Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Monochamus titillator
(southern pine sawyer)

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Datasheet

Monochamus titillator (southern pine sawyer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Monochamus titillator
  • Preferred Common Name
  • southern pine sawyer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Although M. titillator has been recorded from Cuba and Colombia, there are no known records of it becoming established outside its natural range in North America. Nonetheless, the species should be considered as a risk species wherever its host gener...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult male of M. titillator.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult male of M. titillator.
CopyrightDorothy Ambeault/Natural Resources Canada, Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Adult male of M. titillator.
AdultAdult male of M. titillator.Dorothy Ambeault/Natural Resources Canada, Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Adult male of M. titillator.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult male of M. titillator.
CopyrightDorothy Ambeault/Natural Resources Canada, Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Adult male of M. titillator.
AdultAdult male of M. titillator.Dorothy Ambeault/Natural Resources Canada, Great Lakes Forestry Centre

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Monochamus titillator (Fabricius, 1775)

Preferred Common Name

  • southern pine sawyer

Other Scientific Names

  • Cerambyx titillator Goeze
  • Lamia titillator Fabricius
  • Monochamus angusticollis Casey
  • Monochamus dentator Bowditch
  • Monochamus titillator obesus Casey
  • Monohamus titillator Haldeman

International Common Names

  • English: pine, sawyer, southern

EPPO code

  • MONCTI (Monochamus titillator)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page Although M. titillator has been recorded from Cuba and Colombia, there are no known records of it becoming established outside its natural range in North America. Nonetheless, the species should be considered as a risk species wherever its host genera (Pinus) is found because it can be easily transported there in untreated wood.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Cerambycidae
  •                             Genus: Monochamus
  •                                 Species: Monochamus titillator

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2014)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2014)
-OntarioPresentNativeLinsley and Chemsak (1984); EPPO (2014)
CubaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2014)
-AlabamaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-ArkansasPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-ConnecticutPresentEPPO (2014)
-DelawarePresentEPPO (2014)
-FloridaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-GeorgiaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-IllinoisPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-IndianaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-IowaPresentEPPO (2014)
-KansasPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941)
-KentuckyPresentNativeLinsley and Chemsak (1984); EPPO (2014)
-LouisianaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-MainePresentEPPO (2014)
-MarylandPresentEPPO (2014)
-MassachusettsPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-MichiganPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-MinnesotaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941)
-MississippiPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-MissouriPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941)
-NebraskaPresentNativeLinsley and Chemsak (1984)
-New HampshirePresentEPPO (2014)
-New JerseyPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-New YorkPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-North CarolinaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-North DakotaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-OhioPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-OklahomaPresentNativeLinsley and Chemsak (1984)
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-South CarolinaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-TennesseePresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-TexasPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-VermontPresentEPPO (2014)
-VirginiaPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)
-West VirginiaPresentEPPO (2014)
-WisconsinPresentNativeDillon and Dillon (1941); EPPO (2014)

South America

ColombiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI (Undated); Dillon and Dillon (1941)Original citation: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), 2014

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Eutheresia monohammi Parasite Larvae
Eutheresia trivittata Parasite Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark Unprocessed green wood; pallets, crates, dunnage No
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Allison JD; Borden JH; McIntosh RL; Groot Pde; Gries R, 2001. Kairomonal response by four Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to bark beetle pheromones. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(4):633-646; 42 ref.

Allison JD; Morewood WD; Borden JH; Hein KE; Wilson IM, 2003. Differential bio-activity of Ips and Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) pheromone components for Monochamus clamator and M. scutellatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environmental Entomology, 32(1):23-30; 39 ref.

Alya AB; Hain FP, 1985. Life histories of Monochamus carolinensis and M. titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Journal of Entomological Science, 20(4):390-397

Alya AB; Hain FP, 1987. Rearing Monochamus species larvae on artificial diet (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 22(1):73-76

Baker WL, 1972. Eastern Forest Insects. USDA, Miscellaneous Publication 1175, 642 pp.

Bennett WH; Chellman CW; Holt WR, 1958. Insect enemies of southern pines. US Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service Southern Forest Experiment Station, Occasional Paper 164.

Billings RF, 1985. Southern pine bark beetles and associated insects. Effects of rapidly-released host volatiles on response to aggregation pheromones. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 99(5):483-491

Billings RF; Cameron RS, 1984. Kairomonal responses of Coleoptera, Monochamus titillator (Cerambycidae), Thanasimus dubius (Cleridae), and Temnochila virescens (Trogositidae), to behavioral chemicals of southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 13(6):1542-1548

Carling DE, 1984. Some insect associates of the pinewood nematode in eastern Virginia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 14:826-829.

Cerezke HF, 1975. White-spotted sawyer beetle in logs. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report NOR-X-129.

Coulson RN; Mayyasi AM; Foltz JL; Hain FP, 1976. Interspecific competition between Monochamus titillator and Dendroctonus frontalis. Environmental Entomology, 5(2):235-247

Coulson RN; Pope DN; Gagne JA; Fargo WS; Pulley PE; Edson LJ; Wagner TL, 1980. Impact of foraging by Monochamus titillator (Col.: Cerambycidae) on within-tree populations of Dendroctonus frontalis (Col.: Scolytidae). Entomophaga, 25(2):155-170

de Groot P; Nott RW, 2001. Evaluation of trap designs to capture pine sawyer beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3:107-111.

Dillon LS; Dillon ES, 1941. The tribe Monochamini in the western hemisphere (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery Scientific Publications Number 1.

Dodds KJ; Stephen FM, 2000. Partial age-specific life tables for Monochamus titillator in Dendroctonus frontalis infested loblolly pines. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 97(3):331-338; 26 ref.

Dodds KJ; Stephen FM, 2002. Arrival and species complex of Cerambycidae on pines attacked by southern pine beetle. Journal of Entomological Science, 37(3):272-274.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Esser RP; Wilkinson RCJr; Harkcom J, 1983. Pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) survey in Florida. Proceedings of Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 42:127-132

Fatzinger CW, 1985. Attraction of the black turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and other forest Coleoptera to turpentine-baited traps. Environmental Entomology, 14(6):768-775

Fatzinger CW; Siegfried BD; Wilkinson RC; Nation JL, 1987. Trans-verbenol, turpentine, and ethanol as trap baits for the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans, and other forest Coleoptera in north Florida. Journal of Entomological Science, 22(3):201-209

Flamm RO; Coulson RN; Beckley P; Pulley PE; Wagner TL, 1989. Maintenance of a phloem-inhabiting guild. Environmental Entomology, 18(3):381-387

Haack RA; Wilkinson RC, 1987. Phoresy by Dendrochernes pseudoscorpions on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) and Aulacidae (Hymenoptera) in Florida. American Midland Naturalist, 117(2):369-373

Kinn DN, 1987. Incidence of pinewood nematode dauerlarvae and phoretic mites associated with long-horned beetles in central Louisiana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17:187-190.

Kinn DN; Linit MJ, 1989. A key to phoretic mites commonly found on long-horned beetles emerging from southern pines. Research Note - Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SO-357:8 pp.

Lindquist EE; Wu KW, 1991. Review of mites of the genus Mucroseius (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) associated with sawyer beetles (Cerambycidae: Monochamus and Mecynippus) and pine wood nematodes (Aphelenchoididae: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle), with descriptions of six new species from Japan and North America, and notes on their previous misidentification. Canadian Entomologist, 123(4):875-927

Linsley EG; Chemsak JA, 1984. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA: University of California Publications in Entomology, Vol. 102.

Luzzi MA; Wilkinson RC; Tarjan AC, 1984. Transmission of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to slash pine trees and log bolts by a cerambycid beetle, Monochamus titillator, in Florida. Journal of Nematology, 16(1):37-40

McIntosh RL; Katinic PJ; Allison JD; Borden JH; Downey DL, 2001. Comparative efficacy of five types of trap for woodborers in the Cerambycidae, Buprestidae and Siricidae. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3(2):113-120; 36 ref.

Miller MC, 1985. The effect of Monochamus titillator (F.) (Col., Cerambycidae) foraging on the emergence of Ips calligraphus (Germ.) (Col., Scolytidae) insect associates. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 100(2):189-197

Miller MC, 1986. Survival of within-tree Ips calligraphus (Col.: Scolytidae): effect of insect associates. Entomophaga, 31(1):39-48

Miller MC, 1986. Within-tree effects of bark beetle insect associates on the emergence of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 15(5):1104-1108

Morewood WD; Hein KE; Katinic PJ; Borden JH, 2002. An improved trap for large wood-boring insects, with special reference to Monochamus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(3):519-525; 32 ref.

Pershing JC; Linit MJ, 1985. A structural difference in the male genitalia of Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier) and M. titillator (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 58(3):543-546

Phillips TW; Wilkening AJ; Atkinson TH; Nation JL; Wilkinson RC; Foltz JL, 1988. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera). Environmental Entomology, 17(3):456-462

Safranyik L; Raske AG, 1970. Sequential sampling plan for larvae of Monochamus in lodgepole pine logs. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:1903-1906.

Syme JH; Saucier JR, 1995. Effects of long-term storage of southern pine sawlogs under water sprinklers. Forest Products Journal, 45(1):47-50

Webb JL, 1909. The southern pine sawyer. USDA Bureau of Entomology, Bulletin 58 (Part IV), 41-56.

Wilson LF, 1962. White-spotted sawyer. USDA Forest Service, Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 74.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dillon L S, Dillon E S, 1941. The tribe Monochamini in the western hemisphere (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In: Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery Scientific Publications,

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Linsley E G, Chemsak J A, 1984. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. In: University of California Publications in Entomology, 102 xi + 258 pp.

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Distribution Maps

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