Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Morus nigra
(black mulberry)

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Datasheet

Morus nigra (black mulberry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Morus nigra
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black mulberry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. nigra, black mulberry, is a slow-growing, deciduous tree. The species is known to have escaped from cultivation in Denmark and Austria, is weedy in Spain, southeastern Australian bushland, and South Africa (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Morus nigra (black mulberry); fruits, in various stages of ripening, and foliage.
TitleFruits
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); fruits, in various stages of ripening, and foliage.
Copyright©Bruno Navez/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); fruits, in various stages of ripening, and foliage.
FruitsMorus nigra (black mulberry); fruits, in various stages of ripening, and foliage.©Bruno Navez/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); habit in a wayside tree. Near Gostivisht, Albania. July 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); habit in a wayside tree. Near Gostivisht, Albania. July 2013.
Copyright©Malenki-2013/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); habit in a wayside tree. Near Gostivisht, Albania. July 2013.
HabitMorus nigra (black mulberry); habit in a wayside tree. Near Gostivisht, Albania. July 2013.©Malenki-2013/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); habit. Mature tree, perhaps centuries old. Slovenia. December 2008.
TitleHabit.
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); habit. Mature tree, perhaps centuries old. Slovenia. December 2008.
Copyright©Miloslav Bahna-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); habit. Mature tree, perhaps centuries old. Slovenia. December 2008.
Habit.Morus nigra (black mulberry); habit. Mature tree, perhaps centuries old. Slovenia. December 2008.©Miloslav Bahna-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); trunk and bark. Belgium. March 2007.
TitleTrunk and bark
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); trunk and bark. Belgium. March 2007.
CopyrightPublic Domain/Released by Wouter Hagens-2007
Morus nigra (black mulberry); trunk and bark. Belgium. March 2007.
Trunk and barkMorus nigra (black mulberry); trunk and bark. Belgium. March 2007.Public Domain/Released by Wouter Hagens-2007
Morus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage.
Copyright©Meneerke Bloem-2009/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage.
Flowers and foliageMorus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage.©Meneerke Bloem-2009/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage. Belgium. May 2007.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage. Belgium. May 2007.
CopyrightPublic Domain/Released by Wouter Hagens-2007
Morus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage. Belgium. May 2007.
Flowers and foliageMorus nigra (black mulberry); flowers and foliage. Belgium. May 2007.Public Domain/Released by Wouter Hagens-2007
Morus nigra (black mulberry); female flowers of a monoecious variety.
TitleFemale flowers
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); female flowers of a monoecious variety.
Copyright©J.J. Harrison-/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); female flowers of a monoecious variety.
Female flowersMorus nigra (black mulberry); female flowers of a monoecious variety.©J.J. Harrison-/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); freshly picked and very ripe fruits in hand. Albania. July 2013.
TitleFruits
CaptionMorus nigra (black mulberry); freshly picked and very ripe fruits in hand. Albania. July 2013.
Copyright©Malenki-2013/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Morus nigra (black mulberry); freshly picked and very ripe fruits in hand. Albania. July 2013.
FruitsMorus nigra (black mulberry); freshly picked and very ripe fruits in hand. Albania. July 2013.©Malenki-2013/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Morus nigra L.

Preferred Common Name

  • black mulberry

International Common Names

  • English: black mulberrytree; black Persian; small fruited mulberry
  • Spanish: mora negra; moral negro; morera negra; morero
  • French: mûres; murier noir

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: amoreira negra
  • Cambodia: moon
  • Cuba: moral fruto negro; morera de España
  • East Africa: mforsadi
  • France: murier noire
  • Germany: Schwarzer Maulbeerbaum
  • India: shahtut; tut
  • Indonesia: murbei
  • Indonesia/Java: besaran
  • Indonesia/Sumatra: kitan
  • Italy: gelso nero
  • Netherlands: moerbei, zwarte
  • Pakistan: shahtut; tut
  • Portugal: amoreira-negra
  • Sweden: svart mullbär
  • Turkey: kara ag
  • Vietnam: dâu tam

EPPO code

  • MORNI (Morus nigra)

Trade name

  • šelkovica cernaja
  • tut

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. nigra, black mulberry, is a slow-growing, deciduous tree. The species is known to have escaped from cultivation in Denmark and Austria, is weedy in Spain, southeastern Australian bushland, and South Africa (Randall, 2012), and has been reported as invasive in southern Brazil (Gasperin and Pizo, 2009). Invasive traits include its longevity, rapid growth rate, tolerance for droughts, infertile and rocky soil, and resistance to cold, easy seed dispersal by biotic vectors attracted to its sweet, edible fruits, and repeated introductions for cultivation around the world. Considering current evidence, risk of introduction for this species is medium to high, although further research is needed.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Morus
  •                                 Species: Morus nigra

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Often called the mulberry family, Moraceae consists of about 40 genera and 1000 species of trees, shrubs, lianas, or rarely herbs, nearly all with milky sap, and mainly of tropical or subtropical origin (University of Hawaii, 2014). The milky sap of various Moraceae species contain ‘heart poisons’ that are used as dart poisons in some cultures; other plant parts such as leaves and fruit juices have also been reported to cause allergic and toxic reactions in humans and livestock (Frohne and Pfander, 2005).

The name Morus is the Latin name for mulberry, and may be derived from the Latin word ‘mora’ (‘delay’), referring to the late expansion of the buds (Smith, 1971; Orwa et al., 2009). It has also been speculated to originate from the Celtic word ‘mor’ (‘black’) in reference to the colour of some fruit (Orwa et al., 2009). The species name ‘nigra’ refers to the fruit colour of the species, although the fruits are not always black.

Morus nigra is more commonly used for fruit, while Morus alba (white mulberry) is better known for its connection with oriental silk production – the leaves are fed to silkworms.

Description

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M. nigra is a deciduous tree, 6-9 m in height, slender but with numerous branches; it tends to be a bush if not trained when young (Orwa et al., 2009). The tree has scaly bark and is usually kept pruned to a smaller, open, spreading shape. It can produce quite a dense and shady canopy. Leaves are rough on upper surfaces and pubescent underneath, 7-12.5 cm long, often producing leaves of several different shapes, with 1 or more lobes, multilobed leaves often appearing on the same branches as lobeless ones; abnormally shaped leaves usually produced from stem shoots or sucker growths, and frequently by very vigorous young branches. Flowers held on short, green, pendulous, nondescript catkins that appear in the axils of the current season’s growth and on spurs on older wood. The flowers appear in 1.3 cm scaly clusters, female flowers ripening quickly into 1.3-2.5 cm blackberry-shaped edible fruits. Botanically, the fruit is not a berry but a collective fruit, an ovoid syncarp, made up of achenes each of which is covered by a succulent calyx; the fleshy bases of pollinated flowers begin to swell and ultimately become completely altered in texture and colour, becoming succulent, fat and full of juice. In appearance, each tiny swollen flower roughly resembles the individual drupe of a blackberry. The colour of the fruit does not identify the mulberry species which are better differentiated by their leaf and wood characteristics.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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M. nigra is widely cultivated in tropical regions and is speculated to originate from southwestern Asia (Wiersema and Leon, 1999). Grieve (1931) reported it as growing wild in ‘northern Asia Minor, Armenia and the Southern Caucasus region’, and as cultivated throughout Europe, as far north as southern Sweden. Black mulberry has also become seminaturalized in parts of southern Africa and has been planted only to a limited degree in America, mostly on the Pacific coast. Some were planted in the American South early in the 20th century, but did not fare well in the humid summers and colder winters.

Although reportedly part of thrushes’ diets in southern Brazil (Gasperin and Pizo, 2009), and listed as invasive in Parana (Biondi and Muller, 2013), the species was not included in Forzza et al.’s (2010) work on Brazil.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
AzerbaijanPresent Planted
ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentIntroducedLim, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized; northwestern
-HaryanaPresent Planted
-KarnatakaPresent Planted
-Uttar PradeshPresent Planted
-West BengalPresent Planted
IndonesiaPresent Planted
-SulawesiPresent Planted
-SumatraPresent Planted
IranPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009; Lim, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014
IraqPresentLim, 2012Cultivated
IsraelPresent Planted
JapanPresent Planted
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
Korea, DPRPresent Planted
Korea, Republic ofPresent Planted
PakistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
Sri LankaPresentLim, 2012Cultivated
TurkeyPresent Planted
TurkmenistanPresent Planted
UzbekistanPresent Planted

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Weed
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalized

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedBritton, 1918
MexicoPresentLim, 2012Cultivated
USAPresentLim, 2012Naturalized in southeastern USA
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
-HawaiiPresentLim, 2012Cultivated

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BrazilPresentLim, 2012Cultivated
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Biondi and Muller, 2013
ColombiaPresentLim, 2012Cultivated
PeruPresentLim, 2012Cultivated

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Cultivation escape
Czech RepublicPresent Planted
DenmarkPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Cultivation escape
GreecePresent Planted
HungaryPresent Planted
ItalyPresent Planted Vivarelli and Alvisi, 1934
-SicilyPresentIntroducedSpina, 1954
NetherlandsPresent Planted
Russian FederationPresent Planted
SlovakiaPresent Planted
SpainPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Weedy in Andalucia
SwedenPresentIntroducedGrieve, 1931
UKPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalized in England
UkrainePresent Planted
Yugoslavia (former)Present Planted

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012South-east Australian bushland
-New South WalesPresent Planted
New ZealandPresent Planted

History of Introduction and Spread

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Having been in domestication since before Roman times, M. nigra or black mulberry is an ancient cultigen of unknown origin, possibly the Middle East, that is widely planted in all warm temperate regions of Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Hawaii as a source of fruits (Wyk, 2005; Lim, 2012). The species is mentioned by most early Greek and Roman writers, and is presumed to have been introduced to southern Europe from Iran (Grieve, 1931). Vivarelli and Alvisi (1934) report that M. nigra was cultivated in classical times in Italy, and was grown in Greece and Italy for the silk worm industry until the introduction of Morus alba, which is of greater nutritive value for silk worms.

In the West Indies, the species was present in Bermuda by 1918 where it was reported by Britton to be growing in “thickets, roadsides and about houses” and to be an introduction from Europe (Britton, 1918). However in volume 5 of Britton and Wilson’s work on Puerto Rico (Britton and Wilson, 1924), the plant was correctly identified as originating from Asia, and as an introduction to Puerto Rico for cultivation of its fruits. Volume 6 of the same work (Britton and Wilson, 1926) additionally reported the species to have been the subject of much experimentation as food for silkworms at the Insular Experiment Station, Rio Piedras.

M. nigra was present in the UK by the early sixteenth century, but it is possible that it was a much earlier introduction into the UK by the Romans (Grieve, 1931). Grieve reported in 1931 that the earliest mulberry tree then present in England had been introduced from Persia (Iran) in 1548. M. nigra was widely planted in England following recommendation by King James I, although he encouraged cultivation for silkworms, which prefer the related Morus alba (Grieve, 1931).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for this species is medium to high. M. nigra is known to have escaped from cultivation in Denmark and Austria, is weedy in Spain, America, southeastern Australian bushland, and South Africa (Randall, 2012), and has been reported as invasive in southern Brazil (Gasperin and Pizo, 2009; Biondi and Muller, 2013). Invasive traits include its longevity, rapid growth rate, tolerance of droughts, infertile and rocky soil, resistance to cold, easy seed dispersal by birds and other animals attracted to its sweet, edible fruits, and a history of repeated introductions for cultivation around the world. Considering current evidence risk of introduction for this species is medium to high, although further research is needed.

Habitat

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M. nigra occurs in coastal and warm, arid places, and is cultivated in agricultural and garden settings. It has also been reported to escape from cultivation. In addition to its use as a crop, roadside, and home garden species, M. nigra has also been used in agroforestry as a windbreak, live fence, and shelter/shade tree (Hanelt et al., 2001; Orwa et al., 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The gametophytic count for this species is 154 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014). The ploidy level is very high, the highest of any plant, in black mulberry (2n = 22x = 308).

Reproductive Biology

Some mulberries exist as male or female trees (dioecious), so both will be required in order to produce fruit. Trees will sometimes change sex and do not bear much fruit for the first 15 years. High temperatures, strong light and long days favour maleness in mulberries, with their opposites, as well as high humidity, favouring the production of female flowers. The species is wind pollinated, and some cultivars will set fruit without any pollination, for example in California, USA. The self-fertile trees commonly produce two crops a year (Orwa et al., 2009). Self-fruitful trees are preferred.

Longevity

M. nigra is long-living and can apparently produce fruit for hundreds of years (Orwa et al., 2009). In the 1930s, the oldest tree growing in England, UK, was reputed to have been planted in 1548 (Grieve, 1931).

Environmental Requirements

Black mulberries can be grown in warm temperate climates, the subtropics and the high-altitude tropics. It is the least cold hardy of the mulberries, compared with M. alba and Morus rubra (American red mulberry). It is deciduous and may require a short chilling period. M. nigra thrives in warm-temperate regions with long, hot summers. It can tolerate drought, infertile soils, and cold temperatures down to -10°C but does not do well in hot tropical zones with humid summers, and grows best at lower altitudes when sheltered from wind and in coastal areas. It prefers warm, well-drained soil such as deep loams and in cultivation it is recommended to avoid planting the species in shallow, chalk or gravelly soils. The species generally occurs from between 0 and 2000 m (Hanelt et al., 2001; Orwa et al., 2009; Lim 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
37 25 300 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 25 38
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 32 43
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 29

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration26number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Erysiphe geniculata Pathogen
Phyllactinia guttata Pathogen

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. nigra has been intentionally dispersed by man for crop cultivation, agroforestry use, and as an ornamental (Hanelt et al., 2001). It has also been dispersed through biotic factors, as its fruit is edible and attractive; in Brazil, for example, the fruits of the species are reportedly eaten by birds and its seed can thus be dispersed both locally and over longer distances (Gasperin and Pizo, 2009).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWidely cultivated Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Randall, 2012; Wyk BEvan, 2005
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSpecies is known to escape from cultivation and naturalize Yes Randall, 2012
FoodEdible fruits Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Garden waste disposalSpecies is known to escape from cultivation and naturalize Yes Randall, 2012
Hedges and windbreaksUsed as a live fence, shade, shelter, and as windbreak as it is wind-resistant Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Medicinal use Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Orwa et al., 2009
Ornamental purposesCultivated for ornamental purposes in home gardens and roadsides Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSpecies has been widely introduced as a crop species Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Wyk BEvan, 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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M. nigra is known to cause a negative impact on non-native environments. It readily escapes from cultivation due to the wide dispersal of its seed by biotic vectors, grows rapidly, outcompetes other species for nutrients, and can reportedly produce fruits for hundreds of years (Orwa et al., 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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This species has a number of recorded uses, but perhaps is most well-known for its edible fruit. Fruits of M. nigra are large and juicy, with a congenial blend of sweetness and tartness that makes it the best-flavoured species of mulberry, superior in taste to the white mulberry Morus alba and commonly used locally for marmalade, syrup, and jellies (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; Bircher and Bircher, 2000). Grieve (1931) gives recipes for mulberry wine and mulberry jam made from M. nigra.

M. nigra is also used for a variety of other uses: the dead branches are useful as firewood, the bark is used in Japan to make an ‘artificial cotton’ textile fibre, the wood is hard and water-resistant and used in construction and to make furniture, barrels, caskets, snuffboxes, and cups, the fruit and bark are used in India for cosmetics, the fruit, bark, and leaves are used as a dyestuff, and the fruits are fermented and made into an alcoholic drink in places such as Greece and the UK (Hanelt et al., 2001; Orwa et al., 2009; Lim, 2012).

The species is a popular ornamental tree in gardens and roadsides, and also used for bonsai or small indoor plants. It has also been used in agroforestry as a living fence, windbreak, shelter or shade tree (Orwa et al., 2009; Lim, 2012).

Finally, M. nigra has uses in traditional medicine. Orwa et al. (2009) report: “The main use of M. nigra in modern medicine is for the preparation of a syrup obtained from the ripe fruit employed to flavour or colour other medicines. It is a dark violet or purple liquid, with a faint odour and a refreshing, sweet-acid taste. M. nigra leaves are used in pharmacy for their astringent properties. M. nigra has laxative and antipyretic properties. The bark is a reputed to be anthelmintic, used to expel tapeworms. A leaf, flower or root decoction can be gargled for diabetes; fever, sore throat and swollen vocal chords are treated with fruit juice.”

Black mulberry has been used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal ailments. Akhlaq et al. (2016) demonstrated prokinetic, laxative and antidiarrhoeal effects in animal models via cholinomimetic, antimuscarinic and Ca2+ antagonistic mechanisms, respectively. Chen et al. (2016) demonstrated that the total flavonoids content extracted from fruits was 20.9 mg/g (dry weight). Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (8.3 mg/g) and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (2.9 mg/g) were identified. Tests on mice showed that the extract possessed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects likely due to antioxidant activity and by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food for silkworms

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Alcohol
  • Bark products
  • Carved material
  • Cosmetics
  • Dye/tanning
  • Dyestuffs
  • Fibre
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Wood Products

Top of page

Boats

Charcoal

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Cooperage
  • Crates

Furniture

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For light construction

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Further research is needed to assess the invasiveness of this species. While it is currently reported to be a cultivation escape in Austria and Denmark (Randall, 2012), and invasive in Parana, Brazil (Biondi and Muller, 2013), the combination of invasive traits and its continued cultivation in temperate regions around the world warrant a review of invasive status. Other areas of recommended areas for research include prevention and control methods of the species, important particularly for areas surrounding plantations and land where the species is cultivated.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anam Akhlaq, Mehmood MH, Abdul Rehman, Zohaib Ashraf, Sadia Syed, Bawany SA, Anwarul-Hassan Gilani, Maimoona Ilyas, Siddiqui BS, 2016. The prokinetic, laxative, and antidiarrheal effects of Morus nigra: possible muscarinic, Ca<sup></sup>2+</sup)> channel blocking, and antimuscarinic mechanisms. Phytotherapy Research, 30(8):1362-1376. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.5641/abstract

Barnea A, Yom Tov Y, Friedman J, 1992. Effect of frugivorous birds on seed dispersal and germination of multi-seeded fruits. Acta Oecologica, 13(2):209-219; 37 ref.

Besri M, 2005. Viscum cruciatum: a threat to the olive production in the Moroccan Rif Mountains. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the European meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops", Chania, Greece, 29-31 May 2003.], 28(9):169-173.

Bhattacharya SS, Chakraborty N, Rao KVSN, Sahakundu AK, 1993. Thrips of mulberry in West Bengal and the record of thrips infecting mulberry in India. Environment and Ecology, 11(1):239-240

Biondi D, Muller E, 2013. Invasive tree species in urban parks landscaping of Curitiba, PR. (Espécies arbóreas invasoras no paisagismo dos parques urbanos de Curitiba, PR.) Floresta, 43(1):69-82. http://ojs.c3sl.ufpr.br/ojs2/index.php/floresta/article/view/28871/20138

Bircher AG, Bircher WH, 2000. Encyclopedia of fruit trees and edible flowering plants in Egypt and the subtropics. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press, 596 pp.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL, Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

Britton NL, Wilson P, 1926. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Volumen VI. New York, USA: Academy of Sciences, 629 pp.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Buchanan RA, 1989. Pied currawongs (Strepera graculina): their diet and role in weed dispersal in suburban Sydney, New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 111(1-4):241-255

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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02/02/2015 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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