia grows in a very wide range of environments and soils and has an unusual ability to survive in harsh conditions such as coral atolls or basaltic lava flows. The species grows from sea level to about 800 m, depending on latitude and environment. It prefers 20–35°C, although it can tolerate a minimum temperature of about 5°C. The plant is found most commonly in relatively dry to mesic sites or lowland areas in close proximity to shorelines, or as an important forest understorey species in low-elevation tropical island forests and rainforests. It is a salt and salt-spray tolerant plant and is most competitive where many other plants cannot grow, such as on coral beach sands, volcanic lava flows, in brackish tide pools or on the slopes of very steep gulches. It grows very well on rocky soils, but may not compete well with grasses or other weeds in deep, silty soils. It can tolerate a wide range of precipitation patterns up to 3000 mm/year, including summer, winter, bimodal and uniform. 

Mature, cultivated M. citrifolia can easily withstand drought of 6 months or more. Wild M. citrifolia plants growing in arid conditions can spend their entire lives in conditions of perpetual drought. M. citrifolia can grow well under a wide range of light intensities, from full sun to over 80% shade. It can regenerate after fire by sprouting new foliage from roots or stems. The plant tolerates shallow, sodic and infertile soils (Janick and Paull, 2008). It is tolerant of windy locations, but yields and growth are retarded. The brittle woody branches are easily broken by high winds, but are easily regenerated following storms (Macpherson et al., 2007).

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 12
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 32 38
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 18

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration<40 mmnumber of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall250 mm4000 mmmm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow
  • sodic

Uses

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The fruit and leaves are edible raw or cooked. Unripe fruit are cooked in curries and ripe fruit are consumed with salt in Myanmar. The ripe fruit has the smell of putrid cheese. Cooked fruit is mixed with coconut in Nauru. Very young leaves are cooked as vegetables (containing 4–6% protein) and eaten with rice in Java and Thailand (Janick and Paull, 2008). 

All parts of the plant have traditional uses. The roots and bark are used for dyes and medicines; the trunks are used for firewood and tools; the leaves are used as leafy vegetables and for wrapping foods, in medicines and poultices; and the fruit are used as famine food, in juices and for topical and internal medicines. The root bark produces a red dye (morindin) and the plant was widely grown in Java in the late 19th century for this purpose before synthetic dyes became available. The dye is still used in high quality batik (Janick and Paull, 2008​). The fruit pulp is used to clean hair, iron and steel, while the wood is occasionally used for poles and plant supports (Nguyen and Nguyen, 2003).

The purported modern application of M. citrifolia as a complementary alternative medicine spans a vast array of maladies including high blood pressure, diabetes, beri-beri, asthma, coughs, fevers, centipede bites, sores, headaches, pneumonia, diarrhoea, pain, arthritis, depression, cancer, AIDS, skin parasites, skin and stomach ulcers, arteriosclerosis and senility. Some of these uses can be accounted for by the presence of a number of physiologically active chemicals including anthraquinones, alkaloids, scopoletin, glycosides, polysaccharides, asperuloide and organic acids such as caprioc, caprylic and ursolic acids. While the plant enjoys an outstanding anecdotal reputation regarding these maladies and shows promise as an anti-cancer agent in mice experiments, many purported benefits of using M. citrifolia topically or internally have yet to be supported by published data from peer-reviewed clinical trials involving humans. Nevertheless, M. citrifolia has attained significant economic importance worldwide through a variety of health and cosmetic products made from its leaves and fruit. These products, including fruit juice and powders derived from fruit or foliage, are some of the most important botanical remedies and food supplements currently traded on the international market (Nguyen and Nguyen, 2003Janick and Paull, 2008​). The ethnomedicinal and pharmaceutical properties are reviewed by Macpherson et al., 2007, Assi et al. (2017)Ali et al. (2016) and Torres et al. (2017)Gu et al. (2018) demonstrated that leaf extracts enhanced osteogenic differentiation in human cell lines. Pandy and Vijeepallam (2017) showed that methanolic fruit extracts, specifically the scopoletin and rutin components, alleviated symptoms of schizophrenia in mice.

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

References

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Chromosome Counts Database, 2018. In: Chromosome Counts Database, http://ccdb.tau.ac.il/home/

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Assi, R. A., Darwis, Y., Abdulbaqu, I. M., Khan, A. A., Lim, V. H., Laghari, M. H., 2017. Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A comprehensive review on its industrial uses, pharmacological activities, and clinical trials. 10(5), 691-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.06.018

Aurait Supreme Pty Ltd, 2008. Morinda citrifolia cv. Allright. 21(4), 373-375. https://www.ipaustralia.gov.au/sites/g/files/net856/f/journals/pvj_vol_21_4.pdf

Bhalerao, P. P., Maheshwarappa, H. P., Patil, S. J., 2016. Evaluation of noni (Morinda citrofolia) as a mixed crop in coconut garden under South Gujarat condition. 4(1), 52-54.

Bhoomika, H. R., Vasundhara, M., Santosh, K. G., 2017. Plant growth and yield in moni (Morinda citrifolia L.) as influenced by integrated nutrient management practices. 35(1B), 570-574. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

Bordallo, P. N., Monteiro, A. M. R., Sousa, J. A., Aragão, F. A. S., 2017. Molecular marker-based genetic diversity analysis of scantly studied Brazilian accessions of a medicinal plant, Morinda citrifolia L. (noni). 16(1), 16019531. http://geneticsmr.com/sites/default/files/articles/year2017/vol16-1/pdf/gmr-16-01-gmr.16019531.pdf doi: 10.4238/gmr16019531

Cárdenas-Coronel, W. G., Carrillo-López, A., Vélez de la Rocha, R., Labavitch, J. M., Báez-Sañudo, M. A., Heredia, J. B., Zazueta-Morales, J. J., Vega-García, M. O., Sañudo-Barajas, J. A., 2016. Biochemistry and cell wall changes associated with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit ripening. 64(1), 302-309. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03681

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

EFSA, 2009. Opinion on the safety of Tahitian Noni® 'Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit puree and concentrate' as a novel food ingredient. 7(4), Article 998. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/998.pdf

Elakkuvan, S., Manivannan, K., 2010. An improvised method for breaking the dormancy of noni seeds [Morinda citrifolia var. citrifolia (L.)]. 10(2), 875-880. http://www.plantarchives.org/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Francis, J. K., 2004. General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service (IITF) (No.IITF-GTR-26), vi + 830 pp.

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Govaerts R, 2017. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Groenendijk JJ, 1991. Morinda citrifolia L. Record from Proseabase. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N, Eds. PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. http://www.proseanet.org

Gu HanNa, Boonanantanasarn, K., Kang MoonKyu, Kim IkHwi, Woo KyungMi, Ryoo HyunMo, Baek JeongHwa, 2018. Morinda citrifolia leaf extract enhances osteogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. 21(1), 57-69. http://online.liebertpub.com/jmf doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.3933

Huang AoDan, Lan ZengQuan, Wu Tian, 2017. Regeneration of leaves of noni. 37(6), 749-756. http://journal.gxzw.gxib.cn/en/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, CABI.xviii + 954 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20113366221 doi:10.1079/9780851996387.0000

Kairo, M., Ali, B., Cheesman, O., Haysom, K., Murphy, S., 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy . Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International.132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Khandekar, R. G., Nagwekar, D. D., Sawant, V. S., Gurav, S. S., Haldankar, P. M., 2015. Morinda citrifolia as a suitable mixed crop in coconut under Konkan region of Maharashtra. 33(2), 55-57. http://iscar.org.in/urls/publication.html

Kumara, N., Sachidananda, S. N., Gowda, B. H., 2016. Performance of cashew and noni inter cropping system under organic condition in Chikmagalore district of Karnataka. 34(4A), 1903-1906. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

Lee, J. J., Ahmad, S., Roslan, H. A., 2013. Transformation of Morinda citrifolia via simple mature seed imbibition method. 16(24), 1913-1921. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=pjbs.2013.1913.1921&org=11 doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.1913.1921

Little EL, Skolmen RG, 2003. Common forest trees of Hawaii, native and introduced. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa

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