Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Monochamus carolinensis
(pine sawyer)

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Datasheet

Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Monochamus carolinensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pine sawyer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Invasiveness of M. carolinensis in and of itself is probably minimal. The beetle's poor flying ability and competition with native Monochamus would probably limit its impact in a new environment. The pine wood nematode (Bur...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Collection location, Collection information: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Collection location, Collection information: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.
Copyright©Natasha Wright/Cook's Pest Control/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Collection location, Collection information: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.
AdultMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Collection location, Collection information: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.©Natasha Wright/Cook's Pest Control/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Collection location: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Collection location: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.
Copyright©Natasha Wright/Cook's Pest Control/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Collection location: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.
AdultMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Collection location: August 1975, Talbot County, Maryland:, USA.©Natasha Wright/Cook's Pest Control/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult.
Copyright©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult.
AdultMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult.©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult. Kansas, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult. Kansas, USA.
Copyright©Kansas Department of Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult. Kansas, USA.
AdultMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult. Kansas, USA.©Kansas Department of Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); fully grown larva.
TitleLarva
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); fully grown larva.
Copyright©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); fully grown larva.
LarvaMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); fully grown larva.©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); exarate pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); exarate pupa.
Copyright©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); exarate pupa.
PupaMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); exarate pupa.©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); oviposition slits (arrowed) on pine.
TitleOviposition slits
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); oviposition slits (arrowed) on pine.
Copyright©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); oviposition slits (arrowed) on pine.
Oviposition slitsMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); oviposition slits (arrowed) on pine.©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult emergence hole on pine.
TitleAdult emergence hole
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult emergence hole on pine.
Copyright©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult emergence hole on pine.
Adult emergence holeMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); adult emergence hole on pine.©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); larval feeding tracts (blue arrows) on pine. Also note the larval entry holes into the sapwood (orange arrows).
TitleLarval feeding tracts
CaptionMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); larval feeding tracts (blue arrows) on pine. Also note the larval entry holes into the sapwood (orange arrows).
Copyright©W. Terrell Stamps
Monochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); larval feeding tracts (blue arrows) on pine. Also note the larval entry holes into the sapwood (orange arrows).
Larval feeding tractsMonochamus carolinensis (pine sawyer); larval feeding tracts (blue arrows) on pine. Also note the larval entry holes into the sapwood (orange arrows).©W. Terrell Stamps

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Monochamus carolinensis Olivier

Preferred Common Name

  • pine sawyer

Other Scientific Names

  • Cerambyx carolinensis (Olivier, 1792)
  • Lamia dentator Fabricius
  • Monochamus minor Leconte, Smiths
  • Monochamus titillator carolinensis Olivier

International Common Names

  • French: longicorne de Caroline

EPPO code

  • MONCCA (Monochamus carolinensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Invasiveness of M. carolinensis in and of itself is probably minimal. The beetle's poor flying ability and competition with native Monochamus would probably limit its impact in a new environment. The pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), on the other hand, could quickly become a serious, quickly spread problem in a vulnerable area through dispersal by native Monochamus beetles.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Cerambycidae
  •                             Genus: Monochamus
  •                                 Species: Monochamus carolinensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

BelgiumAbsent
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-New BrunswickPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-NebraskaPresent, Localized
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / external feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood arthropods/adults; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark Pinus No
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Akbulut S; Linit MJ, 1999. Flight performance of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with respect to nematode phoresis and beetle characteristics. Environmental Entomology, 28(6):1014-1020; 29 ref.

Alya AB; Hain FP, 1985. Life histories of Monochamus carolinensis and M. titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Journal of Entomological Science, 20(4):390-397

Anon., 1991. Pinewood nematode control targeted as green lumber exports to EC given reprieve. Victoria, BC, Canada: Information Forestry, Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre, (Fall/winter), 6.

Bayer LJ; Shenefelt RD, 1969. Wisconsin Cerambycidae in the University of Wisconsin Insectarium. Research Bulletin 275. Research Division, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin.

Bergdahl DR, 1988. Impact of pinewood nematode in North America: present and future. Journal of Nematology, 20:260-265.

Blackwelder RE, 1945. Checklist of the Coleopterous Insects of Mexico, Central America the West Indies, and South America. Part 3. Bulletin Smithsonian Institution, United States National Musem 185, 595.

Bolla JA; Bramble J; Bolla RI, 1989. Attraction of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus pathotype MPSy-1, to Monochamus carolinensis larvae. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 19(12):32-37

Bousquet Y (ed.), 1991. Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Publication - Agriculture Canada (English ed.), No. 1861/E:vi + 430 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Dillon LS; Dillon ES, 1941. The tribe Monochamini in the western hemisphere (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery Scientific Publications Number 1.

Downie MN; Arnett RH Jr, 1995. The beetles of northeastern North America, Vol. II. Gainesville, USA: The Sandhill Crane Press.

Duffy EAJ, 1953. A monograph of the immature stages of British and imported timber beetles (Cerambycidae). London, UK: British Museum (Natural History).

Dwinell LD, 1986. Ecology of the pinewood nematode in southern pine chip piles. Research Paper, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SE-258:14 pp.; 26 ref.

Dwinell LD, 1997. The pinewood nematode: regulation and mitigation. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 35:153-166; 73 ref.

Dwinell LD; Nickle WR, 1989. An overview of the pine wood nematode ban in North America. General Technical Report - Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SE-55:13 pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fatzinger CW; Siegfried BD; Wilkinson RC; Nation JL, 1987. Trans-verbenol, turpentine, and ethanol as trap baits for the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans, and other forest Coleoptera in north Florida. Journal of Entomological Science, 22(3):201-209

Halik S; Bergdahl DR, 1990. Development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus populations in wood chips with different moisture contents. Journal of Nematology, 22(1):113-118; 34 ref.

Himelick EB, 1982. Pine blue-stain associated with the pine wilt syndrome. Journal of Arboriculture, 8(8):212-216

Hines JW; Heikkenen HJ, 1977. Beetles attracted to severed Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Environmental Entomology, 6(1):123-127

Kaneko S, 1989. Effect of light intensity on the development of pine wilt disease. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67(6):1861-1864; 16 ref.

Kinn DN, 1986. Heat-treating wood chips: a possible solution to pine wood nematode contamination. Tappi Journal, 69:97-98.

Kinn DN, 1987. Incidence of pinewood nematode dauerlarvae and phoretic mites associated with long-horned beetles in central Louisiana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17:187-190.

Kirk VM, 1969. A list of beetles of South Carolina. Part 1 - Northern coastal plain. South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 1033, 124 pp.

Knull JN, 1946. The long-horned beetles of Ohio (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Bulletin Ohio State University, Columbus, 7:235.

Kobayashi F; Yamane A; Ikeda T, 1984. The Japanese pine sawyer beetle as the vector of pine wilt disease. Annual Review of Entomology, 29:115-135

Kondo E; Foudin A; Linit M; Smith M; Bolla R; Winter R; Dropkin V, 1982. Pine wilt disease - nematological, entomological, and biochemical investigations. Columbia, Missouri, USA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Missouri University.

Kuroda K, 1989. Terpenoids causing tracheid-cavitation in Pinus thunbergii infected by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 55(2):170-178; 32 ref.

Kuroda K; Yamada T; Mineo K; Tamura H, 1988. Effects of cavitation on the development of pine wilt disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 54(5):606-615; 23 ref.

La YJ; Moon YS; Yeo WH; Shin SC; Bak WC, 1999. Recent status of pine wilt disease in Korea. Sustainability of pine forests in relation to pine wilt and decline. Proceedings of International Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, 27-28 October, 1998, 239-241; 5 ref.

Linit MJ, 1987. The insect component of pine wilt disease in the United States. In: Wingfield MJ, ed. Pathogenicity of the Pine Wood Nematode. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 66-73.

Linit MJ, 1988. Nematode-vector relationships in the pine wilt disease system. Journal of Nematology, 20(2):227-235

Linit MJ, 1990. Transmission of pinewood nematode through feeding wounds of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of Nematology, 22(2):231-236

Linsley EG; Chemsak JA, 1984. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA: University of California Publications in Entomology, Vol. 102.

Linsley EG; Chemsak JA, 1997. The Cerambycidae of North America, part VIII: bibliography, index, and host plant index. University of California Publications in Entomology, 117:534 pp.

MacRae TC, 1993. Annotated checklist of the longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) occurring in Missouri. Insecta Mundi, 7(4):223-252; 4 pp. of ref.

Malek RB; Appleby JE, 1984. Epidemiology of pine wilt in Illinois. Disease distribution. Plant Disease, 68(3):180-186

Mamiya Y, 1975. The life history of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus lignicolus. Japanese Journal of Nematology., 5:16-25

Mamiya Y, 1976. Pine wilting disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus lignicolus, in Japan. JARQ, 10(4):206-211

Mamiya Y, 1983. Pathology of the pine wilt disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 21:201-220

Mamiya Y, 1984. The pine wood nematode. Plant and insect nematodes. [Edited by: Nickle, W.R.] New York, USA; Marcel Dekker, Inc., 589-626

Mamiya Y; Shoji T, 1989. Capability of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus to inhabit soil and to cause wilt of pine seedlings. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 18:1-5.

Myers RF, 1986. Cambium destruction in conifers caused by pinewood nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 18:98-402.

Pershing JC; Linit MJ, 1986. Biology of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Scotch pine in Missouri. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 59(4):706-711

Pershing JC; Linit MJ, 1988. Variation in number of instars of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 61(4):370-378

Phillips TW; Wilkening AJ; Atkinson TH; Nation JL; Wilkinson RC; Foltz JL, 1988. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera). Environmental Entomology, 17(3):456-462

Rice ME; Veal DA, 2006. New distribution and adult host records for longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae) from Iowa. Coleopterists Bulletin, 60(3):255-263.

Shimazu M; Tsuchiya D; Sato H; Kushida T, 1995. Microbial control of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) by application of nonwoven fabric strips with Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) on infested tree trunks. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 30(1):207-213

Soper RS; Olson; RE, 1963. Survey of biota associated with Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Maine. Canadian Entomologist 95:83-95.

Sousa E; Bravo MA; Pires J; Naves P; Penas AC; Bonifacio L; Mota MM, 2001. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda; Aphelenchoididae) associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae) in Portugal. Nematology, 3(1):89-91; 12 ref.

Suzuki K; Kiyohara T, 1978. Influence of water stress on development of pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus lignicolus. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 8(2):97-107

Tomminen J; Akar H, 1990. Infestation of four coleopteran species by the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda, Aphelenchoididae) living in wood chips. Entomologica Fennica, 1(3):171-174

Turnbow RH Jr; Franklin RT, 1980. An annotated checklist of the Cerambycidae of Georgia (Coleoptera). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 15(3):337-349

Vlasak J; Vlasakova K, 2002. Records of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in Massachusetts with notes on larval hosts. Coleopterists Bulletin, 56(2):203-219; many ref.

Walsh KD; Linit MJ, 1985. Oviposition biology of the pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78(1):81-85

Warren JE; Linit MJ, 1992. Within-wood spatial dispersion of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Journal of Nematology, 24(4):489-494

Wingfield MJ, 1987. Fungi associated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and cerambycid beetles in Wisconsin. Mycologia, 79(2):325-328

Zhang JianJun; Zhang RunZhi; Chen JingYuan, 2007. Species and their dispersal ability of Monochamus as vectors to transmit Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College, 24(3):350-356. http://zjlx.chinajournal.net.cn

Distribution References

Alya A B, Hain F P, 1985. Life histories of Monochamus carolinensis and M. titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Journal of Entomological Science. 20 (4), 390-397.

Blackwelder R E, 1945. Bulletin Smithsonian Institution, United States National Musem, 595 pp.

CAB International, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith, I. M. and Charles, L. M. F.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. xviii + 768 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dillon L S, Dillon E S, 1941. The tribe Monochamini in the western hemisphere (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In: Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery Scientific Publications,

Downie MN, Arnett RH Jr, 1995. The beetles of northeastern North America., II Gainesville, USA: The Sandhill Crane Press.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fatzinger C W, Siegfried B D, Wilkinson R C, Nation J L, 1987. Trans-verbenol, turpentine, and ethanol as trap baits for the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans, and other forest Coleoptera in north Florida. Journal of Entomological Science. 22 (3), 201-209.

Himelick E B, 1982. Pine blue-stain associated with the pine wilt syndrome. Journal of Arboriculture. 8 (8), 212-216.

Hines J W, Heikkenen H J, 1977. Beetles attracted to severed Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Environmental Entomology. 6 (1), 123-127. DOI:10.1093/ee/6.1.123

Kinn D N, 1987. Incidence of pinewood nematode dauerlarvae and phoretic mites associated with long-horned beetles in central Louisiana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 17 (2), 187-190. DOI:10.1139/x87-032

Knull J N, 1946. Bulletin Ohio State University, Columbus, 235.

Kondo E, Foudin A, Linit M, Smith M, Bolla R, Winter R, Dropkin V, 1982. Pine wilt disease - nematological, entomological, and biochemical investigations. In: Pine wilt disease - nematological, entomological, and biochemical investigations. Columbia, Missouri, USA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Missouri University. 56 pp.

Linsley E G, Chemsak J A, 1984. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. In: University of California Publications in Entomology, 102 xi + 258 pp.

MacRae T C, 1993. Annotated checklist of the longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) occurring in Missouri. Insecta Mundi. 7 (4), 223-252.

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Pershing J C, Linit M J, 1986. Biology of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Scotch pine in Missouri. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 59 (4), 706-711.

Phillips T W, Wilkening A J, Atkinson T H, Nation J L, Wilkinson R C, Foltz J L, 1988. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera). Environmental Entomology. 17 (3), 456-462. DOI:10.1093/ee/17.3.456

Rice M E, Veal D A, 2006. New distribution and adult host records for longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae) from Iowa. Coleopterists Bulletin. 60 (3), 255-263. DOI:10.1649/898.1

Turnbow R H Jr, Franklin R T, 1980. An annotated checklist of the Cerambycidae of Georgia (Coleoptera). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 15 (3), 337-349.

Vlasak J, Vlasakova K, 2002. Records of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in Massachusetts with notes on larval hosts. Coleopterists Bulletin. 56 (2), 203-219. DOI:10.1649/0010-065X(2002)056[0203:ROCCIM]2.0.CO;2

Warren J E, Linit M J, 1992. Within-wood spatial dispersion of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Journal of Nematology. 24 (4), 489-494.

Wingfield M J, 1987. Fungi associated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and cerambycid beetles in Wisconsin. Mycologia. 79 (2), 325-328. DOI:10.2307/3807667

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