Monochamus saltuarius (Japanese pine sawyer)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Monochamus saltuarius Gebler, 1830
Preferred Common Name
- Japanese pine sawyer
Other Scientific Names
- Monochammus saltuarius
- Monochammus suzukii Murase
- Monohammus saltuarius
International Common Names
- English: pine sawyer; sakhalin pine longicorn beetle; sakhalin pine sawyer
Local Common Names
- Germany: Bock(Kaefer), Samtfleckiger Fichten-
- Japan: karafuto-higenaga-kamikiri
- MONCSL (Monochamus saltuarius)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Cerambycidae
- Genus: Monochamus
- Species: Monochamus saltuarius
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
In 1830, Gebler described Monochamus saltuarius as a new species, although he attributed the name to Eschscholtz, on the basis of a specimen from Irkutsk, Western Siberia (Gebler, 1830). Various spellings of the generic name, Monohammus and Monochammus, have also been used in the past, but Gebler originally used Monochamus. Citations of the original spellings, e.g. in Sama (1992), are incorrect.
DescriptionTop of page
The eggs are white, almost parallel-sided or slightly tapering towards one pole, broadly rounded at the poles, 3.0-3.5 mm long and 0.8-1.2 mm wide (Cherepanov, 1983).
The larvae are cylindrical and elongate with an oval head and no legs. Pre-diapause larvae are milky-white, whereas diapausing larvae are yellowish-white, whitish-yellow or yellow (Togashi et al., 1994). The body of late-instar larvae is 20-28 mm long; the head width is 3.5-4.0 mm.
Head flat, half retracted into the prothorax. Epistoma in anterior half reddish-rust, barely convex; in posterior half, bright, flat; at anterior margin laterally with three long bristles on each side of the longitudinal suture with a pair of staggered bristles (inner bristle slightly in front of lateral); near antennal socket with three bristles in transverse row, on disk with two bristles in transverse row. Labrum somewhat rusty, highly tapering towards the base; at anterior margin broadly rounded; in anterior half with long rusty bristles; in posterior half glabrous, medially with pair of long wide-set bristles. Mandibles black, elongate, gently sloping apically (Cherepanov, 1983).
Expert examination is required to distinguish M. saltuarius from M. alternatus at the larval stage.
The pupae are milky-white and 14-20 mm long; the width of the abdomen is 4.5-4.8 mm. The pupae are characterized by a large number of spinules in the frontal region and long, large sclerotized spinule at the apex of the urogomphus. Head medially with deep longitudinal trough, lateral to it in front of antennae with numerous long setiform spinules forming broad, longitudinal field; at anterior margin near base of clypeus with six spinules forming transverse row interrupted medially, occiput glabrous, lustrous. Labrum elongate, apically broadly rounded; in anterior half along margins with long acicular spinules. Upper ocular lobe with two bristles. Antennae in second half bent ventrad, here spiralled, forming two incomplete (female) or two complete loops (male).
Abdomen moderately elongate, gradually tapering towards tip. Abdominal tergites in posterior half convex in anterior half transversely depressed, medially with longitudinal groove, lateral to it in posterior half with rusty acicular spinules directed backward and forming dense transverse band divided by median longitudinal groove. Two to three rows of spinules observed in each transverse band. Tergite VII is convex, lustrous, triangular, gently rounded apically, in posterior third with solitary minute, sometimes barely perceptible, setiform spinules. Tergite semi-circular, convex, lustrous, and without spinules. Urogomphus at the tip of abdomen is highly extended, terminating in long large, slightly anteriorly curved, sclerotized spinule. Ridges bordering the tip of the abdomen laterally (ventral view) with two to five minute setigerous spinules on the ventral side. Valvifers of female spherical, basally slightly wide-set, apically with small tubercle, bent towards each other (Cherepanov, 1983).
The body of the adult is predominantly black (11-20 mm), head with sparse yellowish-grey pubescence; pronotum and elytra in both sexes with numerous yellowish or whitish spots; legs and first antennal segments partly with grey spots; antennal segments 3 to 11 in male, uniformly black; in female basal halves of these segments with whitish-grey pubescence, antennae long (Bense, 1995).
Elytra parallel-sided (male) or from base slightly enlarged posteriorly (female), apically separately rounded. Abdominal sternite V short, apically emarginate, at posterior angles with long dense hairs forming a cluster on each side (female) or rounded, with uniform brownish bristles (males) (Cherepanov, 1983).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Restricted distribution||Xiao, 1991; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hebei||Present||Xiao, 1991; EPPO, 2014|
|-Heilongjiang||Present||Xiao, 1991; EPPO, 2014|
|-Jilin||Present||Xiao, 1991; EPPO, 2014|
|-Shandong||Present||Xiao, 1991; EPPO, 2014|
|Japan||Present||Sato et al., 1987; Jikumaru and Togashi, 2001; Kobayashi et al., 2003; EPPO, 2014|
|-Honshu||Widespread||Sato et al., 1987; Jikumaru and Togashi, 2001; Kobayashi et al., 2003|
|-Kyushu||Present||Ohbayashi et al., 1992|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Lee, 1982|
|Mongolia||Present||Ohbayashi et al., 1992|
|Austria||Present||Bense, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Czech Republic||Present||Bense, 1995|
|Germany||Restricted distribution||Bense, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Italy||Restricted distribution||Bense, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Lithuania||Present||Piletskis and Yakaitis, 1982; EPPO, 2014|
|Poland||Present||Bense, 1995; Plewa et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014|
|Russian Federation||Restricted distribution||Sama, 2002; EPPO, 2014|
|-Central Russia||Present||EPPO, 2014|
|-Eastern Siberia||Widespread||Cherepanov, 1983; Ohbayashi et al., 1992|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Cherepanov, 1983; Ohbayashi et al., 1992|
|-Western Siberia||Present||Cherepanov, 1983; Ohbayashi et al., 1992; EPPO, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) lists Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its vectors as A1 quarantine pests (OEPP/EPPO, 1986). Species of Monochamus from conifer trees are the only important known vectors of B. xylophilus (Linit, 1988). The risk of B. xylophilus introduction into Europe had been discussed (e.g., Evans et al., 1996) and invasion of B. xylophilus has been inhibited for many years in Europe. Unfortunately, B. xylophilus was discovered in Portugal in 1999 (Mota et al., 1999) and the native Monochamus beetle in Portugal (M. galloprovincialis) was shown to be a vector (Sousa et al., 2001). M. saltuarius is one of the vectors of the pinewood nematode in Japan (Sato et al., 1987) and is distributed in the central and southern part of Europe (Bense, 1995). Pinus sylvestris, a species susceptible to B. xylophilus, is distributed widely in Europe (Evans et al., 1996). These results indicate that European M. saltuarius would also act as vector of pinewood nematode in Europe under favourable climatic conditions for the disease.
The European Commission (EC) has adopted and published (on 21 March 2001) temporary emergency measures on non-manufactured coniferous wood packing originating in Canada, China, Japan and the USA. These measures are: susceptible wood originating in these countries shall be heat-treated or kiln-dried to a minimum core temperature of 56°C for at least 30 minutes; shall have been pressure-treated with an approved chemical in accordance with an officially recognized technical specification; or shall have been fumigated with an approved chemical in accordance with an officially recognized technical specification. After one of these treatments, the susceptible wood should display a marking enabling the identification of where and by whom the treatment has been carried out. EPPO also recommends the same phytosanitary measures (especially heat-treatment) to prevent the introduction of B. xylophilus and its vectors, covering plants and wood of all conifers from countries where the nematode occurs. Other phytosanitary measures such as selective felling, and the removal and debarking of healthy trees before the flight period of Monochamus vectors are also proposed (Evans et al., 1996).
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Hosts of M. saltuarius are members of the family Pinaceae, especially species of Pinus in Japan and Picea in Europe. Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii are the main hosts of M. saltuarius in Japan (Ohbayashi et al., 1992); Picea abies is the main host in Europe (Sama, 2002). M. saltuarius oviposits on dying and recently felled host trees.
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest
SymptomsTop of page
M. saltuarius adults feed on the bark of twigs on host trees. They oviposit on dying or recently felled trees. The newly-hatched larvae feed on the inner bark. As the larvae develop, they press the frass, which is composed of brown faeces mixed with white wood shreds, in and along the gallery under the bark. They also remove the frass from trees through the slits they make in the bark. Most larvae form 'U'-shaped pupal chambers in the xylem. The adult beetles leave the dead or felled trees through exit holes in the bark.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Stems / visible frass|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Voltinism of M. saltuarius varies in different regions. The life cycle is 1or 2 years in Japan (Takizawa, 1983; Sato and Kobayashi, 1986) whereas in Europe there is one generation per year (Bense, 1995). The beetle overwinters in the larval stage (Togashi et al., 1994) and emerges as an adult in the spring or early summer. In Japan, the adults emerge from dead host trees between April and June (Ochi, 1969; Zinno et al., 1987). In northern Japan, the peak of emergence occurs in mid- to late May (Zinno et al., 1987). The adults are diurnal under natural conditions (Makihara et al., 1990).
The longevity of adult females ranges from 3 to 80 days (mean = 47.8 days, SD = 4.5 days) under constant conditions of 25°C, 90-100% RH and a photoperiod of 12L-12D (Jikumaru et al., 1994). Adult longevity does not differ significantly between 20 and 25°C or between the sexes (Nakayama et al., 1998). In Japan, adults were captured by screen trap between early June and mid-August in a stand of P. densiflora (Jikumaru, 1996); oviposition activity was recorded during June and August.
Adults are sexually immature when they emerge from dead trees. Males require 2-18 days at 20°C or 0-16 days at 25°C for sexual maturation; females require 7-36 days at 20°C or 5-24 days at 25°C (Nakayama et al., 1998). Once sexually mature, the adults congregate on or near declining or newly killed pine trees to copulate and oviposit. Copulation consists of three phases (Kobayashi et al., 2003): (i) while bending at the abdomen, the male inserts his penis into the female's genitalia; (ii) the male is motionless while the female's genitalia are pulled out from her abdomen by the male's penis, outside of both body cavities; and (iii) the male tries to remove his penis from the female genitalia. The females gnaw the surface of the bark of declining or newly killed pine trees to make wounds for oviposition. They turn their bodies 180° and position the ovipositor over the wounds before inserting it through the wound and under the bark. Eggs are usually laid singly. Lifetime fecundity ranges from 0 to 172 eggs (mean 69.7 eggs) under constant conditions of 25°C, 90-100% RH and a photoperiod of 12L-12D (Jikumaru et al., 1994). After ovipositing, the female often secretes a jelly-like substance to plug the oviposition scar (Anbutsu and Togashi, 1997). This jelly plays an important role by allowing other females to discriminate between oviposition scars that are occupied by an egg and those that are vacant and may be used as oviposition sites. Embryonic development takes 7-8 days at 25°C. The hatched larvae feed on the inner bark and, in most cases, make pupal chambers in the xylem before winter (Takizawa, 1983).
M. saltuarius undergoes larval diapause in the final (fourth) instar. Cold temperatures terminate diapause in late January (Togashi et al., 1994). The thermal constant and developmental zero for the emergence of post-diapause larvae as adults are 243.9 day degrees and 10.1°C, respectively (Jikumaru and Togashi, 1996). The larvae begin post-diapause development in the spring, and this is followed by pupation. The pupal stage lasts for 8 or 9 days at 23°C (Enda and Igarashi, 1988). The newly eclosed adults are white and emerge from pupal chambers through exit holes in the bark after the integument is sclerotized.
M. saltuarius is one of the vectors of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) (Sato et al., 1987; Evans et al., 1996). It also vectors the closely related species B. mucronatus (Mamiya and Enda, 1979), which is widely distributed in Eurasia, from Europe to Japan (Mamiya and Enda, 1979; Yang and Wang, 1988; Magnusson and Schroeder, 1989). B. mucronatus is avirulent against native species of Pinus in Japan (Mamiya and Enda, 1979). The nematodes enter pine trees through the feeding and oviposition wounds made by the beetle vectors (Wingfield and Blanchette, 1983; Schroeder and Magnusson, 1992). The indirect transmission of B. mucronatus from male M. saltuarius to the host tree occurs through females; transmission of the nematode from adult females to males has also been reported (Togashi and Jikumaru, 1996).
There is no significant difference in the pattern of transmission of B. xylophilus by M. alternatus (Togashi, 1985) and B. mucronatus by M. saltuarius (Jikumaru and Togashi, 2001). The longevity of M. alternatus adults decreases as the initial number of B. xylophilus carried increases (Togashi and Sekizuka, 1982; Kishi, 1995); however, no significant relationship is recognized between M. saltuarius adults and the initial number of B. mucronatus carried, although an insignificant negative correlation has been observed (Jikumaru and Togashi, 1995). B. mucronatus has a weakly deleterious effect on the longevity of M. saltuarius, which enhances the probability of effective transmission from vector to host tree, compared with B. xylophilus, which has a significantly deleterious effect on vector longevity.
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)
Wind may assist flight of M. saltuarius.
Movement in trade
Solid wood packing materials, with and without bark, are suspected to carry M. saltuarius but there is no published evidence of this.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||eggs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Wood||adults; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
ImpactTop of page
The heaviest loss of timber per year caused by pine wilt disease was reported to be 2.4 million m³ in Japan in 1979 (Mamiya, 1988). However, the loss of timber caused by the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), transmitted by M. saltuarius alone, is unknown.
Detection and InspectionTop of page
The same methods of detection are used for M. saltuarius as for M. alternatus. Look for oviposition scars on the bark of trunks and branches of dying or felled trees and logs, also under the bark for the eggs, gallery and frass produced by the larvae. Even in the absence of oviposition scars, bark that can be depressed by the thumb or on which there is frass excreted by the larvae should be removed to search for larvae in the gallery in the wood. If no larvae are found, remove any whorled wood or fibrous shreds to find the entrance hole of the tunnel into the wood, where the larvae, pupae or adults can be found.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
M. saltuarius may only be distinguished from M. alternatus at the larval stage by expert examination. DNA analysis would be a useful tool for the distinction of the two species at the larval stage.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Insecticides such as fenitrothion and carbaryl can be sprayed on the crown of tree to prevent the beetles from feeding on pine twig bark (Kobayashi, 1988) thereby reducing the number of nematodes transmitted to healthy trees.
M. alternatus is destroyed in dead trees by burning, chipping, spraying with insecticide, or fumigation after felling (Kobayashi, 1988; Kishi, 1995). The same methods are effective against M. saltuarius. Burning and fumigation are thought to eradicate the insects in dead trees.
The injection of mesulfenfos, morantel tartrate and levamisole hydrochloride into healthy tree trunks during winter prevents the development of pine wilt disease, caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Kobayashi, 1988), resulting in a reduced rate of reproduction by M. saltuarius. The inhibitory effect lasts 3-5 years.
Clones of Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii that are resistant to pine wilt have been bred selectively (Kobayashi, 1988) and are being planted in Japan. Resistant clones will deprive M. saltuarius of oviposition substrates.
ReferencesTop of page
Anbutsu H; Togashi K, 1997. Oviposition behavior and response to the oviposition scars occupied by eggs in Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 32(4):541-549; 22 ref.
Aurivillius C, 1922. Cerambycidae: Lamiinae I. In: Junk W, ed. Coleopterorum catalogus.
Cherepanov AI, 1983. Cerambycidae of Northern Asia. New Delhi, India: Oxonian Press PVT Ltd. [English translation, 1990.]
Enda N; Igarashi M, 1988. The development in relation to temperature of Monochamus saltuarius Gebler (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) on artificial diets. Transactions of the 40th Annual Meeting of Kanto Branch of the Japanese Forestry Society, 181-182.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Evans HF; McNamara DG; Braasch H; Chadoeuf J; Magnusson C, 1996. Pest risk analysis (PRA) for the territories of the European Union (as PRA area) on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its vectors in the genus Monochamus. Bulletin OEPP, 26(2):199-249; 174 ref.
Gebler, 1830. In Ledebour, Reise, 2 (III):184.
Jikumaru S, 1996. The population dynamics of Monochamus saltuarius (Gebler) and the transmission of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya et Enda. PhD. Dissertation. Hiroshima, Japan: Hiroshima University.
Jikumaru S; Togashi K, 1995. A weak deleterious effect of the avirulent pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), on the longevity of its vector, Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 30(1):9-16
Jikumaru S; Togashi K, 1996. Effect of temperature on the post-diapause development of Monochamus saltuarius (Gebler) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 31(1):145-148; 13 ref.
Jikumaru S; Togashi K, 2001. Transmission of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) through feeding wounds by Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Nematology, 3:325-333.
Kobayashi F, 1988. The Japanese pine sawyer. In: Berryman AA, ed. Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations. New York, USA: Plenum, 431-454.
Kobayashi H; Yamane A; Iwata R, 2003. Mating behavior of the pine sawyer, Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 38:141-148.
Lee SM, 1982. Longicorn beetles of Korea (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Insecta Koreana, 1:1-101.
Luo YouQing; Sheng MaoLing, 2010. The species of Rhimphoctona (Xylophylax) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae) parasitizing woodborers in China. Journal of Insect Science (Madison), 10:4. http://www.insectscience.org/10.4/i1536-2442-10-4.pdf
Magnusson C; Schroeder LM, 1989. First record of a Bursaphelenchus-species (Nematoda) in Monochamus beetles in Scandinavia. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 62:53-54.
Makihara H; Kamata N; Yanbe T; Igarashi Y, 1990. Comparison of ecology between Monochamus alternatus Hope and M. saltuarius (Gebler) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Transactions of the 101st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Forestry, Society, 505-506.
Mamiya Y, 1988. History of pine wilt disease in Japan. Journal of Nematology, 20:219-226.
Nakayama Y; Jikumaru S; Togashi K, 1998. Reproductive traits and diel activity of adult Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) at two different temperatures. Journal of Forest Research, 3:61-65.
Ochi K, 1969. Ecological studies on cerambycid injurious to pine trees (II) Biology of two Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 51:188-192.
Ohbayashi N; Sato M; Kojima K; eds, 1992. An illustrated guide to identification of longicorn beetles of Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Tokai University Press.
Piletskis SA; Yakaitis BYu, 1982. Five new and 2 very rare species of Coleoptera for the Lithuanian SSR, found in 1975-1980. In: Petrauskas V, Ionaitis V, ed. Novye i redkie dlya Litovskoi SSR vidy nasekomykh. Soobshcheniya i opisaniya 1981 g. Institut Zoologii i Parazitologii Akademii Nauk Litovskoi SSR Vilnius USSR, 31-36
Plewa R; Kolk A; Sukovata L; Jaworski T, 2011. New records of Monochamus saltuarius (Gebler, 1830) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Poland. (Nowe stanowiska Monochamus saltuarius (Gebler, 1830) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) w Polsce.) Wiadomosci Entomologiczne, 30(4):267. http://pte.au.poznan.pl/we/we.htm
Sama G, 2002. Atlas of the Cerambycidae of Europe and the Mediterranean Area. Volume 1. Zlín: Nakladatelstvi Kabourek.
Sato H; Kobayashi M, 1986. Distribution and breeding of Monochamus saltuarius Gebler in pine felled in different seasons in Iwate Prefecture. Transactions of the 97th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Forestry Society, 481-482.
Sato H; Sakuyama T; Kobayashi M, 1987. Transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda, Aphelenchoididae) by Monochamus saltuarius (Gebler) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 69(12):492-496
Schroeder LM; Magnusson C, 1992. Transmission of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda) to branches and bolts of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies by the cerambycid beetle Monochamus sutor. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 7(1):107-112
Sheng MaoLing, 2008. Two new species of the genus Ischnoceros Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) parasitizing woodborers with a key to species of Ischnoceros known in China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica / Dongwu Fenlei Xuebao, 33(3):508-513.
Sousa E; Bravo MA; Pires J; Naves P; Penas AC; Bonifacio L; Mota MM, 2001. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda; Aphelenchoididae) associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae) in Portugal. Nematology, 3(1):89-91; 12 ref.
Takizawa Y, 1983. Life history of Monochamus saltuarius Gebler. Transactions of the 35th Annual Meeting of Tohoku Branch of the Japanese Forestry Society, 145-146.
Togashi K, 1985. Transmission curves of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from its vector, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), to pine trees with reference to population performance. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 20(3):246-251
Togashi K; Jikumaru S, 1996. Horizontal transmission of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) between insect vectors of Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 31(2):317-320; 13 ref.
Togashi K; Jikumaru S; Taketsune A; Takahashi F, 1994. Termination of larval diapause in Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under natural conditions. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 76(1):30-34
Togashi K; Sekizuka H, 1982. Influence of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus lignicolus (Nematoda; Aphelenchoididae), on longevity of its vector, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 17(2):160-165
Wingfield MJ; Blanchette RA, 1983. The pine-wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Minnesota and Wisconsin: insect associates and transmission studies. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13(6):1068-1076
Yang B; Wang Q, 1988. Distribution of pine wood nematode in China. Forest Research, 1:450-452.
Zhang JianJun; Zhang RunZhi; Chen JingYuan, 2007. Species and their dispersal ability of Monochamus as vectors to transmit Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College, 24(3):350-356. http://zjlx.chinajournal.net.cn
Zinno Y; Takizawa Y; Sato H, 1987. Pine wilt disease in cool areas and mountain regions in Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Ringyo Gijyutu Shinkosho.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/