Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Manilkara zapota
(sapodilla)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Manilkara zapota
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sapodilla
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. zapota, commonly known as sapodilla, is an evergreen tree, 5-20 m tall, with a round, dense crown. Its native range encompasses Central America, Mexico and the West Indies, but it is now widely cultivated fo...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); fruits and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
TitleFruits and foliage
CaptionManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); fruits and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); fruits and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Fruits and foliageManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); fruits and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
HabitManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. John Prince Park, Lake Worth, Florida, USA. September, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
HabitManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); habit. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); flowers and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); flowers and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); flowers and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Flowers and foliageManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); flowers and foliage. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruits. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
TitleFoliage and fruits
CaptionManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruits. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruits. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Foliage and fruitsManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruits. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruit. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
TitleFoliage and fruits
CaptionManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruit. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruit. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Foliage and fruitsManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); foliage and fruit. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); sectioned fruit and seed. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
TitleFruit and seed
CaptionManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); sectioned fruit and seed. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); sectioned fruit and seed. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
Fruit and seedManilkara zapota (sapodilla, chikoo, chico, chicle); sectioned fruit and seed. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen

Preferred Common Name

  • sapodilla

Other Scientific Names

  • Achradelpha mammosa O. F. Cook, nom. illeg.
  • Achras breviloba (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras calderonii (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras conzattii (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras coriacea Lundell
  • Achras dactylina Lundell
  • Achras gaumeri (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras latiloba Lundell
  • Achras lobulata (Lundell) Lundell
  • Achras lucuma Blanco
  • Achras mammosa L., nom. illeg.
  • Achras meridionalis (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras occidentalis Cels ex Ten.
  • Achras paludosa Lundell
  • Achras petenensis (Lundell) Lundell
  • Achras rojasii (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras sapota
  • Achras striata (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras tabogaensis (Gilly) Lundell
  • Achras tainteriana Lundell
  • Achras tchicomame Perr.
  • Achras verrucosa Stokes
  • Achras zapota L.
  • Achras zapota var. zapotilla Jacq.
  • Achras zapotilla (Jacq.) Nutt.
  • Calocarpum mammosum Pierre, nom. illeg.
  • Calospermum mammosum (L.) Pierre
  • Lucuma mammosa C. F. Gaertn., nom. illeg.
  • Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg
  • Manilkara breviloba Gilly
  • Manilkara calderonii Gilly
  • Manilkara conzattii Gilly
  • Manilkara gaumeri Gilly
  • Manilkara grisebachii (Pierre) Dubard
  • Manilkara meridionalis Gilly
  • Manilkara rojasii Gilly
  • Manilkara striata Gilly
  • Manilkara tabogaensis Gilly
  • Manilkara zapotilla (Jacq.) Gilly
  • Manilkariopsis lobulata Lundell
  • Manilkariopsis meridionalis (Gilly) Lundell
  • Manilkariopsis petenensis Lundell
  • Manilkariopsis rojasii (Gilly) Lundell
  • Manilkariopsis striata (Gilly) Lundell
  • Nispero achras
  • Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist
  • Sapota achras Mill.
  • Sapota zapotilla (Jacq.) Coville
  • Vitellaria mammosa (L.) Radlk.

International Common Names

  • English: naseberry; noseberry
  • Spanish: chicozapote; nisperillo; nispero; sapotillo; zapota; zapote; zapotillo
  • French: sapotier; sapotillier
  • Portuguese: sapoti; sapotilheira

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: lomut
  • El Salvador: nipero
  • Germany: Brei-Apfelbaum; Sapotillbaum
  • Haiti: sapotillier; sapotillier commun
  • India: chikoo
  • Indonesia: ciku; sawo londo; sawo manila
  • Italy: sapota
  • Laos: lamud
  • Lesser Antilles: bully tree
  • Malaysia: ciku
  • Mexico: chicle; chicle zapote; chicozapote
  • Netherlands: pruimboom, Sapodilla; sapodilleboom
  • Philippines: chico
  • Suriname: mispel; mispu
  • Thailand: lamut; lamut-farang
  • Vietnam: hong xiem; tam lu'c; xaboche

EPPO code

  • MNKZA (Manilkara zapota)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

M. zapota, commonly known as sapodilla, is an evergreen tree, 5-20 m tall, with a round, dense crown. Its native range encompasses Central America, Mexico and the West Indies, but it is now widely cultivated for its fruit to a greater or lesser extent in tropical and subtropical lowlands worldwide. It is an important fruit tree all over South-East Asia, grown in home gardens, orchards and plantations. The largest producers of sapodilla fruit are India, Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia, but it is also grown commercially elsewhere in Asia, South and Central America, and Florida in the USA.

Escapes from plantations have caused the species to be classed as a moderately invasive weed in the tropics (Binggeli et al., 1998), although in the USA it is of particular concern in southern and central Florida, where it is classed as a Category I invasive displacing the native flora (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2001). It is also listed as invasive in Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2017). Trees cast dense shade, making it difficult for other plants to survive in the understorey. Seedlings also grow very densely, inhibiting the establishment of native plant species.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Ebenales
  •                         Family: Sapotaceae
  •                             Genus: Manilkara
  •                                 Species: Manilkara zapota

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Manilkara is a genus of trees in the family Sapotaceae, widespread in the Old and New World tropics and subtropics. The generic name derives from 'manil-kara', a vernacular name in the Malayalam language of south India for Manilkara kauki, the type species for the genus (Quattrocchi, 2000). With regard to Manilkara zapota (chiku or sapodilla), the specific epithet is believed to derive from the Aztec language (Nahuatl) word 'tzapotl' which means a soft, sweet fruit. M. zapota has a vast number of common names, reflecting its widespread cultivation around the world. The taxonomic treatment of the species has been and is equally confused, with The Plant List giving 33 synonyms under the generic name Achras, 12 under Manilkara, 4 under Sapota and 10 others. The name M. zapota was validly published by Van Royen in Blumea (1953) 7:410. There are no subordinate taxa.

Being a cultivated fruit crop, numerous cultivars exist, often bearing local names; in many cases names in different localities are presumably synonyms. In Indonesia, two groups of cultivars are distinguished: (i) the Sawo manila type with ovoid fruit, including Sawo Betawi and Sawo Kulan; and (ii) the Sawo apel type with globose fruits, e.g. Sawo Apel Benar and Sawo Apel Lilin. In the Philippines, the small-fruited, prolific Pineras is most common. Ponderosa has large fruits of excellent quality but they do not soften uniformly after harvest, and trees require cross-pollination for good yield. Other cultivars are Sao Manila and Gonzalez. Well-known Thai cultivars are the small-fruited Krasuey, the fairly large-fruited Kai Hahn and the medium-sized, globose Makok. Popular cultivars in Malaysia are Santong, C54 and C58. In Queensland, Australia, cultivars from various countries have been evaluated, the most promising being Kai Hahn, Makok, C58, Tropical, BKD110 and Sao Manila.

Description

Top of page

M. zapota is an evergreen, slow-growing tree, 5-20 m in cultivation but reaching up to 40 m in height in the forest, with an average trunk diameter of 1.5 m. The crown is pyramidal to rounded. Branches are horizontal or drooping. Leaves are 5-13 cm long with pointed ends, stiff and alternate, clustering at ends of shoots, pinkish upon emergence, turning light green, then darkening with age. Flowers are inconspicuous, bell-shaped, and white, 0.9 cm in diameter and borne singly or in clusters in leaf axils near the tips of branches. The fruit is a berry, round to oval or conical, 5-10 cm in diameter, weighing 100 to 400 g (some cultivars weigh up to 1 kg).. Fruits mature year-round, but most abundantly from May to September. They are covered with a hairy, brown peel and have very sweet, light-brown to reddish-brown pulpy flesh, gritty to smooth in texture. Each fruit has 0-12 flattened, shiny, black seeds, each 1.9 cm in diameter. Larger trees have red-brown bark with a flaky appearance. A milky latex which exudes from all tree parts coagulates into “chicle”, the principal constituent of chewing gum before the advent of synthetics (Balerdi et al., 2013; Kaufman and Kaufman, 2013).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

M. zapota is native to Mexico and Central America (Govaerts, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). It has been introduced as a fruit tree across tropical and subtropical America, the West Indies, India, Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia, which are among the largest producers of sapodilla fruit, as well as Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh, (Morton, 1987; Mickelbart, 1996).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
CambodiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HainanPresent Planted
IndiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
-GujaratPresent Planted
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
-KeralaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
-OdishaPresent Planted
-PuducherryPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
-JavaPresentIntroducedCoronel, 1991
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedCoronel, 1991
IsraelPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
LaosPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent Planted
MyanmarPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2017Cultivated
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
SingaporePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresent Planted
ThailandPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
VietnamPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2017Cultivated
GabonPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017
GhanaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2017
GuineaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2017Cultivated
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2017Cultivated
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2017Cultivated

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MexicoPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2001; USDA-NRCS, 2017
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
BahamasWidespreadIntroducedKairo et al., 2003Naturalized
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
BelizePresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Guana, Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
Costa RicaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
El SalvadorPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
GuatemalaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
HondurasPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
NicaraguaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
PanamaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2017
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2017
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
BoliviaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
BrazilPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-AmapaPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-BahiaPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-CearaPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-ParaPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-ParanaPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-PiauiPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedAlmeida, 2015Cultivated
ChilePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ColombiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009; Govaerts, 2017
EcuadorPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
ParaguayPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
PeruPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized
UruguayPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedHerrera et al., 2010
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017
Wake IslandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

M. zapota was introduced as a fruit tree by native people in ancient times to most of tropical America, the West Indies, Bermuda, the Florida Keys and southern mainland Florida (Morton, 1987). It was also introduced as a fruit crop to other tropical and subtropical regions of the world including Asia, Africa and several islands in the Pacific region (Mickelbart, 1996; Govaerts, 2017; PIER, 2017; PROTA, 2017).

In the United States, this species was possibly introduced as early as the 16th century in Florida (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2013) and grown as a crop as early as 1883 (Gordon and Thomas, 1997). M. zapota was widely cultivated in the Florida Keys, from where it escaped into the surrounding Keys, hammocks, old fields and other habitats. It was found by 1989 reproducing and spreading at Paradise Key and Pine Island in Everglades National Park (Whiteaker and Doren, 1989), and subsequently recorded from 50 conservation areas across south Florida in rockland hammocks, coastal areas and disturbed uplands (Gann et al., 2015). Expanding populations of all age classes have been observed in Key Largo, while dense monocultures have been reported from Everglades National Park and scattered trees found in Biscayne National Park, Deering Estate and Long Key State Park (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2001).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Wherever M. zapota plantations are established there is a risk of seed escape into surrounding areas.

Habitat

Top of page

M. zapota grows well in a wide range of climatic conditions from wet tropics to dry cool subtropical areas. It thrives in the tropics, but it is found in large numbers at elevations up to 2500 m in Ecuador and also in the subtropics (i.e., Israel) (Coronel, 1991; Orwa et al., 2009). In central and southern Florida it grows in the more elevated parts of hardwood hammocks. It is particularly well adapted to the rocky, highly calcareous, well-drained soils found in southern Florida, but also to slightly alkaline and medium-textured loams (Balerdi et al., 2013; Kaufman and Kaufman, 2013).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Due to the intense shading caused by M. zapota trees, native plants cannot survive easily in the understorey. 

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Genetic improvement programmes involving hybridization to improve fruit yields and characteristics in cultivated M. zapota have been carried out since the 1950s (Sambamurty and Ramalingam, 1954). The chromosome number is 2n = 26 (Peiris, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of M. zapota are bisexual. Open pollination often occurring in this species results in a high degree of genetic variability within populations. Flowers are visited and pollinated by insects, primarily bees. Cultivars result from clonal propagation of selected seedling trees. The major objectives in varietal improvement are large fruit size, good eating quality and seedless fruits. Controlled hybridization started in India in the 1950s, but this has not yet resulted in the introduction of new cultivars (Coronel, 1991).

Physiology and Phenology

Flowers are produced in the leaf axils near the tips of young or mature shoots. These shoot tips have greatly shortened internodes, so that the flowers appear to be borne in clusters. Flowering may take place throughout the year but the peak of flowering in the Philippines is April to June, early in the rainy season. Observation of two cultivars in the Philippines showed that flower buds reach anthesis 45-60 days after emergence. The stigma is receptive between one day before and three days after flower opening; on the day of opening it is sticky with stigmatic fluid. Self-fertile cultivars produce much pollen, which is viable. Cross-pollination by insects, e.g. bees, is recommended and is necessary for low-yielding cultivars, most of which produce little pollen, which is defective.

Fruit growth as observed in India proceeds in three distinct stages: in the first 16 weeks diameter exceeds length; after a transitory period of 4 weeks the fruit assumes its characteristic oblong-ovoid shape and takes another 9 weeks to ripen. The fruits take about 6-8.5 months to mature so that, in the Philippines, the main harvest season is from December to February. In Thailand the fruit is more seasonal and abundant from September to December. According to Morton (1987), trees bear fruits from May to September in Florida, with a peak in June and July. In Mexico, there are two peak seasons: February-April and October-December.

Growth and Development

Trees are long-lived and slow-growing. The seeds of M. zapota germinate about 30 days after sowing without any treatment and exhibit an epigeal type of germination; they can, however, remain viable for several years if kept dry. Seedlings grow very slowly, producing a central stem that dominates the whorls of laterals in trees with an upright habit; the spreading habit is achieved by more prominent sympodial extension of the laterals. In an equable climate some extending shoots can be found at any time, but trees relieved from stress may seem to produce a general flush. Seedling trees start to flower 6-10 or more years after planting; grafted trees in 4-6 years and marcotted trees in 3-4 years.

Ecology and Environmental Requirements

Sapodilla is a very adaptable species. It thrives in the tropics, where it can be found in large numbers at elevations up to 2500 m in Ecuador, and also in the subtropics (Israel). Mature trees are very drought resistant, doing well in the monsoon climates of India; young trees are less tolerant of drought. With its tough branches, the tree tolerates strong winds and salt sprays close to coasts. Young trees are damaged or killed at temperatures from 0 to -1°C or less, but mature trees can withstand temperatures down to about -3°C for a few hours. Trees are moderately tolerant of flooded soil and tolerant of windy conditions (Balerdi et al., 2013). However, growth and fruit quality are impaired in extreme environments; the tree thrives in warm, moist tropical lowlands, usually below 600 m in South-East Asia. The best soil for sapodilla is a rich, well drained, sandy loam, with a pH of 4-7, but few soils are unsuitable and sapodilla comes second after the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in the category of fruit trees with high tolerance of saline soils.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 10 0 600

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 23 31
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 22 24

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7502700mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow
  • sodic

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alophia Herbivore Fruits/pods not specific
Bactrocera dorsalis Herbivore Fruits/pods not specific
Erythricium salmonicolor Pathogen Stems not specific
Eustalodes anthivora Herbivore Inflorescence not specific
Maravalia sapotae Pathogen Leaves not specific
Niphonoclea albata Herbivore Stems not specific
Niphonoclea capito Herbivore Stems not specific
Phaeophleospora indica Pathogen Leaves not specific
Uredo sapotae Pathogen Leaves to genus

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Pink disease (Erythricium salmonicolor) is a canker that kills infected branches, while the leaf rusts Uredo sapotae and Maravalia sapotae cause minor leaf damage. In India, a leaf spot disease, Phaeophleospora indica, has been reported. The larvae of Trypetidae fruit flies are serious pests, as they infest the ripe fruit and render it unfit for consumption. Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, and Anastrepha ludens, the Mexican fruit fly, are two of the most troublesome species. Rhyparida beetles may damage new leaves (Orwa et al., 2009).

Some insect pests may inflict serious damage to trees. In Asia, larvae of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis feed on the flesh of ripe fruit making it unfit for consumption. The larvae of the phycitid fruit borer (Alophia sp.) attack the fruits at all stages of development. The larvae of the gelechiid moth (Eustalodes anthivora) feed on the flowers causing them to drop. Larvae of the twig-borers Niphonoclea albata and N. capito tunnel into the twigs and pupate inside, while the adult beetles girdle the branches. Mealybugs and aphids feed on the leaves, young shoots, flowers and young fruits. Scale insects cluster around the twigs and branches and along the leaf midribs, causing leaf drop and twig dieback.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The large seed size of M. zapota indicates that dispersal is effected through ingestion by large animals, such as Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in southern Mexico, rather than by wind or very small animals (O’Farrill et al., 2011). Seed is also dispersed by raccoons and opossums in Florida (Langeland et al., 2014).

Intentional Introduction

M. zapota is widely planted throughout the tropical regions of Asia and the Americas as a fruit crop and for the production of chicle and fuelwood (USDA-ARS, 2015).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Horticulture Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Medicinal use Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
People foragingFruits eaten by humans Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Timber trade Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Economic Impact

Top of page

There are costs involved in eradicating M. zapota from native habitats in Florida.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Habitats

Trees of M. zapota cast dense shade, making it difficult for other plants to survive in the understorey. Seedlings also grow very densely, inhibiting the establishment of other plants including native species (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2013).

Impacts on Biodiversity

In parts of Florida, non-native invasive plants, including M. zapota, pose a threat to native plant species, notably the endangered Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable thoroughwort), Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus) and Harrisia aboriginum (aboriginal prickly-apple). Invasives compete with native plants for space, light, water and nutrients, and they have caused population declines in all three species. C. frustrata and C. corallicola have been extirpated from half of the islands where they occurred in the Florida Keys, and threats of competition from non-native plants and habitat loss still exist in the remaining populations. H. aboriginum has been extirpated from the northern extent of its range in Manatee County, and threats of poaching, competition from non-native plant species and habitat loss still exist in the remaining populations. Plans are proposed to remove invaders from habitats and develop plant communities of predominately native vegetation with either no or few competitive non-native, invasive plant species (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012); this is particularly the case for the critical habitat designated in coastal berm for C. frustrata (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Chromolaena frustrataUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Harrisia aboriginum (Aboriginal prickly-apple)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Poisoning
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

Sapodilla is grown mainly for its fruit which is predominantly eaten fresh. The fruits may also be used in sherbets or ice cream or made into preserves, butter or jam. The juice may be boiled into syrup or fermented into wine or vinegar.

Wild and cultivated trees in America are tapped for their milky latex which is used to produce chicle (15% rubber, 38% resin), the principal constituent of chewing gum before the advent of synthetic compounds (Verheij and Coronel, 1991). As this gum is still used in the manufacture of transmission belts, in dental surgery, and as a substitute for gutta percha (a coagulum of the latex of Palaquium spp., also in the Sapotaceae, which had many applications in industry before the advent of plastics), M. zapota is still grown for latex in countries such as Mexico, Venezuela and Guatemala (Mickelbart, 1996).

The wood is an excellent material for making cabinets and furniture. The timber is valuable, as it is deep red in colour, very hard and strong. The wood is also used in jewellery. A leaf tea is used to treat fevers, wounds and ulcers. The plant is a source of saponin. The tree is widely planted as an ornamental, with attractive bark, and can be an invasive weed.

The seeds are antipyretic. In Indonesia, the flowers are used as one of the ingredients in preparing a powder which is rubbed on the body of a woman after childbirth. The tannin from the bark is used to tan ship sails and fishing tackle; in Cambodia the tannin is used in traditional medicine to cure diarrhoea and fever (Krishnapillay et al., 1993).

M. zapota is also grown as a landscape tree and ornamental, with attractive bark.

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits
  • Gum/mucilage
  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Rubber/latex
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

Top of page

Furniture

Railway sleepers

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction

Woodware

  • Marquetry
  • Wood carvings

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

Wild dilly (Manilkara jaimiqui subsp. emarginata), a native species from south Florida, can be differentiated from M. zapota by its smaller fruits (to 4 cm) and dull, grey-green leaves (Langeland et al., 2008).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Control

M. zapota seedlings can be pulled up by hand. Triclopyr mixed with oil can be applied as a basal bark treatment. Larger trees may require several applications. Cut stumps should also be treated with triclopyr (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2013; Langeland et al., 2014).

Bibliography

Top of page Clarke FFG, 1954. Eustalodes anthivora (Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera), a new pest of Achras zapota in the Philippines. The Philippine Agriculturists, 37: 450-454.

Coronel RE, 1966. That chico called Ponderosa. Agriculture at Los Baños, 5: 1-3.

De Peralta E, de la Cruz EJ, 1954. Preliminary study on the vegetative propagation of the chico. Araneta Journal of Agriculture, 2: 25-32.

Gonzalez LG, Fabella EL, 1952. Intergeneric graft-affinity of the chico. The Philippine Agriculturists, 35: 402-407.

Gonzalez LG, Feliciano Jr. PA, 1953. The blooming and fruiting habits of the Ponderosa chico. The Philippine Agriculturists, 37: 384-398.

Moncur WM, 1988. Floral development of tropical and subtropical fruit and nut species. An atlas of scanning election micrographs. Natural Resources Series No 8. Division Water and Land Resources, CSIRO, Melbourne, 171-174.

Moore HE, Stearn WT, 1967. The identity of Achras zapota L. and the names for the sapodilla and the sapote. Taxon, 16:382-395.

Schroeder CA, 1958. The origin, spread and improvement of the avocado, sapodilla and papaya. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 15:116-128.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Almeida EB, 2015. Manilkara in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB87918

Balerdi CF, Crane JH, Maguire I, 2013. Sapodilla growing in the Florida home landscape. University of Florida-IFAS Extension Fact Sheet, HS-1. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida-IFAS, 8 pp.

Binggeli P, Hall JB, Healey JR, 1998. An overview of invasive woody plants in the tropics. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication, 13.

Bose TK, Mitra SK, eds, 1996. Fruits: tropical and subtropical. Calcutta, India: Naya Prokash.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chadha KL, 1992. Strategy for optimisation of productivity and utilization of sapota (Manilkara achras [M. zapota] (Mill.) Forberg.). National symposium on optimisation of productivity and utilization of sapota, 8 October 1991, Navsari, Gujarat, India. Indian-Journal-of-Horticulture, 49(1):1-17; 55 ref.

Chaudhary SM, Shete MB, Desai UT, 1995. Performance of some sapota (Manilkara achrus Mill Fosberg) cultivars under semi-arid region of Maharashtra. Recent Horticulture, 2(2):47-51; 7 ref.

Coronel RE, 1991. Manilkara zapota (L.). In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, Eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 220-223

Cruz E, Deras H, 2000. Colecta de frutales tropicales en El Salvador [Collection of tropical fruit in El Salvador.]. Agronomia Mesoamericana, 11(2): 97-100.

Flora of Pakistan, 2017. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2001. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 2001 list of invasive species. Florida EPPC Newsletter, 11(1):3-4. www.fleppc.org

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Galan Sauco V, 1995. Woody tropical fruits in Spain. Biogenetic resources, plant material, production and prospects. [Frutales tropicales lenosos en Espana. Recursos biogeneticos, material vegetal, produccion y perspectivas.] Vida Rural, 2(24):60-63; 6 col. pl.; 10 ref.

Gann G, Bradley K, Woodmansee S, 2015. Plants of south Florida: Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen, sapodilla. Floristic Inventory of South Florida Database Online. Delray Beach, Florida, USA: Institute for Regional Conservation. http://regionalconservation.org/ircs/database/plants/PlantPage.asp?TXCODE=Manizap

Garcia Cuevas X, Rodriguez Santiago B, Parraguirre Lezama C, 1993. Important notes on Manilkara zapota. [Notas importantes sobre el chicozapote (Manilkara zapota L. van Royen).] Ciencia Forestal, publ. 1994, 18(74):45-63; 8 ref.

Gordon DR, Thomas KP, 1997. Florida's invasion by nonindigenous plants: history, screening, and regulation. In: Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida [ed. by Simberloff, D. \Schmitz, D. C. \Brown, T. C.]. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press, 21-37.

Govaerts R, 2017. World Checklist of Sapotaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts.. CABI, xviii + 954 pp.. 9780851996387.

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Kaufman SR, Kaufman W, 2013. Invasive plants. Guide to identification and the impacts and control of common North American species. Second edition, revised and updated. Mechanicsburg, PA, USA: Stackpole Books, 528 pp.

Krishnapillay B, Marzalina M, Haris Mohd, 1993. Seeds and fruits of some common tropical species used as medicine by folk healers. Buletin FRIM, 3(2):9-11.

Kroll R, 1996. Les petits fruits [Small fruits]. Paris, France; Editions Maisonneuve et Larose: 142 pp.

Langeland KA, Cherry HM, McCormick CM, Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen. In: Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas, second edition [ed. by Langeland, K. A. \Cherry, H. M. \McCormick, C. M. \Craddock Burks, K. A.]. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida-IFAS, 119. [University of Florida-IFAS Extension Publication No. SP-257.] http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/misc/pdfs/SP257/Manilkara_zapota(SP257-119).pdf

Langeland KA, Ferrell JA, Sellers B, MacDonald GE, Stocker RK, 2014. Integrated management of nonnative plants in natural areas of Florida. University of Florida-IFAS Extension Publication, SP-242. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida-IFAS, 27 pp. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/WG/WG20900.pdf

Lenka PC, Das DK, Samal B, 1996. Studies on floral biology and physical characteristics of sapota cultivars. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 24(1-2):42-46; 5 ref.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 164 pp.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Mickelbart MV, 1996. Sapodilla: a potential crop for subtropical climates. In: Progress in new crops: Proceedings of the Third National Symposium, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 22-25 October, 1996 [ed. by Janick, J.]. Alexandria, USA: American Society for Horticultural Science, 439-446.

Morton JF, 1987. Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami, USA: J.F. Morton, 517 pp.

Mutnal SM, Madiwalar SLK, Hanamashetti SI, 1994. Effects of tree species on maize fodder yield in hill zone of Karnataka. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 19(2):247-248; 6 ref.

O'Farrill G, Chapman CA, Gonzalez A, 2011. Origin and deposition sites influence seed germination and seedling survival of Manilkara zapota: implications for long-distance, animal-mediated seed dispersal. Seed Science Research, 21(4):305-313. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=SSR

Ortega Escalona F, Castillo Morales I, Carmona Valdovinos TF, 1991. Woody angiosperms of Mexico. No. 3. Anatomy of the wood of twenty-six species in Lacandona tropical evergreen forest, Chiapas. [Angiospermas arboreas de Mexico. Num. 3. Anatomia de la madera de veintiseis especies de la selva Lacandona, Chiapas.] Madera y Su Uso, No. 26, v + 200 pp.; 78 ref.

Orwa C, Mutua A , Kindt R , Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp

Pampanna Y, Sulikeri GS, 1995. Effect of age of scion on the success of softwood grafting and growth of grafts in sapota (cv. Kalipatti). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(1):56-59; 4 ref.

Pampanna Y, Sulikeri GS, Hulamani NC, 1994. Effect of season on the success of softwood grafting in sapota (cv. Kalipatti). South Indian Horticulture, 42(5):303-308; 8 ref.

Paningbatan EP, Maglinao A, Vila M, Huelgas G, 1995. The management of sloping lands for sustainable agriculture in the Philippines. In: Sajjapongse A, Elliott CR, eds. ASIALAND: the management of sloping lands for sustainable agriculture in Asia Phase 2, 1992-1994, 123-164; Network Document No. 12.

Patange NR, Bhagat RP, Patil SR, 1997. Injury index and management of chikoo leaf webber (Nephopterix eugraphella Ragonot) on chikoo. Journal of Soils and Crops, 7(1):87-89; 3 ref.

Patel BS, Jhala RC, Pandya HV, Patel CB, 1993. Biology of leaf-folder (Banisia myrsusalis elearalis) [B. m. elaralis] (Lepidoptera: Thyrididae) a pest of sapota (Achras zapota) [Manilkara zapota]. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(9):604-605; 2 ref.

Paull, R. E., Duarte, O., 2012. Tropical fruits, Volume 2.. (Ed.2) CABI, ix + 371 pp.. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20123357661 9781845937898. doi: 10.1079/9781845937898.0000

Peiris KHS, 2014. Sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L. van Royan. In: Underutilized fruit trees in Sri Lanka [ed. by Pushpakumara, D. K. N. G. \Gunasena, H. P. M. \Singh, V. P.]. New Delhi, India: World Agroforestry Centre, South Asia Office, 183-224.

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

PROTA, 2017. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Quattrocchi U, 2000. CRC world dictionary of plant names: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III, M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.

Rai T, Batra MS, Lal M, Pathak GM, 1993. Economic return through intercropping in chikoo orchards. Annals of Agricultural Research, 14(2):159-162.

Rao MM, Rokhade AK, Shankaranarayana HN, Prakash NA, Sulladmath VV, Hittalmani SV, 1995. Developmental patterns and duration of growth and development of some tropical and sub-tropical fruits under mild tropical rainy climate. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 29(2):149-154; 11 ref.

Royen P van, 1953. Revision of the Sapotaceae of the Malaysian area in a wider sense. V. Manilkara Adanson em. Gilly in the Far East. Blumea, 7(2):401-12.

Sambamurty K, Ramalingam V, 1954. A note on hybridisation in the sapota (Achras zapota L.). Indian Journal of Horticulture, 11:57-60.

Sandhu MK, Subhadrabandhu S, 1992. Standardization of grafting techniques in sapota (Achras zapota L.). International symposium on tropical fruit: frontier in tropical fruit research, Pattaya City, Thailand, 20 24 May 1991. Acta-Horticulturae, No. 321, 610-615; 5 ref.

Tandon PL, 1993. Insect and mite pests of tropical fruits. Advances in horticulture: fruit crops - Volume 3 [edited by Chadha, K. L.; Pareek, O. P.] New Delhi, India; Malhotra Publishing House, 1527-1555

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Torelli N, Gorisek Z, 1995. Mexican tropical hardwoods: mechanical properties in green condition. Holz als Roh und Werkstoff, 53(6):421-423; 1 ref.

Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2017. Lists of Invasive species in Trinidad and Tobago. http://www.biodiversity.gov.tt/home/trinidad-a-tobago-biodiversity/invasive-alien-species.html

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; endangered species status for Cape Sable thoroughwort, Florida semaphore cactus, and aboriginal prickly-apple, and designation of critical habitat for Cape Sable thoroughwort; proposed rule. Federal Register, 77(197):61836-61894. [50 CFR Part 17, RIN 1018-AY08.] http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-11/pdf/2012-24466.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; designation of critical habitat for Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable thoroughwort); Final Rule. Federal Register, 79(5):1552-1590. [50 CFR Part 17, RIN 1018-AZ51.]

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Verheij EWM, Coronel RE(Editors), 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc, 446 pp.

Whiteaker LD, Doren RF, 1989. National Park Service Southeast Region Research/Resources Management Report, SER-89/04. Atlanta, Georgia, USA: National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, 21 pp.

Yin SG, Cui YS, Lin YM, 1995. Two new species of Tenuipalpus from Hainan province, China (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 20(1):61-64

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

03/04/17 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

29/06/15 Updated by:

Andrew Praciak, Consultant, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map