Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Monilinia laxa
(blossom blight)

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Datasheet

Monilinia laxa (blossom blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Monilinia laxa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blossom blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brown rot and sporulation on peach caused by M. laxa.
TitleSymptoms on peach fruit
CaptionBrown rot and sporulation on peach caused by M. laxa.
CopyrightM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Brown rot and sporulation on peach caused by M. laxa.
Symptoms on peach fruitBrown rot and sporulation on peach caused by M. laxa.M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Infection of peach twig by M. laxa.
TitleInfected peach twig
CaptionInfection of peach twig by M. laxa.
CopyrightP. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
Infection of peach twig by M. laxa.
Infected peach twigInfection of peach twig by M. laxa.P. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
Detail of twig blight by M. laxa on peach twig, showing gumming and wilting.
TitleSymptoms on peach twig
CaptionDetail of twig blight by M. laxa on peach twig, showing gumming and wilting.
CopyrightP. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
Detail of twig blight by M. laxa on peach twig, showing gumming and wilting.
Symptoms on peach twigDetail of twig blight by M. laxa on peach twig, showing gumming and wilting.P. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
M. laxa on mummified peaches.
TitleMummified peaches
CaptionM. laxa on mummified peaches.
CopyrightP. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
M. laxa on mummified peaches.
Mummified peachesM. laxa on mummified peaches.P. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
M. laxa blight on cherry fruit.
TitleCherry blossom blight
CaptionM. laxa blight on cherry fruit.
Copyright©AgrEvo
M. laxa blight on cherry fruit.
Cherry blossom blightM. laxa blight on cherry fruit.©AgrEvo
M. laxa symptoms on cherry fruit, showing conidial pustules.
TitleCherry fruit rot
CaptionM. laxa symptoms on cherry fruit, showing conidial pustules.
Copyright©AgrEvo
M. laxa symptoms on cherry fruit, showing conidial pustules.
Cherry fruit rotM. laxa symptoms on cherry fruit, showing conidial pustules.©AgrEvo
Blossom blight and gum exudation (arrowed) on apricot caused by M. laxa.
TitleSymptoms on apricot
CaptionBlossom blight and gum exudation (arrowed) on apricot caused by M. laxa.
CopyrightM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Blossom blight and gum exudation (arrowed) on apricot caused by M. laxa.
Symptoms on apricotBlossom blight and gum exudation (arrowed) on apricot caused by M. laxa.M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Perennial cankers around the base of dead twigs of apricot caused by M. laxa.
TitleCankers on apricot twigs
CaptionPerennial cankers around the base of dead twigs of apricot caused by M. laxa.
CopyrightM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Perennial cankers around the base of dead twigs of apricot caused by M. laxa.
Cankers on apricot twigsPerennial cankers around the base of dead twigs of apricot caused by M. laxa.M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Almond tree infected by M. laxa, showing branches blighted and without leaves.
TitleInfected almond tree
CaptionAlmond tree infected by M. laxa, showing branches blighted and without leaves.
CopyrightP. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
Almond tree infected by M. laxa, showing branches blighted and without leaves.
Infected almond treeAlmond tree infected by M. laxa, showing branches blighted and without leaves.P. Melgarejo & A. de Cal/CIT-INIA
TitleTwig blight of almond
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Twig blight of almond©AgrEvo
TitleConidiophores and conidia
Caption
CopyrightM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Conidiophores and conidiaM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey

Preferred Common Name

  • blossom blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Monilia cinerea Bonord.
  • Monilia laxa (Ehrenb.) Sacc. & Voglino
  • Monilia oregonensis Barss
  • Sclerotinia cerasi Woronin
  • Sclerotinia cinerea (Bonord.) J. Schröt.
  • Sclerotinia laxa Aderh. & Ruhland

International Common Names

  • English: blossom wilt; brown rot; brown rot of stone fruits; mummifying fruit; spur blight; twig canker; wither tip
  • Spanish: momificado de frutos; podredumbre parda
  • French: pourriture des fruits
  • Russian: monilialny ozhog

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: kafyavo gniene
  • Germany: Bluten und zweigdurre
  • Italy: marciume bruno
  • Serbia: susenja mladara

EPPO code

  • MONILA (Monilinia laxa)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Helotiales
  •                             Family: Sclerotiniaceae
  •                                 Genus: Monilinia
  •                                     Species: Monilinia laxa

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MoroccoPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadSchlagbauer and Holz (1987); Schlagbauer and Holz (1990); UK, CAB International (1991)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
AzerbaijanPresentDzhafarov (2002)
BhutanPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-JilinPresentBai RongLin (2002)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-XinjiangPresentNiu ChengWang et al. (2016)
IndiaPresentSharma and Kaul (1987); Sharma (1996); CABI (Undated)
-Himachal PradeshPresentGupta and Byrde (1988); Sharma (1991); Kaul and Sharma (1993)
IraqPresentAbbas et al. (1981); UK, CAB International (1991)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1991)

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadVasev (1983); UK, CAB International (1991); Tsonev et al. (1995)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadBlažková (1996); CABI (Undated)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pejcinovsky and Mihajlovic (1985)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentKalinichenko (1978)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
FinlandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
FrancePresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); Lafuste (1994); Faivre-Amiot and Geoffrion (1996); Delgado (1997)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadFicke and Schaefer (1978); UK, CAB International (1991); Ale-Agha (1997)
GreecePresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadKovács and Apostol (1990); UK, CAB International (1991)
IrelandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); Mancini and Cotroneo (1996); Ponti and Spada (1996); Tonini and Capriotti (1996)
LatviaPresentVolkova et al. (2013)
LithuaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Valiu?kaite et al. (2005)
MoldovaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
North MacedoniaPresentTrajčevski (2008)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
PolandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); Werner (1997)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadOprea (1987); UK, CAB International (1991); Bălan et al. (1995)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a); UK, CAB International (1991)Present based on regional distribution.
SerbiaPresentPerić et al. (2010)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadNitranský (1992)
SloveniaPresentMunda et al. (2004)
SpainPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadǺkesson (1985); UK, CAB International (1991)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); Tamm and Flückiger (1993); Viret (1997); CABI (Undated)
UkrainePresent, WidespreadVoronin (1990); UK, CAB International (1991)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadSholberg et al. (1981); Michailides et al. (1986); UK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-MassachusettsPresentCox et al. (2011)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1991); Cox et al. (2011)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-Rhode IslandPresentCox et al. (2011)
-WashingtonPresentByther (1991); UK, CAB International (1991)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1991)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJENKINS (1965)
-New South WalesPresentPenrose (1978); UK, CAB International (1991)
-QueenslandPresentMuirhead et al. (1983); UK, CAB International (1991)
-South AustraliaPresentMoller and Carter (1975); UK, CAB International (1991)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1991)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1991)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1991)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1991)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / mummification
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Antagonist Spores
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist Hyphae/Spores
Penicillium frequentans Antagonist Hyphae/Spores Spain Stone Fruits
Penicillium notatum Antagonist
Penicillium purpurogenum Antagonist Hyphae/Spores

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Abbas HK; Damirdagh IS; El-Behadli AH; Ogawa JM, 1981. Monilinia laxa on stone fruits in Iraq. Plant Disease, 65(11):916-917

Aderhold R; Ruhland W, 1905. Arbeiten aus der Biologischen Abteilung fnr Land-u. Forstwirtchaft, Berlin, 4:427-444.

Agrios GN, 1978. Plant pathology. Edition 2. London, UK: Academic Press Inc., 703 pp.

Akesson I, 1985. Plant protection year 1984 - horticulture. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 49(1/2):6-8

Ale-Agha N, 1997. Prunus species and their fungal floras (on leaves and fruits) in Duisberg North. Proceedings of the 49th International Symposium on Crop Protection, 6 May 1997, Gent, Belgium. Part IV. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wtenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 62:943-949.

Ale-Agha N; Dubos B; Grosclaude C; Ricard JL, 1974. Antagonism between nongerminated spores of Trichoderma viride and Botrytis cinerea, Monilia laxa, M. fructigena, and Phomopsis viticola. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(10):915-917

Bai RongLin, 2002. Symptoms and pathogens of nine diseases of ginseng. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 24(2):78-81.

Balan V; Stoian E; Stancu T; Ivascu A; Opera M; Mircea I; Valeriu S, 1995. Breeding for disease resistance in apricot: problems and prospects. Acta Horticulturae, No. 384:103-109; 3 ref.

Batra LR, 1979. First authenticated North American record of Monilinia fructigena, with notes on related species. Mycotaxon, 8(2):476-484

Batra LR, 1991. World species of Monilinia (Fungi): their ecology, biosystematics and control. Mycologia Memoir, No. 16, 246 pp.

Bennett AH; Wells JM, 1976. Hydraircooling: a new precooling method with special application for waxed peaches. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 101:428-431.

Blazkova J, 1996. Susceptibility of some apricot cultivars and genotypes to blossom infection from Monilinia laxa (Aderh. et Ruhl.). Vedecke Prace Ovocnarske, 15:115-123.

Bompeix G; Coeffic M; Greffier P, 1979. The control of peach rots caused by Monilia spp., Botrytis sp. and Rhizopus sp. Fruits, 34(6):423-430

Bonorden HF, 1851. Handbuch der Allgemeinen Mykologie. Berlin/Stuttgart, Germany.

Byrde RJW; Willetts HJ, 1977. The Brown Rot Fungi of Fruit. Their Biology and Control. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 171 pp.

Byther RS, 1991. Brown rot of stone fruits. Extension Bulletin - Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Home Economics, Washington State University, 1047:2 pp.

Ca±ez UM Jr; Ogawa JM, 1985. Parasitic fitness of benomyl-sensitive Monilinia laxa. Phytopathology, 75:1329.

Cal A de; Melgarejo P, 1992. Interactions of pesticides and mycoflora of peach twigs. Mycological Research, 96(12):1105-1113

Cal A de; Sagasta EM; Melgarejo P, 1988. Antifungal substances produced by Penicillium frequentans and their relationship to the biocontrol of Monilinia laxa. Phytopathology, 78(7):888-893

Campbell R, 1989. Biological control of microbial plant pathogens. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 218 pp.

Corke ATK; Hunter T; Collins SA, 1975. Silver leaf in plums. In: Report of Long Ashton Research Station for 1974. Long Ashton, UK: Long Ashton Research Station, 131-132.

Cox KD; Villani SM; Raes JJ; Freier J; Faubert H; Cooley D; Clements J, 2011. First reports of brown fruit rot on sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and plum (P. domestica) and shoot blight on apricot (P. armeniaca), kwanzan cherry (P. serrulata), and sweet cherry (P. avium) caused by Monilinia laxa in New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. Plant Disease, 95(12):1584-1585. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

De Cal A; Melgarejo P, 1999. Effects of long-wave UV light on Monilinia growth and identification of species. Plant Disease, 83:62-65.

Delgado M, 1997. Controlling storage diseases. Arboriculture Fruitie^grave~re, No. 505:19-21.

Dzhafarov IG, 2002. Protection of stone fruits from Monilia cinerea infection. Sadovodstvo i Vinogradarstvo, No.5:5-7.

Faivre-Amiot A; Geoffrion R, 1996. Monilioses des arbres et arbustes d'ornement. Phytoma, 481:42-44.

Ficke W; Schaefer HJ, 1978. Parasitic bark diseases of stone fruits and their control. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 32:162-164.

Fokkema NJ; Nooij MPde, 1981. The effect of fungicides on the microbial balance in the phyllosphere. EPPO Bulletin, 11(3):303-310

Foschi S; Roberti R; Brunelli A; Flori P, 1995. Application of antagonistic fungi against Monilinia laxa agent of fruit rot of peach. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 18(2):79-82; 4 ref.

Gilpatrick JD, 1981. Resistance to ergosterol biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides in laboratory strains of Monilinia fructicola. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 87:240.

Gilpatrick JD, 1982. Case study 2: Venturia of pome fruits and Monilinia of stone fruits. In: Dekker J, Georgopoulos SG, eds. Fungicide resistance in Crop Protection. Wageningen, Netherlands: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, 195-206.

Glpser G, 1979. Report on the occurrence of important diseases and pests on cultivated plants in Austria in the year 1977. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 45(7/12):153-164.

Green MB; Hartley GS; West TF, 1977. Chemicals for crop protection and pest control. Edition 2. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 291 pp.

Gril T; Javornik B; Munda A; Celar F; Jakse J, 2007. Intraspecific variability in the phytopathogenic fungus Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) honey. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [ed. by Macek, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia, 295-299.

Gupta GK; Byrde RJW, 1988. Monilinia laxa associated with blossom wilt of apricot and almond in Himachal Pradesh, India. Plant Pathology, 37(4):591-593

Harrison TH, 1933. Brown rot of fruits and associated diseases of deciduous fruit trees. I. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 67:131-177.

Harrison TH, 1935. Brown rot of fruits and associated diseases of deciduos fruit trees. II. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 68:154-176.

Honey EE, 1928. The monilioid species of Sclerotinia. Mycologia, 20:127-157.

Ingold CT, 1966. Spore release. In: Ainsworth GC, Sussman AS, eds. The Fungi. Vol. 2. New York, USA/London, UK: Academic Press, 679-707.

Janick J; Moore JN; eds, 1975. Advances in fruit breeding. Purdue, USA: Purdue University Press.

Jenkins PT, 1965. Sclerotinia laxa Aderh. & Ruhl.: a cause of brown rot of stone fruits not previously recorded in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 16:141-144.

Jenkins PT; Reinganum C, 1968. In: Australian Brown Rot Research Committee, ed. Report of the research work on brown rot of stone fruits. Melbourne, Australia: Government Printer, 48.

Kalinichenko RI, 1978. The main fungus diseases of stone fruit leaves and fruits in the Ukraine. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 12(1):27-32

Katan T; Shabi ES, 1981. Resistance to dicarboximide fungicides in laboratory isolates of Monilinia laxa. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 87:242.

Kaul JL; Sharma RL, 1993. Post-harvest fungal diseases of stone fruits in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Disease Research, 8(1):65-66; 6 ref.

Kovacs B; Apostol J, 1990. Sour cherry varieties resistant to fungal diseases. "Lippay Janos" tudamanyos ulesszak eloadasainak es posztereinek rovid osszefoglaloi, 7-8 November 1990, Kerteszeti szekcio, 112-113. Budapest, Hungary.

Lafuste JP, 1994. Peaches and apricots. Storage diseases. Arboriculture Fruitiere, No. 472:24-26

Larena I; Melgarejo P, 1993. The lytic enzymatic complex of Penicillium purpurogenum and its effects on Monilinia laxa. Mycological Research, 97(1):105-110

Larena I; Melgarejo P, 1996. Biological control of Monilinia laxa and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by a lytic enzyme-producing Penicillium purpurogenum. Biological Control, 6(3):361-367; 32 ref.

Lßnsky M; Necesany V, 1996. Aimed protection from blossom blight of sour cherry trees caused by Monilinia laxa (Aderh. et Ruhl/Honey). Ve^hacek~decke^acute~ Pra^acute~ce Ovocna^acute~r^hacek~ske^acute~, No. 15:103-113; 7 ref.

Madrigal C; Melgarejo P, 1995. Morphological effects of Epicoccum nigrum and its antibiotic flavipin on Monilinia laxa. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73(3):425-431

Madrigal C; Pascual S; Melgarejo P, 1994. Biological control of peach twig blight (Monilinia laxa) with Epicoccum nigrum. Plant Pathology, 43(3):554-561

Mancini G; Cotroneo A, 1996. Defence strategies against the principal fungal diseases on stone fruits in Piedmont. Informatore Agrario Supplemento, 52(15):4-9.

Mari M; Iori R; Leoni O; Marchi A, 1993. In vitro activity of glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates against postharvest fruit pathogens. Annals of Applied Biology, 123(1):155-164

Mari M; Iori R; Leoni O; Marchi A, 1996. Bioassays of glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates against postharvest pear pathogens. Plant Pathology, 45(4):753-760; 33 ref.

McClure TT, 1958. Brown and Rhizopus rots of peaches as affected by hydrocooling, fungicides, and temperature. Phytopathology, 48:322-324.

Melgarejo P; Cal A de; Sagasta EM, 1989. Influence of Penicillium frequentans and two of its antibiotics on production of stromata by Monilinia laxa in culture. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67(1):83-87

Melgarejo P; Carrillo R; M-Sagasta E, 1984. Fungal antagonism in relation to peaches. In: Woodbine, M, ed. Antimicrobials and Agriculture. London, UK: Butterworths, 127-136.

Melgarejo P; Carrillo R; M-Sagasta E, 1985. Mycoflora of peach twigs and flowers and its possible significance in biological control of Monilinia laxa.. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(2):313-317; [3 tab.]; 20 ref.

Melgarejo P; Carrillo R; Sagasta EM, 1986. Potential for biological control of Monilinia laxa in peach twigs. Crop Protection, 5(6):422-426; 17 ref.

Michailides TJ; Ogawa JM; Opgenorth DC, 1986. Distribution of Monilinia species and detection of benomyl-resistant isolates in prune and apricot orchards in California. Phytopathology, 76:845 (Abstr.).

Michailides TJ; Ogawa JM; Opgenorth DC, 1987. Shift of Monilinia spp. and distribution of isolates sensitive and resistant to benomyl in California prune and apricot orchards. Plant Disease, 71(10):893-896

Moller WJ; Carter MV, 1975. Sclerotinia laxa detected in South Australia. Australian Plant Pathology Society Newsletter, 4(1):5

Mordue JEM, 1979. Sclerotinia laxa. In: CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 619. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Muirhead IF; Heaton JB; Dullahide SR, 1983. Monilinia laxa recorded in Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 12(2):28-29

Munda A; Zerjav M; Vir?cek Marn M, 2004. Extent and ecology of fungi of the genus Monilinia in Slovenia. (Raz?irjenost in ekologija gliv iz rodu Monilinia v Sloveniji.) In: Zbornik referatov 1. Slovenskega sadjarskega kongresa z mednarodno udelezbo, Kr?ko, Slovenia, 24-26 marec 2004. Del 2 [ed. by Hudina, M.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Slovenian fruit growing association, University of Ljubljana, Biotechnology Faculty, 443-447.

Nguyen-The C; Hugueney R; Arnoux M, 1989. Contribution à l'étude des voies de pénétration de parasites fongiques des nectarines Monilinia laxa (AscomycFte-DiscomycFte) et Rhizopus stolonifer (ZygomycFte-Mucorale). Agronomie, 9:271-276.

Nielsen SL; Schadegg E, 1987. Chemical control of shoot wilt on sour cherries. Frugtavleren, 16(5):172-175

Nitransky S, 1992. Vitality of trees of some apricot varieties 12 years after planting. Zahradnictvi, 19(4):283-294

Niu ChengWang; Wang JingRu; Zhu XiaoQiong; Chen XiaoYu; Guo LiYun, 2016. Brown rot pathogens on stone and pome fruit trees in Xinjiang wild forest. Mycosystema, 35(12):1514-1525. http://journals.im.ac.cn/jwxten/ch/index.aspx

Ogawa JM; Manji BT; Bostock RM; Canez VM; Bose EA, 1984. Detection and characterization of benomyl-resistant Monilinia laxa on apricots. Plant Disease, 68(1):29-31

Ogawa JM; Manji BT; Schreader WR, 1975. Monilinia life cycle on sweet cherries and its control by overhead sprinkler fungicide applications. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(11):876-880

Ogawa JM; Zehr EI; Bird GW; Ritchie DF; Uriu K; Uyemoto JK(Editors), 1995. Compendium of stone fruit diseases. St. Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 98 pp.

Oprea M, 1987. Species of microfungi associated with apricot decline. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 20:69-76; 6 ref.

Pascal T; Levigneron A; Kervella J; Nguyen-The C, 1994. Evaluation of two screening methods for resistance of apricot, plum and peach to Monilinia laxa. Euphytica, 77(1/2):19-23

Pascual S; Cal A de; Melgarejo P, 1990. Induction of conidia production by Monilinia laxa on agar media by acetone. Phytopathology, 80(5):494-496

Pejcinovski F; Mihajlovic D, 1985. Contribution to the study of the aetiology of wilt and dieback of one-year-old shoots, branches and isolated trunks of apricot in some localities in Skopje. Zastita Bilja, 36(2):129-142

Penrose LJ, 1978. Distribution of Sclerotinia laxa in New South Wales. Plant Disease Survey 1976-77. Rydalmere, New South Wales, Australia: Department of Agriculture, 31-33

Penrose LJ; Tarran J; Wong A-L, 1976. First record of Sclerotinia laxa Aderh. & Ruhl. in New South Wales: differentiation from S. fructicola (Wint.) Rehm. by cultural characteristics and electrophoresis. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(4):547-556

Peric S; Zivic J; Vojinovic M; Jovanovic G, 2010. Effects of mechanical methods in supression of pathogen Monilinia laxa (Ader. and Ruhi.). (Efekti primene mehanickih mera u suzbijanju patogena Monilinia laxa (Ader. i Ruhl.).) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 38(1):55-59.

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Schlagbauer HE; Holz G, 1990. Infection and colonization of plum blossoms by Monilinia laxa. Phytophylactica, 22(4):419-422

Sharma RL, 1991. Prevalence of storage rots of China pear in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Disease Research, 6(1):86-88

Sharma RL, 1996. Effect of temperature in management of postharvest diseases of pears. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26:233-234.

Sharma RL; Kaul JL, 1987. Blossom blight and fruit rot of apple. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(2):205-206

Sharma RL; Kaul JL, 1989. Incidence of brown rot (Monilinia spp.) of apple in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 19(2):208-211

Sholberg PL; Ogawa JM; Manji BT, 1981. Diseases of prune blossoms, fruits, and leaves. In: Prune orchard management. California, USA: University of California Spec. Publ. 3269, 121-125.

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Tamm L; Fluckiger W, 1993. Influence of temperature and moisture on growth, spore production, and conidial germination of Monilinia laxa. Phytopathology, 83(12):1321-1326

Tonini G; Capriotti M, 1996. Postharvest damage to stone fruits and its prevention. Informatore Agrario Supplemento, 52(15):32-45.

Trajcevski T, 2008. Efficiency of chemical protection of plums against Monilinia laxa. (Djelotvornost kemijske za?tite ?ljive od napada patogena Monilinia laxa.) Glasnik Za?tite Bilja, 31(5):90-94. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

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Vasev A, 1983. Evaluation of losses due to diseases and pests and effectiveness of cherry crop protection. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 20(5):10-19

Viret O, 1997. Recommandations de lutte contre les principales maladies des arbres fruitiers. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 29:1-47.

Volkova J; Vilka L; Stanke L; Rancane R; Bazenova A, 2013. Molecular characterization of Monilinia laxa and M. fructigena causing brown rot of sweet cherry in Zemgale Region of Latvia. Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, 13(1):165-172.

Voronin eI, 1990. Withering of fruit and nut crops in the Crimea. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskii^breve~ Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva imeni N. I. Vavilova, No. 205:49-52; 4 ref.

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Wells JM; Bennett AH, 1976. Hydrocooling and hydraircooling with fungicides for reduction of postharvest decay of peaches. Phytopathology, 66(6):801-805

Werner M, 1997. Cherries are diseased again. Ochrona Ros^acute~lin, 41(10):13-14.

Wilcox WF, 1989. Influence of environment and inoculum density on the incidence of brown rot blossom blight of sour cherry. Phytopathology, 79(5):530-534

Willetts HJ, 1969. Cultural characteristics of the brown rot fungi (Sclerotinia spp.). Mycologia 61:332-339.

Willetts HJ; Byrde RJW; Fielding AH; Wong A-L, 1977. The taxonomy of the brown rot fungi (Monilinia spp.) related to their extracellular cell wall-degrading enzymes. Journal of General Microbiology, 103(1):77-83

Wormald H, 1921. On the ocurrence in Britain of the ascigerous stage of "Brown Rot" fungus. Annals of Botany, 35:125-135.

Wormald H, 1954. The brown rot diseases of fruit trees. Technical Bulletin of the Ministry of Agriculture No.3. London, UK: HMSO.

Yash Gupta; Agarwala RK, 1988. Reaction of fruits of peach cultivars to brown rot. Indian Phytopathology, 41(3):497-499

Zehr EI, 1982. Control of brown rot in peach orchards. Plant Disease, 66(12):1101-1105

Distribution References

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Penrose L J, 1978. Distribution of Sclerotinia laxa in New South Wales. In: Plant Disease Survey 1976-77. Rydalmere, New South Wales, Australia: Department of Agriculture. 31-33.

Perić S, Živić J, Vojinović M, Jovanović G, 2010. Effects of mechanical methods in supression of pathogen Monilinia laxa (Ader. and Ruhi.). (Efekti primene mehaničkih mera u suzbijanju patogena Monilinia laxa (Ader. i Ruhl.).). Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor). 38 (1), 55-59.

Ponti I, Spada G, 1996. Fungal diseases of peach in Emilia-Romagna and relative lines of defence. (Malattie crittogamiche del pesco in Emilia-Romagna e relativi indirizzi di difesa.). Informatore Agrario Supplemento. 52 (15), 13-16.

Schlagbauer H E, Holz G, 1987. Blossom blight and brown rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa in the Cape Province of South Africa. Phytophylactica. 19 (4), 513-514.

Schlagbauer H E, Holz G, 1990. Infection and colonization of plum blossoms by Monilinia laxa. Phytophylactica. 22 (4), 419-422.

Sharma R L, 1991. Prevalence of storage rots of China pear in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Disease Research. 6 (1), 86-88.

Sharma R L, 1996. Effect of temperature in management of postharvest diseases of pears. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 26 (2), 233-234.

Sharma R L, Kaul J L, 1987. Blossom blight and fruit rot of apple. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology. 5 (2), 205-206.

Sholberg PL, Ogawa JM, Manji BT, 1981. Diseases of prune blossoms, fruits, and leaves. In: Prune orchard management, 3269 California, USA: University of California Spec. Publ. 121-125.

Tamm L, Flückiger W, 1993. Influence of temperature and moisture on growth, spore production, and conidial germination of Monilinia laxa. Phytopathology. 83 (12), 1321-1326. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-83-1321

Tonini G, Capriotti M, 1996. Postharvest damage to stone fruits and its prevention. (Alterazioni post-raccolta delle drupacee e loro prevenzione.). Informatore Agrario Supplemento. 52 (15), 32-45.

Trajčevski T, 2008. Efficiency of chemical protection of plums against Monilinia laxa. (Djelotvornost kemijske zaštite šljive od napada patogena Monilinia laxa.). Glasnik Zaštite Bilja. 31 (5), 90-94. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

Tsonev R, Tsoneva E, V'lcheva K, 1995. Evaluation of apricot varieties for susceptibility to Monilia laxa (Ehr.). Rasteniev"dni Nauki. 32 (7/8), 138-140.

UK, CAB International, 1991. Monilinia laxa. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 44.

Vasev A, 1983. Evaluation of losses due to diseases and pests and effectiveness of cherry crop protection. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka. 20 (5), 10-19.

Viret O, 1997. Recommendations for control of the principal diseases of fruit trees. (Recommandations de lutte contre les principales maladies des arbres fruitiers.). Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture. 29 (1), 47-50.

Volkova J, Vilka L, Stanke L, Rancane R, Bazenova A, 2013. Molecular characterization of Monilinia laxa and M. fructigena causing brown rot of sweet cherry in Zemgale Region of Latvia. Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis. 13 (1), 165-172.

Voronin Ė I, 1990. Withering of fruit and nut crops in the Crimea. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskiĭ Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva imeni N. I. Vavilova. 49-52.

Werner M, 1997. Cherries are diseased again. (Wiśnie znów chorują.). Ochrona Roślin. 41 (10), 13-14.

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