Aeschynomene indica (Indian jointvetch)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Aeschynomene indica L.
Preferred Common Name
- Indian jointvetch
Other Scientific Names
- Aeschynomene aspera (non L.) Hassk.
- Aeschynomene virginica auct.
International Common Names
- English: budda pea; curly indigo; joint vetch; northern jointvetch; sensitive Malayan vetch
- Spanish: anil rizado
- French: eschynomene
Local Common Names
- Germany: Virginische Schampflanze
- Indonesia: dinding; gedeyan; katisan; lorotis; peupeuteuyan; tis
- Italy: pianta modesta bastarda
- Japan: kusanemu
- Philippines: makahiyang lalaki
- Thailand: sano haag kai
- AESIN (Aeschynomene indica)
- AESVI (Aeschynomene virginica)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Fabales
- Family: Fabaceae
- Subfamily: Faboideae
- Genus: Aeschynomene
- Species: Aeschynomene indica
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page A. indica L. belongs to the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae), which includes many trees, shrubs, climbers and herbs. It belongs to the subfamily Papillionoideae, which includes the cultivated beans (Henderson, 1959).
DescriptionTop of page A. indica is a slender, branched annual herb up to about 90 cm tall, leaves 3.8-5 cm long with 20 or 30 pairs of tiny, close-set, oblong, sensitive leaflets; stipules lanceolate, auricled; inflorescence yellow, 2.5-10 cm, in the leaf axils, calyx two-lipped, corolla thin, yellow, a little less than 1.3 cm long, pod up to 0.5 x 5.0 cm, the upper edge straight, the lower dented, with 8-10 almost square, rather woody joints, each containing a single kidney-shaped seed (Henderson, 1959; Noda et al., 1985).
DistributionTop of page A. indica originates in the Old World tropics, but now occurs sporadically also in the New World.
In addition to the records listed here, Holm et al. (1979) note A. indica as present in "West Polynesia".
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Benin||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Botswana||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Gambia||Present||Hutchinson and Dalziel (1972)|
|Ghana||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Guinea-Bissau||Present||Hutchinson and Dalziel (1972)|
|Madagascar||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Eliot et al., 1993|
|Mali||Present||Hutchinson and Dalziel (1972)|
|Mauritius||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Nigeria||Present||Hutchinson and Dalziel (1972)|
|Senegal||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Afghanistan||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
|China||Present, Widespread||Anon (1990)|
|Hong Kong||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|India||Present, Localized||Sharma and Das (1993)|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present, Widespread||Paradkar et al. (1989)|
|-Odisha||Present, Widespread||Mishra et al. (1990); Sharma and Das (1993)|
|Japan||Present, Localized||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Sago et al., 1983|
|Malaysia||Present, Widespread||Henderson (1959)|
|Nepal||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Philippines||Present, Localized||Moody et al. (1984); Waterhouse (1993)|
|South Korea||Present||Ku et al. (1993)|
|Sri Lanka||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Taiwan||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Thailand||Present, Widespread||Noda et al. (1985)|
|Guatemala||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|United States||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Australia||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Fiji||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Colombia||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Ecuador||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1979)|
HabitatTop of page This plant prefers wet conditions and is often found along the borders of ditches or pools, or in wet cultivated land. It is also found in wet open places, sandy areas and along roadsides. It is distributed within the tropics and sub-tropics, in regions with or without a pronounced dry season, at altitudes from 0-1000 m (Backer and Bakhuizen, 1963; Ridley, 1967; Soerjani et al., 1987).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page A. indica propagates via seeds (hydro- or zoochorous), which often contaminate cover crop seeds, soil in polybags, wheels of tractors and farm implements. 61 species of weeds including A. indica were recorded as contaminants of leguminous cover crop seeds imported into Malaysia (Tasrif et al., 1991).
Sago et al. (1983) noted that despite pronounced dormancy of its seed at maturation, A. indica emerged throughout the growing season except during frost, and that saturated soil conditions favoured emergence.
Vesicular-arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi were found on A. indica plants grown under normal moisture conditions but not under waterlogged conditions. Sodium chloride, potassium nitrate and glucose at 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% inhibited the growth of A. indica plants (Singh and Tyagi, 1989), potassium nitrate being the more toxic to plant growth. 12 hours' light exposure was found to be optimal for the growth of A. indica and for maximum mycorrhizal colonization (Singh and Tyagi, 1989).
A. indica prefers wet conditions and is often found along the borders of ditches or pools, or in wet cultivated land. It is also found in wet open places, sandy areas and along roadsides.
Natural enemiesTop of page
ImpactTop of page Waterhouse (1993) lists A. indica as among the major rice weeds in South-East Asia, and as widespread and important in the Philippines and Cambodia, and locally important in Thailand.
A. indica is a minor weed of rubber and oil palm in Malaysia. The reasons for its limited infestation are not clear but may be attributed to fierce competition by aggressive weeds such as Imperata cylindrica, Mikania micrantha, Paspalum conjugatum and Asystasia gangetica.
No work has been carried out to quantify its effects on crop yield.
A. indica is occasionally observed in orchards, field crops and vegetable plots. It has been recorded as an important alternative host of the pod-borer, Helicoverpa armigera, in chickpea (Cicer arietenum) in India (Patel and Patitunda, 1981).
A. indica is a promising green manure (Soerjani et al., 1987). It is reported to be harmful to horses when eaten in the fruiting stage (Soerjani et al., 1987).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Poisonous to mammals
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Aeschynomene americana may be distinguished from A. indica by its obliquely topped leaflets with 2-5 nerves, its up to 2-mm-long pod stalk, and its incised dorsal pod suture (Soerjani et al., 1987). A. americana is perennial, and has pink flowers whereas those of A. indica are yellow. The peduncles and pedicels of A. americana may be viscid.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
In rice (Soerjani et al., 1987), manual control is indicated to be the most common means of controlling A. indica in Indonesia. Sharma and Das (1993) carried out nitrogen management and tillage experiments in direct-sown rice in India, under rainfed flooded conditions. For a group of weed species including A. indica, weed dry weight increased with increasing nitrogen levels and decreased as the number of times of ploughing increased. Hand-weeding, inter-row cultivation and application of thiobencarb all decreased weed dry weight and increased rice grain yields.
Experiments carried out by Lokras et al. (1985) indicated that in soyabean, hand-weeding at 20, 35 and 50 days after sowing gave more effective control of a complex of weeds, including A. indica, than herbicide treatments.
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene is a useful biological control agent of northern jointvetch (Aeschynomene virginica) and is commercially available as a biocontrol agent (Templeton et al., 1990). Initial studies with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides showed that the fungus is highly specific to A. virginica and only slightly virulent on A. indica, no other plants from 150 crop species and weeds being affected (Smith et al., 1973; Templeton and Smith, 1974).
Further studies are needed on fungi pathogenic to A. indica in the Asia-Pacific region.
In rice, herbicides that have been used against weed complexes involving A. indica include thiobencarb in direct-sown rice (Sharma and Das, 1993); pendimethalin in upland rice (Mishra et al., 1990); and a number of diphenyl ether, 1,3,5-triazine and phenoxy herbicides applied pre- and post-emergence (Sago et al., 1983).
In soyabean, Lokras et al. (1985) found that bentazone gave poor control of weeds including A. indica; better control was achieved with metribuzin, oxadiazon, fluchloralin or metolachlor.
ReferencesTop of page
Anon, 1990. Farmland weeds in China. Agricultural Publishing House.
Barnes DE; Chan LG, 1990. Common Weeds of Malaysia and their Control. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ancom Berhad Persiaran Selangor.
Henderson MR, 1959. Malayan wild flowers, Part 1: Dicotyledons. Kuala Lumpur: Caxton Press.
Hutchinson J; Dalziel JM, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 3. 2nd edition. London, UK: Crown Agents.
Lokras VG; Sinii VK; Bisen CR; Tiwari JP, 1985. Chemical weed control in Soybean. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 17(4):45-48.
Moody K; Lubigan RT; Munroe CE; Paller EC, 1984. Major weeds of the Philippines. Weed Science Society of the Philippines. Los Ba±os, Laguna, Philippines: University of the Philippines.
Noda K; Teerawatsakul M; Prakongvongs C; Chaiwiratnukul L, 1985. Major Weeds in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Agriculture.
Ridley HN, 1967. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula: Polypetalae.
Sharma AR; Das KC, 1993. Weed and nitrogen management in direct-sown rice (Oryza sativa L.) under rainfed flooded condition. Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993., Vol. III:1-5.
Singh CS; Tyagi SP, 1989. Study on the occurence of VAM fungi in the root of Aeschynomene indica under the influence of various ecological factors. Zentralblatt-fur-Mikrobiologies, 144:241-48
Smith RJ; Fox WT; Daniel JT; Templeton GE, 1973. Can plant diseases be used to control weeds? Arkansas Farm Research, 22:4, 12.
Templeton GE; Smith RJ Jr; TeBeest DO, 1990. Perspectives on mycoherbicides two decades after discovery of the Collego pathogen. Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds Rome, Italy; Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Ministero dell'Agricoltura e delle Foreste, 553-558
Templeton GE; Smith RJ, 1974. Bio-control of northern joinvetch. Rice Journal, 77(7):29-30.
Thulin M, 1989. Fabaceae. In: Hedberg I, Edwards S, eds. Flora of Ethiopia, Volume 3. Pittosporaceae to Araliaceae. Addis Abbaba, Ethiopia/Uppsala University, Sweden: National Herbarium, 97-251.
Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.
Anon, 1990. Farmland weeds in China., Agricultural Publishing House.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Henderson MR, 1959. Malayan wild flowers, Part 1: Dicotyledons., Kuala Lumpur, Caxton Press.
Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa., 3 (2nd) London, UK: Crown Agents.
Moody K, Lubigan RT, Munroe CE, Paller EC, 1984. Major weeds of the Philippines. In: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines: University of the Philippines.
Noda K, Teerawatsakul M, Prakongvongs C, Chaiwiratnukul L, 1985. Major Weeds in Thailand., Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Agriculture.
Sharma A R, Das K C, 1993. Weed and nitrogen management in direct-sown rice (Oryza sativa L.) under rainfed flooded condition. In: Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993. [Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993.], Hisar, Haryana, India: Indian Society of Weed Science. 1-5.
Thulin M, 1989. Fabaceae. In: Flora of Ethiopia, 3 [ed. by Hedberg I, Edwards S]. Addis Abbaba, Ethiopia/Uppsala University, Sweden: National Herbarium. 97-251.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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