Monochamus titillator (southern pine sawyer)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Monochamus titillator (Fabricius, 1775)
Preferred Common Name
- southern pine sawyer
Other Scientific Names
- Cerambyx titillator Goeze
- Lamia titillator Fabricius
- Monochamus angusticollis Casey
- Monochamus dentator Bowditch
- Monochamus titillator obesus Casey
- Monohamus titillator Haldeman
International Common Names
- English: pine, sawyer, southern
- MONCTI (Monochamus titillator)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page Although M. titillator has been recorded from Cuba and Colombia, there are no known records of it becoming established outside its natural range in North America. Nonetheless, the species should be considered as a risk species wherever its host genera (Pinus) is found because it can be easily transported there in untreated wood.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Cerambycidae
- Genus: Monochamus
- Species: Monochamus titillator
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Netherlands||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey||NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2014)|
|Canada||Present, Localized||EPPO (2014)|
|-Ontario||Present||Native||Linsley and Chemsak (1984); EPPO (2014)|
|Cuba||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941)|
|United States||Present, Localized||EPPO (2014)|
|-Alabama||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Arkansas||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Florida||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Georgia||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Illinois||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Indiana||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Kansas||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941)|
|-Kentucky||Present||Native||Linsley and Chemsak (1984); EPPO (2014)|
|-Louisiana||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Michigan||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Minnesota||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941)|
|-Mississippi||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Missouri||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941)|
|-Nebraska||Present||Native||Linsley and Chemsak (1984)|
|-New Hampshire||Present||EPPO (2014)|
|-New Jersey||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-New York||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-North Dakota||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Ohio||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Native||Linsley and Chemsak (1984)|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-South Carolina||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Tennessee||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Texas||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-Virginia||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|-West Virginia||Present||EPPO (2014)|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Native||Dillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)|
|Colombia||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)||CABI (Undated); Dillon and Dillon (1941)||Original citation: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), 2014|
Habitat ListTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / frass visible|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Natural enemiesTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Wood||larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Unprocessed green wood; pallets, crates, dunnage||No|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
ReferencesTop of page
Allison JD; Borden JH; McIntosh RL; Groot Pde; Gries R, 2001. Kairomonal response by four Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to bark beetle pheromones. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(4):633-646; 42 ref.
Allison JD; Morewood WD; Borden JH; Hein KE; Wilson IM, 2003. Differential bio-activity of Ips and Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) pheromone components for Monochamus clamator and M. scutellatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environmental Entomology, 32(1):23-30; 39 ref.
Baker WL, 1972. Eastern Forest Insects. USDA, Miscellaneous Publication 1175, 642 pp.
Bennett WH; Chellman CW; Holt WR, 1958. Insect enemies of southern pines. US Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service Southern Forest Experiment Station, Occasional Paper 164.
Billings RF, 1985. Southern pine bark beetles and associated insects. Effects of rapidly-released host volatiles on response to aggregation pheromones. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 99(5):483-491
Billings RF; Cameron RS, 1984. Kairomonal responses of Coleoptera, Monochamus titillator (Cerambycidae), Thanasimus dubius (Cleridae), and Temnochila virescens (Trogositidae), to behavioral chemicals of southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 13(6):1542-1548
Carling DE, 1984. Some insect associates of the pinewood nematode in eastern Virginia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 14:826-829.
Cerezke HF, 1975. White-spotted sawyer beetle in logs. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report NOR-X-129.
Coulson RN; Pope DN; Gagne JA; Fargo WS; Pulley PE; Edson LJ; Wagner TL, 1980. Impact of foraging by Monochamus titillator (Col.: Cerambycidae) on within-tree populations of Dendroctonus frontalis (Col.: Scolytidae). Entomophaga, 25(2):155-170
de Groot P; Nott RW, 2001. Evaluation of trap designs to capture pine sawyer beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3:107-111.
Dillon LS; Dillon ES, 1941. The tribe Monochamini in the western hemisphere (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery Scientific Publications Number 1.
Dodds KJ; Stephen FM, 2000. Partial age-specific life tables for Monochamus titillator in Dendroctonus frontalis infested loblolly pines. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 97(3):331-338; 26 ref.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fatzinger CW; Siegfried BD; Wilkinson RC; Nation JL, 1987. Trans-verbenol, turpentine, and ethanol as trap baits for the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans, and other forest Coleoptera in north Florida. Journal of Entomological Science, 22(3):201-209
Kinn DN, 1987. Incidence of pinewood nematode dauerlarvae and phoretic mites associated with long-horned beetles in central Louisiana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17:187-190.
Kinn DN; Linit MJ, 1989. A key to phoretic mites commonly found on long-horned beetles emerging from southern pines. Research Note - Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SO-357:8 pp.
Lindquist EE; Wu KW, 1991. Review of mites of the genus Mucroseius (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) associated with sawyer beetles (Cerambycidae: Monochamus and Mecynippus) and pine wood nematodes (Aphelenchoididae: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle), with descriptions of six new species from Japan and North America, and notes on their previous misidentification. Canadian Entomologist, 123(4):875-927
Linsley EG; Chemsak JA, 1984. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA: University of California Publications in Entomology, Vol. 102.
Luzzi MA; Wilkinson RC; Tarjan AC, 1984. Transmission of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to slash pine trees and log bolts by a cerambycid beetle, Monochamus titillator, in Florida. Journal of Nematology, 16(1):37-40
McIntosh RL; Katinic PJ; Allison JD; Borden JH; Downey DL, 2001. Comparative efficacy of five types of trap for woodborers in the Cerambycidae, Buprestidae and Siricidae. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3(2):113-120; 36 ref.
Miller MC, 1985. The effect of Monochamus titillator (F.) (Col., Cerambycidae) foraging on the emergence of Ips calligraphus (Germ.) (Col., Scolytidae) insect associates. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 100(2):189-197
Morewood WD; Hein KE; Katinic PJ; Borden JH, 2002. An improved trap for large wood-boring insects, with special reference to Monochamus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(3):519-525; 32 ref.
Pershing JC; Linit MJ, 1985. A structural difference in the male genitalia of Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier) and M. titillator (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 58(3):543-546
Phillips TW; Wilkening AJ; Atkinson TH; Nation JL; Wilkinson RC; Foltz JL, 1988. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera). Environmental Entomology, 17(3):456-462
Safranyik L; Raske AG, 1970. Sequential sampling plan for larvae of Monochamus in lodgepole pine logs. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:1903-1906.
Webb JL, 1909. The southern pine sawyer. USDA Bureau of Entomology, Bulletin 58 (Part IV), 41-56.
Wilson LF, 1962. White-spotted sawyer. USDA Forest Service, Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 74.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/
Linsley E G, Chemsak J A, 1984. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. In: University of California Publications in Entomology, 102 xi + 258 pp.
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Distribution MapsTop of page
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