Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mangifera indica
(mango)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Mangifera indica (mango)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mangifera indica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mango
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. indica is a fruit tree which has been actively moved by humans for centuries. It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical reg...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mango fruits.
TitleM. indica fruit
CaptionMango fruits.
CopyrightCTC/Zeneca
Mango fruits.
M. indica fruitMango fruits.CTC/Zeneca
TitleMature tree
Caption
CopyrightK.M. Kochummen
Mature treeK.M. Kochummen
TitleBole and bark
Caption
CopyrightK.M. Kochummen
Bole and barkK.M. Kochummen
Mango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
TitleFruit
CaptionMango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
CopyrightRuth Ibbotson
Mango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
FruitMango fruit on tree, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.Ruth Ibbotson
1. flowering twig
2. single flower
3. open flower showing stamen and ovary
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. flowering twig 2. single flower 3. open flower showing stamen and ovary
CopyrightK.M. Kochummen
1. flowering twig
2. single flower
3. open flower showing stamen and ovary
Line artwork1. flowering twig 2. single flower 3. open flower showing stamen and ovaryK.M. Kochummen
Mango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
TitleTree
CaptionMango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
CopyrightRuth Ibbotson
Mango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.
TreeMango tree bearing fruits, Mayotte, Indian Ocean.Ruth Ibbotson
M. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleLine drawing of plant
CaptionM. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
M. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Line drawing of plantM. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. PROSEA Foundation
1. flowering twig
2. branchlet with fruit
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. flowering twig 2. branchlet with fruit
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. flowering twig
2. branchlet with fruit
Line artwork1. flowering twig 2. branchlet with fruitPROSEA Foundation
Mangifera sp. plants with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleWhole plant - line drawing
CaptionMangifera sp. plants with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
Mangifera sp. plants with fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Whole plant - line drawingMangifera sp. plants with fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.PROSEA Foundation

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mangifera indica L.

Preferred Common Name

  • mango

Other Scientific Names

  • Mangifera amba Forssk.
  • Mangifera anisodora Blanco
  • Mangifera arbor Bonti
  • Mangifera austroindica Kosterm.
  • Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu
  • Mangifera bompardii Kosterm.
  • Mangifera domestica Gaertn.
  • Mangifera equine Gen.
  • Mangifera fragrans Maingay
  • Mangifera gladiata Bojer
  • Mangifera integrifolia Gen.
  • Mangifera kukulu Blume
  • Mangifera linnaei Korth. ex Hassk.
  • Mangifera maritima Lechaume
  • Mangifera montana Heybe
  • Mangifera orophila Kosterm.
  • Mangifera oryza Genibrel
  • Mangifera racemosa Bojer
  • Mangifera rostrata Blanco
  • Mangifera rubra Bojer
  • Mangifera rubropetala Kosterm.
  • Mangifera sativa Roem & Schult.
  • Mangifera siamensis Warb.
  • Mangifera sugenda Gen.
  • Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.
  • Mangifera viridis Bojer

International Common Names

  • English: edible mango; Indian mango
  • Spanish: mango
  • French: mangot; manguier
  • Arabic: amba; manga
  • Portuguese: mangueira

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: am; ambra
  • Brazil: manga; mango; mangueira
  • Cambodia: svaay
  • Cuba: manga amarilla; manga blanca; mango de hilacha
  • Germany: Mangobaum; mangopalme
  • Haiti: mangot fil
  • India: am; amba; ambi; ambo; amra; amra chuta; amram; amri; chuta; cutam; ghari am; maa; madhudura; mamadi; mamaram; mamidi; mampalam; manga; marinamara; mau; mavena; mavi; mavu; rasala
  • India/Gujarat: amri
  • Indonesia: manga; mempelam
  • Laos: mwàngx
  • Malaysia: mangga; mempelam; taipa
  • Myanmar: ampelam; mempalam; tharyetthi; thayat; thayt-hypu
  • Netherlands: mangoboom
  • Papua New Guinea: mango
  • Philippines: mangga; mango; paho
  • Sri Lanka: mangass
  • Thailand: mamuan
  • Vietnam: xoài

EPPO code

  • MNGIN (Mangifera indica)

French acronym

  • mangue

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

M. indica is a fruit tree which has been actively moved by humans for centuries. It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This species has adapted to a wide variety of climates where it has become naturalized. Because fruits are eaten and dispersed by bats, hornbills, monkeys, elephants, raccoons, porcupines, and humans, it has easily escaped from cultivation and established in natural areas in practically every location where it has been intentionally introduced by humans (Bally, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). Currently, M. indica is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and it is also listed as invasive in Singapore, Namibia, South Africa, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Galápagos Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Antigua, Australia and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean including among others Hawaii, Easter Island and French Polynesia (see Distribution Table for details). 

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Sapindales
  •                         Family: Anacardiaceae
  •                             Genus: Mangifera
  •                                 Species: Mangifera indica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The Indomalesian genus Mangifera, a member of the family Anacardiaceae, contains approximately 69 species. Mangifera is divided into two subgenera: Mangifera and Limus. Subgenus Mangifera contains most of the species and is characterized by its cushion-shaped papillose disc which is 4 or 5 lobed, partly or completely surrounding the ovary and with free stamen filaments. Subgenus Limus consists of 11 species and is characterized by the cylindrical disc which is located at the base of the ovary in bisexual flowers and which is neither lobed nor papillose and contains united stamen filaments. M. indica belongs to subgenus Mangifera.

Besides M. indica, there are a number of other species of Mangifera which produce edible fruits: M. caesia, M. odorata, M. pentandra and M. pajang (Hou, 1978; Kostermans and Bompard, 1993).

Description

Top of page

The mango tree is a large, spreading evergreen with a dense crown. Mature trees can attain a height of 40 m or more, with a 60-120 cm trunk and greyish-brown, longitude-fissured bark.

Seeds

Mango seeds are solitary, large and flat, ovoid oblong, and surrounded by the fibrous endocarp at maturity. The testa and tegumen are thin and papery. Embryos are dicotyledonous. The seeds are recalcitrant and cannot survive for more than a few days or weeks at ambient temperatures. This important characteristic inhibited the long distance dispersal of mango by seed until recent times.

Seedlings

The mango seedling (or seedlings in the case of polyembryonic seeds) emerges after 2 weeks and grows rhythmically from the start: a flush brings out the new shoot which extends in about 1 months’ time, after which the buds remain quiescent for shorter or longer periods. Flushes occur more or less synchronously, depending upon the climate; during a long wet season the synchronization is gradually weakened.

Leaves

Leaves are produced in flushes of 10-12 new leaves, 1-3 times a year. Leaves persist on the tree for 4-5 years before being shed. Leaf morphology is highly variable depending on cultivar. Leaves are spirally arranged, simple; young leaves are copper-coloured, turning to light then dark shiny green; petiole 1-12.5 cm long, with pulvinus at the base; blade variable in size and shape, usually narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 12-38 x 2-13 cm, somewhat leathery, tapering at base, margin often undulate, apex acuminate, nerves 12-30 pairs, elevated on both surfaces.

Roots

The tree roots to a considerable depth. The root system consists of a long, vigorous taproot and abundant surface feeder roots, enabling the tree to find the moisture necessary for flowering/flushing during the dry season.

Flowers

The inflorescence can reach full bloom from the time of flower initiation in 25-30 days. The Mango inflorescence is a terminal compose thirsoid and are glabrous or pubescent. The inflorescence is rigid and erect, up to 30 cm long, and is widely branched, usually tertiary, although the final branch is always cymose. It is usually densely flowered and the flowers are either male or hermaphrodite both borne within a single inflorescence. It has 300–6000 reddish-pink to greenish-white flowers (depending upon the cultivar), 5-8 mm in diameter, pedicels 1 mm long; calyx 5-lobed; 5 petals (twice as long as the calyx, ovate to ovoid to lanceolate and also thinly pubescent); pistil abortive in male flowers, style lateral, stigma simple. The panicles consist of male and perfect hermaphrodite flowers, with a varying sex ratio. The pistil aborts in male flowers. A good crop of fruit is obtained when only a small percentage of the flowers are pollinated. The ratio of male to perfect flowers is strongly influenced by environmental and cultural factors. The floral disc is also four- or five-lobed, fleshy and large and located above the base of the petals. There are five large, fleshy stamens, only one or two of them being fertile; the remaining stamens are sterile staminodes that are surmounted by a small gland. In addition, two or three smaller filaments arise from the lobes of the nectaries. The stamens are central. The ovule is anatropous and pendulous.

Fruit

The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thickness. The mesocarp is resinous and highly variable with respect to shape, size, colour, presence of fibre and flavour. The flavour ranges from turpentine to sweet. The exocarp is thick and glandular. There is a characteristic beak that develops laterally on the proximal end of the fruit. A sinus is always present above the beak. Fruit shape varies, including elongate, oblong and ovate or intermediate forms involving two of these shapes. Fruit length can range from 2.5 to >30 cm, depending on the cultivar. The endocarp is woody, thick and fibrous; the fibres in the mesocarp arise from the endocarp. The mango fruit is climacteric, and increased ethylene production occurs during ripening. Chlorophyll, carotenes, anthocyanins and xanthophylls are all present in the fruit. The skin is generally a mixture of green, red and yellow pigments, although fruit colour at maturity is genotype dependent. Fruit of ‘Bombay Green’ is green; ‘Carabao’, ‘Manila’, ‘Mulgoa’ and ‘Arumanis’ are greenish-yellow; ‘Dashehari’ and ‘Alphonso’ are yellow; and ‘Haden’, ‘Keitt’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ have a red blush. The red blush is due to the presence of anthocyanins.

The fruit grow fast: they ripen after 3-4 months, some late cultivars after 5 months. The period from fruit set to maturity depends upon cultivar and climate and can range from 10 to 28 weeks.

Lack of fruit set is attributed to: (i) lack of fertile pollen; (ii) poor pollen-tube growth; (iii) failure of ovule fertilization; (iv) failure of pistil or ovules to develop; (v) abortions of embryo sac, embryo or endosperm; (vi) anthracnose disease of the flowers; and (vii) other physical and cultural factors.

Principal sources: Litz (2009), Paull and Duarte (2010)

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree

Distribution

Top of page

The natural distribution of M. indica is in the Indo-Malesian region, specifically India and Myanmar. Wild populations can be found in the Assam-Chittagong Hills in India and in Myanmar. This species has become naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics and much of its spread and naturalization has occurred associated with expansion of human populations. M. indica contains hundreds of cultivars, and is now pan-tropical and even sub-tropical. It is cultivated in, amongst other places, Pakistan, East and West Africa, North and South America, Malesia, Australia and Hawaii (Bailey, 1925; Hou, 1978; Mukherjee, 1972; Kochummen, 1989; Kochummen, 1995).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2013Cultivated and naturalized
Brunei DarussalamPresentPlanted, Natural
CambodiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativePlanted, NaturalMorton, 1987
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-AssamPresentNativePlanted, NaturalUSDA-ARS, 2014
-BiharPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-ChandigarhPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-ChhattisgarhPresentNativeBally, 2006Native and cultivated
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-DamanPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-DelhiPresentNativePlanted, Natural
-DiuPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-GoaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-GujaratPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-HaryanaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-Indian PunjabPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-JharkhandPresentNativeBally, 2006Native and cultivated
-KarnatakaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-KeralaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-LakshadweepPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-MaharashtraPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-ManipurPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-MeghalayaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-MizoramPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-NagalandPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-OdishaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-RajasthanPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-SikkimPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-Tamil NaduPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-TripuraPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
-UttarakhandPresentNativeBally, 2006Native and cultivated
-West BengalPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBally, 2006
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresent Planted
-JavaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-KalimantanPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2013Cultivated and naturalized
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-SumatraPresentPlanted, Natural
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014Invasive on Bonin Islands
LaosPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2013Cultivated and naturalized
-SabahPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2013Cultivated and naturalized
-SarawakPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
MaldivesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014Native populations
NepalPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
OmanPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
PakistanPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2013Cultivated and naturalized
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated
ThailandPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2013Cultivated and naturalized
VietnamPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2013Cultivated and naturalized
YemenPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
BeninPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
BurundiPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
CameroonPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
ChadPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
EgyptPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
EritreaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
GabonPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
GambiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
GhanaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
GuineaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
KenyaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
LiberiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
MadagascarPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
MalawiPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
MaliPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
MauritaniaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
NamibiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Bethune et al., 2004
NigerPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
NigeriaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
SenegalPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
SeychellesPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
SomaliaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Morton, 1987; Foxcroft et al., 2007Invasive in Kruger National Park
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Planted DAISIE, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
SudanPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Planted Orwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
-ZanzibarPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
TogoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
UgandaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014Cultivated and naturalized

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent Planted
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Wagner et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chacon and Saborio, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedOviedo et al., 2012Listed as potentially invasive
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
PanamaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
BrazilPresentIntroducedSilva-Luz and Pirani, 2014
-AmapaPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-GoiasPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-ParaPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Invasive Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
ChilePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
ColombiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
EcuadorPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
French GuianaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
SurinamePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Planted Orwa et al., 2009Cultivated and naturalized

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Planted Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Planted Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011Cultivated and naturalized
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Planted Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedQueensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
French PolynesiaPresent Planted Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
KiribatiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced Planted PIER, 2014Cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive Thaman et al., 1994
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
New ZealandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Planted PIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Planted PIER, 2014
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
VanuatuPresent Planted
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Due to its delicious fruits, M. indica has been widely disseminated throughout the tropics in the last two centuries. M. indica spread throughout South-East Asia about 1500 years ago and reached Africa about 1000 years ago. Further expansion to Australia, West Africa and the Americas occurred during the last few hundred years.

Buddhist monks are believed to have moved the mango on voyages to Malaya and eastern Asia in the fourth and fifth centuries. The Persians carried it to East Africa around the tenth century. Mango was commonly grown in India before the earliest visits of the Portuguese who apparently introduced it to West Africa early in the sixteenth century and later to Brazil in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. After becoming established in Brazil, the mango was carried to the West Indies, where it was first planted in Barbados about 1742 and later in the Dominican Republic. It reached Jamaica about 1782 and, by the eighteenth century it was also found growing on the mainland of Central America. By 1833 it is also recorded in Mexico, in the Yucatan Peninsula.

Mango seeds were imported into Miami from the West Indies in 1862-1863. In Puerto Rico, mangos have been grown since about 1750-1800, but in 1948 the University of Puerto Rico began a program of mango improvement with the introduction and testing of over 150 cultivars. In Hawaii, mango was first recorded in an introduction of several small plants from Manila in 1825 (Morton, 1987). It is now found in all the tropical and subtropical regions such as the Canary Islands, Madeira, along the shores of the Mediterranean, Australia, the Persian Gulf region, and in southern Brazil and the southern USA.

Habitat

Top of page

M. indica grows from sea level up to 1200 m in wet valleys, riversides, coastal forests and natural grasslands.  It also thrives in open and disturbed areas along roadsides, pastures, and secondary wet and dry forests (Orwa et al., 2009). It is very common in abandoned gardens, plantations and old farms (Bally, 2006). 

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. indica is n = 20 (Singhal and Gill, 1990). There are over a thousand varieties around the world, with India having more than 50% (over 500 named). Bioversity International promotes and coordinates germplasm collections in all important mango-growing countries.

Reproductive Biology

The juvenile period of seedling trees can range from 2 years under subtropical conditions  to 7 years, and mature trees can survive for several hundred years. Flowers are visited and possibly pollinated by flies, ants, beetles and bats, but bees appear to be the most effective pollinators. Bisexual flowers are predominantly outcrossing and exhibit protogynousdychogamy, but trees are generally self-compatible and the occurrence of geitonogamy is common. About 65-85% of bisexual flowers remain unpollinated and only 0.1-0.25% of the flowers pollinated reach the harvesting stage, with fruit drop (abortion) occurring at all stages (Orwa et al., 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

Normally only the buds at the compressed shoot tip partake in extension growth and flowering. Vigour finds expression in shoots of larger size and in the leafing out of more (often up to five) lateral buds at the shoot tip. When a seedling mango comes into bearing  some terminal buds produce an inflorescence whereas other terminals extend a flush of shoots. With the onset of bearing, the number of flushes is reduced to two or three, including the dry-season flush which coincides with flowering. Studies of several mango cultivars have revealed biennial flowering at the twig level, which means that shoots emerging from twigs which have flowered are unlikely to flower in their turn, even where flowering did not result in fruiting. Also, shoots of the last flush before flowering are less likely to break into bloom than twigs of previous flushes which have gone through much longer quiescent periods. In many Indian cultivars these tendencies are so strong that prolific bloom or late flushing necessarily lead to failure of the following bloom, thus leading to biennial bearing.

In India, the general flowering season is between January and March. In south-east Asia, flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season (Orwa et al., 2009). In the West Indies, flowering occurs from November to July (Parrotta, 1993). Studies of several mango cultivars have shown biennial flowering but most varieties flower only once a year. The inflorescence can reach full bloom from the time of flower initiation within 25-30 days and the fruits ripen after 3-4 months. One in 1000 perfect flowers can be expected to yield a fruit (Troup, 1921; Kostermans and Bompard, 1993).

Environmental Requirements

The mango thrives both in the subtropics and the tropics. In the subtropics the cold months ensure excellent floral induction, but late frosts are a major risk: tender parts of the tree are killed by frost. In the tropics the mango grows almost anywhere up to 1200 m elevation, but for fruit production a prominent dry season lasting more than 3 months is necessary. A flowering flush is produced during the dry season, but contrary to the subtropics, flowering is erratic and a yield-limiting factor. At elevations above 600 m in the tropics the climate becomes too cool for the commercial cultivars, the optimum temperature being around 24-27°C.

Rainfall ranges from 750 to 2500 mm per year in tropical centres of production. Mangoes grow in a wide range of soils and moisture regimes. The trees are drought-tolerant, and on the other hand do not seem to suffer from occasional flooding. A deep (rooting depth 2.5 m) but rather poor soil is preferred; easy access to water and nutrients tends to stimulate growth at the expense of flowering. A high pH is less detrimental than acid soils, the preferred range being 5.5-7.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 -22 10 1200

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 42
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 49
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 9 22

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration38number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7502500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Some 25 fungus diseases affect mango, the most serious and widespread disease being anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). Anthracnose infects shoots, flowers and fruits; it is particularly ruinous if the trees flower under wet conditions. The dark-brown spots can develop at any time.

Other fungus diseases are powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae) (which infects flowers and fruitlets as well as the leaves), and leaf spots and various storage rots of the fruit. Malformation of inflorescences, caused by Fusarium sacchari in conjunction with mites, affects the trees in the subtropics but apparently does not thrive in the warmer tropical climates. There are also several bacterial diseases.

Mango hoppers (Amritodus atkinsoni and Idioscopus spp.) can ruin even a heavy bloom and are important mango pests. A host of other insects can do serious damage, such as mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae, Perissopneumon ferox), mango gall midges (Erosomyia indica, Dasineura amaramanjarae, Procystiphora mangiferae, Amradiplosis allahabadensis, Procontarinia), mango shoot gall psylla (Apsylla cistellata, Pauropsylla brevicornis), fruit flies (Bactrocera, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha), fruit-sucking moths (Eudocima, Achaea), fruit borers, thrips, ants, termites (Isoptera), grey weevil (Myllocerus), flea weevil (Rhynchaenus mangiferae), leaf-cutting weevil (Deporaus (Eugnamptus) marginatus), aphids, stone weevil (Sternochetus), leaf-eating caterpillars, shoot borers, leaf miners (Acrocercops), bark-eating caterpillars (Indarbela quadrinotata), stem borers (Batocera), coccids and mango leaf webbers (Orthaga, Lamida carbonifera).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

M. indica spreads by seeds. This species is mainly moved and dispersed by humans through the commercialization and consumption of its fruits. In addition to humans, fruits are also eaten and dispersed by large variety of animals including monkeys, bats, elephants, hornbills, raccoons and porcupines (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionFruit production Yes Yes Bally, 2006
Disturbance Yes Yes Bally, 2006
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Orwa et al., 2009
FoodFruit production Yes Yes Bally, 2006
Forestry Yes Yes Bally, 2006
HorticultureOften interplanted with other fruits and vegetables Yes Yes Bally, 2006
Landscape improvementPlanted as a shade tree Yes Yes Bally, 2006

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Induces hypersensitivity
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Mango is cultivated for the fruit which can be eaten in three distinct ways, depending largely on the cultivar: unripe (mature green, very popular in Thailand and the Philippines); ripe (the common way to enjoy mango throughout the world); and processed (at various stages of maturity, in the form of pickles or chutneys, dried slices, canned slices in syrup, juice, puree or paste, etc.). The green fruit is also used to flavour fish and meat dishes in the same way as tamarind and other sour fruits. 

Seed kernels form a by-product of processing; they can be used as feed for cattle and poultry. In India the kernels are also important as a famine-food, but the astringency has to be removed by boiling, roasting or soaking the kernels for a long time. Young leaves are eaten fresh or cooked as a vegetable.

Dried flowers or bark and decoctions of the kernels serve as astringents in traditional medicine. Extracts of unripe fruit and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. The wood is fairly strong, hard and easy to work but it must be treated with preservatives when used in construction and outdoor applications. It makes excellent charcoal and is also used to culture mushrooms.

Mangoes are an important component of the diet in many less developed countries in the subtropics and tropics. In regions of the world that have experienced low living standards and serious nutritional deficiencies their attractiveness and flavour have also enhanced the quality of life. Surplus production has increasingly been processed and fruit of certain cultivars is destined for export as fresh fruit. Approximately 1% of mango production is processed for juice, nectars, preserves (including chutney), fruit leather, dried fruit slices, frozen pulp and as flavouring for baked goods, ice cream, yoghurt, etc. No part of the fruit is wasted. In India and the subcontinent, the seed is used for extraction of starch ‘amchur’, and the peels (skin) have been used as a source of anacardic acid. Mango wood is a low quality timber, and the bark of the tree is an important source of tannins for curing leather. The fruit also has some medicinal characteristics (Garrido and Valdes, 2012).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Fruits
  • Honey/honey flora
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

Top of page

Boats

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Vehicle bodies

Veneers

Wood wool

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Pencils
  • Tool handles

Bibliography

Top of page Avilan Rovira L, Rengifo C, 1992. Mango cultivation in Venezuela: II. Common cropping systems. FONAIAP-Divulga, 9:39, 42-44.

FAO, 1989. Selected indicators of food and agriculture development in the Asia Pacific Region, 1978-88. RAPA, FAO Bangkok, 1989/7: 78.

Iyer CPA, Dinesh MR, 1997. Advances in classical breeding and genetics in mango. In: Lavi U, Degani C, Gazit S, Lahav E, Pesis E, Prusky D, Tomer E, Wysoki M, eds. Proceedings of the 5th international mango symposium, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1-6 September, 1996, Volume 1. Acta Horticulturae, 455:252-267.

Johnson GI, 1997. Mango disease losses: balancing economy and ecology. In: Lavi U, Degani C, Gazit S, Lahav E, Pesis E, Prusky D, Tomer E, Wysoki M, eds. Proceedings of the 5th international mango symposium, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1-6 September, 1996, Volume 2. Acta Horticulturae, 455:575-586.

Lavi U, Kaufman D, Sharon D, Adato A, Tomer E, Gazit S, Hillel J, 1997. In: Lavi U, Degani C, Gazit S, Lahav E, Pesis E, Prusky D, Tomer E, Wysoki M, eds. Proceedings of the 5th international mango symposium, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1-6 September, 1996, Volume 1. Acta Horticulturae, 455: 268-276.

Litz RE, 1997. The mango, botany, production and uses. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Medlicott AP, New SW, 1989. Market opportunities for alternative mango cultivars from the Eastern Caribbean. Proceedings of the symposium on tropical fruit in international trade, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 4-9 June, 1989. Acta-Horticulturae, 269:63-67.

Mendoza DB Jr, Wills RBH, 1984. Mango: fruit development, post harvest physiology and marketing in ASEAN. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: ASEAN Food Handling Bureau.

Mukherjee SK, 1972. Origin of mango (Mangifera indica). Economic Botany, 26: 260-264.

Musvoto C; Campbell BM, 1995. Mango trees as components of agroforestry systems in Mangwende, Zimbabwe. Agroforestry-Systems, 32:3, 247-260.

Om Prakash, Raoof MA, Prakash O, 1988. Control of mango fruit decay with post harvest application of various chemicals against black rot, stem end rot and anthracnose disease. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 6(1):99-105.

Oosthuyse SA, 1997. Bacterial black spot in mango: A mini review. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 17:63-65.

PCARRD, 1978. The Philippines recommends for mango. PCARRD Technical Bulletin Series, 38.

Rajput MS, Biswas PP, Joshi OP, Srivastava KC, 1989. Mango (Mangifera indica) based cereal pulse cropping system. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 59(3):149-153.

Samson JA, 1986. Tropical fruits. Tropical Agriculture Series. London, UK: Longman Science and Technology.

Sharp JL, 1992. Hot-air quarantine treatment for mango infested with Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(6):2302-2304.

Singh IP, Sant Ram, 1994. Effect of inter crops on growth, yield and quality of Dashehari mango (Mangifera indica L). Recent Horticulture, 1(1):23-29.

Srivastava RP, 1997. Mango insect pest management. First edition. Lucknow, India: International Book Distributing Co.

Subijanto, 1988. Research and development to increase export potential of horticultural products from Indonesia. Indonesian Agricultural Research and Development Journal, 10(4):87-94.

Whiley AW, 1984. Mango. In: Page PE, ed. Tropical tree fruits for Australia. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Information Series QI 83018, Brisbane, 25-31.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Akhtar MS, Irshad M, Farooq A, 1993. Laboratory evaluation of dieldrin and lorsban in protecting wooden blocks from termite (Isoptera) attack. Punjab University Journal of Zoology, No. 8:63-68; 14 ref.

Anderson DJ et al., 1966. Studies on structure in plant communities. II. The structure of some dwarf-heath and Birch-copse communities in Skjaldfannardalur, north-west Iceland. J. Ecol. 54 (3), (781-93).

Anderson DL et al., 1982. Insect pollination of Mango in Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 33:541-548.

Arogba SS, 1997. Physical , chemical and functional properties of Nigerian Mango (Mangifera indica) kernel and its processed flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 73(3):321-328.

Bailey IH, 1925. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture Vol. 3. London, UK: Macmillan Co., 1985-89.

Bally ISE, 2006. Mangifera indica (mango). Ver. 3.1. Species Profiles for Pacific islands Agroforestry [ed. by Elevitch, C. R.]. Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR).

Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism.

Bonad ND, 1982. Origin and distribution of Mango. Philippine Geography Journal, 26(1):44-52.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burgess PF, 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Sabah Forest Record No. 6. Sabah, Sandakan: Forest Department.

Burkill IH, 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 2(2nd edition):2444 pp.

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Champion HG, Trevor G, 1938. Manual of Indian silviculture: Pt. I: General silviculture, and Pt. II: Silvicultural systems. Oxford University Press. pp. 374.

Chaturvedi OH, Karim SA, Misra AK, 1995. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of roughages and tree leaves. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants, 1(1):50-51; 4 ref.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett, RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp.

Corner EJH, 1988. Wayside trees of Malaya in two volumes (3rd edition). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malayan Nature Society.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Desh HE, 1941. Manual of Malayan Timbers. Vol. 1. Malayan Forest Records No. 15. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Caxton Press Ltd.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51.

Gamliel-Atinsky, E., Maymon, M., Freeman, S., Palevsky, E., Sztejnberg, A., Belausov, E., 2009. Interaction of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, with Fusarium mangiferae, causal agent of mango malformation disease., Acta Horticulturae:483-486 http://www.actahort.org

Gamliel-Atinsky, E., Sztejnberg, A., Maymon, M., Vintal, H., Shtienberg, D., Freeman, S., 2009. Infection dynamics of Fusarium mangiferae, causal agent of mango malformation disease., Phytopathology, 99(6):775-781

Garrido, G., Valdes, M., 2012. Avances en las investigaciones farmacológicas y toxicológicas con el extracto acuoso de la corteza del árbol de mango (Mangifera indica L), Ev.Farmacol Chile, 5(2):63-93

Hou D, 1978. Anacardiaceae. In: Van Steenis CGGJ, ed. Flora Malesiana Vol. 8. The Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordhoff International Publishers.

IUCN, 2013. Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN Red List. http://www.iucnredlist.org/

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Kochummen KM, 1989. Family: Lauraceae. The Tree Flora of Malaya. Vol. 4. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Longmans, 124-132.

Kochummen KM, 1996. Anacardiaceae. In: Soepadmo E, Wong KM, eds. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Vol 2. Kepong, Sarawak: FRIM.

Kostermans AJGH, Bompard JM, 1993. The Mangoes. Their botany, nomenclature, horticulture and utilization. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources and Linnean Society of London. London, UK: Academic Press.

Kotur, S. C., 2012. Effect of paclobutrazol application on nutrient dynamics, vigour and fruit yield in 'Alphonso' mango (Mangifera indica L.)., Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 7(2):134-137

Lahiry AK, 1995. Sterilization of mango wood (Mangifera indica L.) without heat. Document International Research Group on Wood Preservation, No. 95-30065, 7 pp.; Paper presented at the 26th annual meeting, Helsingor, Denmark, 11-16 June, 1995.

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N (Editors), 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 3. Dye and tannin-producing plants. pp.195.

Litz, R. E., 2004. Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops., Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops:xxiv + 723 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20053001306

Litz, R. E., 2009. The mango: botany, production and uses., The mango: botany, production and uses:xi + 669 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20093143199

Lopez DT, 1982. Malaysian timbers - machang. Trade Leaflet, Malaysian Forest Service, No. 68, pp.8.

Meijer W, 1983. Mangifera. In: Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR, eds. A Revised hand book to the Flora of Ceylon. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 6-7.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mitcham, E., Yahia, E., 2009. Alternative treatments to hot water immersion for mango fruit, National Mango Board http://www.mango.org/Mangos/media/Media/Documents/Research%20And%20Resources/Research/Industry/Post-Harvest/Alternatives_to_Hot_Water_Treatment_Final-Report.pdf?ext=.pdf

Morton J, 1987. Mango. In: Fruits of Warm Climates [ed. by Morton, J.]. Miami, USA: Echo Point Books & Media, 221-239.

Mukherjee SK, 1972. Origin of Mango (Mangifera indica). Economic Botany, 26(3):260-264.

Mukherjee SK, 1985. Systematic and Bio Geographic Studies of Crop Gene Pools. Vol. 1. Mangifera L. IBPGR.

Musvoto C, Campbell BM, 1995. Mango trees as components of agroforestry systems in Mangwende, Zimbabwe. Agroforestry Systems, 32(3):247-260.

OECD http://www.oecd.org/tad/code/49200564.pdf

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Parrotta JA, 1993. Mangifera indica L. Mango. New Orleans, LA, USA: USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station.

Paull, R. E., Duarte, O., 2010. Tropical fruits, Volume 1., Tropical fruits, Volume 1:viii + 391 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20103354984

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Poffley, M. , Owens, G., 2006. Mango Pruning in the Top End, Ag Note No: D15 https://dpir.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/232920/598.pdf

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Sastry BN, ed. , 1962. The Wealth of India Raw Materials. Vol 6. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, 265-285.

Saw LG, 1987. Conservation of the Mango and its relatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Report to WWF. Kepong, Malaysia: FRIM.

Schutt P, Schuck HJ, Aas G, Lang UM, eds, 1994. Encyclopaedia of woody plants: manual and atlas of dendrology. [Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie]. Landsberg am Lech, Germany: Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft.

Serrame E, Lim Sylianco CY, 1995. Anti-tumor promoting activity of decoctions and expressed juices from Philippine medicinal plants. Philippine Journal of Science, 124(3):275-281.

Shibanath G et al, 1996. A plausible chemical mechanism of bio-activities of Mangiferin. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section B, Organic including Medicinal, 35:561-566.

Silva-Luz CL, Pirani JR, 2014. Anacardiaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Anacardiaceae in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

Susila WW, Ramdhani N, Karyawan KA, 1994. Fuelwood consumption on Kupang District (case study in the villages of Bismarak, Oenoni, Oelpuah, and Kotabes). [Konsumi kayu bakar di Kabupaten Kupang (studi kasus di desa Bismarak, Oenoni, Oelpuah, dan Kotabes.] Santalum, No. 17, 19-26; With English tables.

Thaman RR, Fosberg RF, Manner HI, Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392:233 pp.

Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1981. Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Volume III. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Verheij EWM, Coronel RE(Editors), 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc, 446 pp.

Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Waqas Ahmed, Tahir, F. M., Rajwana, I. A., Raza, S. A., Asad, H. U., 2012. Comparative evaluation of plant growth regulators for preventing premature fruit drop and improving fruit quality parameters in 'Dusehri' mango., International Journal of Fruit Science, 12(4):372-389 http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wsfr20

Wong TM, 1982. A dictionary of Malaysian timbers. xviii + 259 pp.; Malayan Forest Records No. 30; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Forest Department.

Zaman Z, Maiti B, 1994. Insects and mites infesting seedlings of mango in West Bengal. Environment and Ecology, 12(3):734-736

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

20/05/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map