Mangifera indica (mango)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Wood Products
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Mangifera indica L.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Mangifera amba Forssk.
- Mangifera anisodora Blanco
- Mangifera arbor Bonti
- Mangifera austroindica Kosterm.
- Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu
- Mangifera bompardii Kosterm.
- Mangifera domestica Gaertn.
- Mangifera equine Gen.
- Mangifera fragrans Maingay
- Mangifera gladiata Bojer
- Mangifera integrifolia Gen.
- Mangifera kukulu Blume
- Mangifera linnaei Korth. ex Hassk.
- Mangifera maritima Lechaume
- Mangifera montana Heybe
- Mangifera orophila Kosterm.
- Mangifera oryza Genibrel
- Mangifera racemosa Bojer
- Mangifera rostrata Blanco
- Mangifera rubra Bojer
- Mangifera rubropetala Kosterm.
- Mangifera sativa Roem & Schult.
- Mangifera siamensis Warb.
- Mangifera sugenda Gen.
- Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.
- Mangifera viridis Bojer
International Common Names
- English: edible mango; Indian mango
- Spanish: mango
- French: mangot; manguier
- Arabic: amba; manga
- Portuguese: mangueira
Local Common Names
- Bangladesh: am; ambra
- Brazil: manga; mango; mangueira
- Cambodia: svaay
- Cuba: manga amarilla; manga blanca; mango de hilacha
- Germany: Mangobaum; mangopalme
- Haiti: mangot fil
- India: am; amba; ambi; ambo; amra; amra chuta; amram; amri; chuta; cutam; ghari am; maa; madhudura; mamadi; mamaram; mamidi; mampalam; manga; marinamara; mau; mavena; mavi; mavu; rasala
- India/Gujarat: amri
- Indonesia: manga; mempelam
- Laos: mwàngx
- Malaysia: mangga; mempelam; taipa
- Myanmar: ampelam; mempalam; tharyetthi; thayat; thayt-hypu
- Netherlands: mangoboom
- Papua New Guinea: mango
- Philippines: mangga; mango; paho
- Sri Lanka: mangass
- Thailand: mamuan
- Vietnam: xoài
- MNGIN (Mangifera indica)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
M. indica is a fruit tree which has been actively moved by humans for centuries. It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This species has adapted to a wide variety of climates where it has become naturalized. Because fruits are eaten and dispersed by bats, hornbills, monkeys, elephants, raccoons, porcupines, and humans, it has easily escaped from cultivation and established in natural areas in practically every location where it has been intentionally introduced by humans (Bally, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). Currently, M. indica is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and it is also listed as invasive in Singapore, Namibia, South Africa, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Galápagos Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Antigua, Australia and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean including among others Hawaii, Easter Island and French Polynesia (see Distribution Table for details).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Sapindales
- Family: Anacardiaceae
- Genus: Mangifera
- Species: Mangifera indica
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The Indomalesian genus Mangifera, a member of the family Anacardiaceae, contains approximately 69 species. Mangifera is divided into two subgenera: Mangifera and Limus. Subgenus Mangifera contains most of the species and is characterized by its cushion-shaped papillose disc which is 4 or 5 lobed, partly or completely surrounding the ovary and with free stamen filaments. Subgenus Limus consists of 11 species and is characterized by the cylindrical disc which is located at the base of the ovary in bisexual flowers and which is neither lobed nor papillose and contains united stamen filaments. M. indica belongs to subgenus Mangifera.
DescriptionTop of page
The mango tree is a large, spreading evergreen with a dense crown. Mature trees can attain a height of 40 m or more, with a 60-120 cm trunk and greyish-brown, longitude-fissured bark.
Mango seeds are solitary, large and flat, ovoid oblong, and surrounded by the fibrous endocarp at maturity. The testa and tegumen are thin and papery. Embryos are dicotyledonous. The seeds are recalcitrant and cannot survive for more than a few days or weeks at ambient temperatures. This important characteristic inhibited the long distance dispersal of mango by seed until recent times.
The mango seedling (or seedlings in the case of polyembryonic seeds) emerges after 2 weeks and grows rhythmically from the start: a flush brings out the new shoot which extends in about 1 months’ time, after which the buds remain quiescent for shorter or longer periods. Flushes occur more or less synchronously, depending upon the climate; during a long wet season the synchronization is gradually weakened.
Leaves are produced in flushes of 10-12 new leaves, 1-3 times a year. Leaves persist on the tree for 4-5 years before being shed. Leaf morphology is highly variable depending on cultivar. Leaves are spirally arranged, simple; young leaves are copper-coloured, turning to light then dark shiny green; petiole 1-12.5 cm long, with pulvinus at the base; blade variable in size and shape, usually narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 12-38 x 2-13 cm, somewhat leathery, tapering at base, margin often undulate, apex acuminate, nerves 12-30 pairs, elevated on both surfaces.
The tree roots to a considerable depth. The root system consists of a long, vigorous taproot and abundant surface feeder roots, enabling the tree to find the moisture necessary for flowering/flushing during the dry season.
The inflorescence can reach full bloom from the time of flower initiation in 25-30 days. The Mango inflorescence is a terminal compose thirsoid and are glabrous or pubescent. The inflorescence is rigid and erect, up to 30 cm long, and is widely branched, usually tertiary, although the final branch is always cymose. It is usually densely flowered and the flowers are either male or hermaphrodite both borne within a single inflorescence. It has 300–6000 reddish-pink to greenish-white flowers (depending upon the cultivar), 5-8 mm in diameter, pedicels 1 mm long; calyx 5-lobed; 5 petals (twice as long as the calyx, ovate to ovoid to lanceolate and also thinly pubescent); pistil abortive in male flowers, style lateral, stigma simple. The panicles consist of male and perfect hermaphrodite flowers, with a varying sex ratio. The pistil aborts in male flowers. A good crop of fruit is obtained when only a small percentage of the flowers are pollinated. The ratio of male to perfect flowers is strongly influenced by environmental and cultural factors. The floral disc is also four- or five-lobed, fleshy and large and located above the base of the petals. There are five large, fleshy stamens, only one or two of them being fertile; the remaining stamens are sterile staminodes that are surmounted by a small gland. In addition, two or three smaller filaments arise from the lobes of the nectaries. The stamens are central. The ovule is anatropous and pendulous.
The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thickness. The mesocarp is resinous and highly variable with respect to shape, size, colour, presence of fibre and flavour. The flavour ranges from turpentine to sweet. The exocarp is thick and glandular. There is a characteristic beak that develops laterally on the proximal end of the fruit. A sinus is always present above the beak. Fruit shape varies, including elongate, oblong and ovate or intermediate forms involving two of these shapes. Fruit length can range from 2.5 to >30 cm, depending on the cultivar. The endocarp is woody, thick and fibrous; the fibres in the mesocarp arise from the endocarp. The mango fruit is climacteric, and increased ethylene production occurs during ripening. Chlorophyll, carotenes, anthocyanins and xanthophylls are all present in the fruit. The skin is generally a mixture of green, red and yellow pigments, although fruit colour at maturity is genotype dependent. Fruit of ‘Bombay Green’ is green; ‘Carabao’, ‘Manila’, ‘Mulgoa’ and ‘Arumanis’ are greenish-yellow; ‘Dashehari’ and ‘Alphonso’ are yellow; and ‘Haden’, ‘Keitt’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ have a red blush. The red blush is due to the presence of anthocyanins.
The fruit grow fast: they ripen after 3-4 months, some late cultivars after 5 months. The period from fruit set to maturity depends upon cultivar and climate and can range from 10 to 28 weeks.
Lack of fruit set is attributed to: (i) lack of fertile pollen; (ii) poor pollen-tube growth; (iii) failure of ovule fertilization; (iv) failure of pistil or ovules to develop; (v) abortions of embryo sac, embryo or endosperm; (vi) anthracnose disease of the flowers; and (vii) other physical and cultural factors.
Plant TypeTop of page Perennial
DistributionTop of page
The natural distribution of M. indica is in the Indo-Malesian region, specifically India and Myanmar. Wild populations can be found in the Assam-Chittagong Hills in India and in Myanmar. This species has become naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics and much of its spread and naturalization has occurred associated with expansion of human populations. M. indica contains hundreds of cultivars, and is now pan-tropical and even sub-tropical. It is cultivated in, amongst other places, Pakistan, East and West Africa, North and South America, Malesia, Australia and Hawaii (Bailey, 1925; Hou, 1978; Mukherjee, 1972; Kochummen, 1989; Kochummen, 1995).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|Bangladesh||Present||Introduced||IUCN, 2013||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Brunei Darussalam||Present||Planted, Natural|
|Cambodia||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Chagos Archipelago||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Fujian||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Cultivated|
|-Guangdong||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Cultivated|
|-Guangxi||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Cultivated|
|-Yunnan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Cultivated|
|Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated|
|India||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Morton, 1987|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Arunachal Pradesh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Assam||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||USDA-ARS, 2014|
|-Bihar||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Chandigarh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Chhattisgarh||Present||Native||Bally, 2006||Native and cultivated|
|-Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Daman||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Diu||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Goa||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Gujarat||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Haryana||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Indian Punjab||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Jharkhand||Present||Native||Bally, 2006||Native and cultivated|
|-Karnataka||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Kerala||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Lakshadweep||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Maharashtra||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Manipur||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Meghalaya||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Mizoram||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Nagaland||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Odisha||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Rajasthan||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Sikkim||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Tripura||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|-Uttarakhand||Present||Native||Bally, 2006||Native and cultivated|
|-West Bengal||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Bally, 2006|
|Indonesia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Java||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Kalimantan||Present||Introduced||IUCN, 2013||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Moluccas||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Nusa Tenggara||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Sulawesi||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Japan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014||Invasive on Bonin Islands|
|Laos||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Malaysia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||Introduced||IUCN, 2013||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Sabah||Present||Introduced||IUCN, 2013||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Myanmar||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2014||Native populations|
|Nepal||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Oman||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Pakistan||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Philippines||Present||Introduced||IUCN, 2013||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Singapore||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Chong et al., 2009|
|Taiwan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Cultivated|
|Thailand||Present||Introduced||IUCN, 2013||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Vietnam||Present||Introduced||IUCN, 2013||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Yemen||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Angola||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Benin||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Burkina Faso||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Burundi||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Cameroon||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Central African Republic||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Chad||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Egypt||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Equatorial Guinea||Present||Introduced||Planted||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Eritrea||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Ethiopia||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Gabon||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Gambia||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Ghana||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Guinea||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Guinea-Bissau||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Kenya||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Liberia||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Madagascar||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Malawi||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Mali||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Mauritania||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Mozambique||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Namibia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Bethune et al., 2004|
|Niger||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Nigeria||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Réunion||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Rodriguez Island||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Sao Tome and Principe||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Senegal||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Seychelles||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Sierra Leone||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Somalia||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Morton, 1987; Foxcroft et al., 2007||Invasive in Kruger National Park|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Introduced||Planted||DAISIE, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Sudan||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Tanzania||Present||Introduced||Planted||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Zanzibar||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Togo||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Uganda||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Zambia||Present||Introduced||Planted||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Introduced||PROTA, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Mexico||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Florida||Present||Introduced||Planted||USDA-NRCS, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Planted||Wagner et al., 1999|
Central America and Caribbean
|Anguilla||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Kairo et al., 2003|
|Bahamas||Present||Introduced||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Barbados||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Belize||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|British Virgin Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Planted||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Cayman Islands||Present||Introduced||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Costa Rica||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Chacon and Saborio, 2012|
|Cuba||Present||Introduced||Oviedo et al., 2012||Listed as potentially invasive|
|Dominica||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Dominican Republic||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Kairo et al., 2003|
|El Salvador||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Grenada||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Guadeloupe||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Haiti||Present||Introduced||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Honduras||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Jamaica||Present||Introduced||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Martinique||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Montserrat||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Netherlands Antilles||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Nicaragua||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Panama||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Kairo et al., 2003|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Present||Introduced||Broome et al., 2007|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|United States Virgin Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Bolivia||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Brazil||Present||Introduced||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014|
|-Amapa||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Amazonas||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Bahia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Espirito Santo||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Goias||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Maranhao||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Para||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Parana||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Pernambuco||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Planted||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Silva-Luz and Pirani, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Chile||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Easter Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014|
|Colombia||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Ecuador||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Galapagos Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014|
|French Guiana||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Guyana||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Peru||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Suriname||Present||Introduced||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Venezuela||Present||Introduced||Planted||Orwa et al., 2009||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Portugal||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Madeira||Present||Introduced||DAISIE, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Spain||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|American Samoa||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Australian Northern Territory||Present||Introduced||Planted||Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011||Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||Planted||Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011||Cultivated and naturalized|
|-Queensland||Present||Introduced||Planted||Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011||Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed|
|-Western Australia||Present||Introduced||Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011||Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed|
|Cook Islands||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Fiji||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|French Polynesia||Present||Planted||Florence et al., 2013|
|Guam||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Kiribati||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Marshall Islands||Present||Introduced||Planted||PIER, 2014||Cultivated|
|Micronesia, Federated states of||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Nauru||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Thaman et al., 1994|
|New Caledonia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Introduced||Planted||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Solomon Islands||Present||Introduced||Planted||PIER, 2014|
|US Minor Outlying Islands||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014||Cultivated and naturalized|
|Wallis and Futuna Islands||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2014|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Due to its delicious fruits, M. indica has been widely disseminated throughout the tropics in the last two centuries. M. indica spread throughout South-East Asia about 1500 years ago and reached Africa about 1000 years ago. Further expansion to Australia, West Africa and the Americas occurred during the last few hundred years.
Buddhist monks are believed to have moved the mango on voyages to Malaya and eastern Asia in the fourth and fifth centuries. The Persians carried it to East Africa around the tenth century. Mango was commonly grown in India before the earliest visits of the Portuguese who apparently introduced it to West Africa early in the sixteenth century and later to Brazil in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. After becoming established in Brazil, the mango was carried to the West Indies, where it was first planted in Barbados about 1742 and later in the Dominican Republic. It reached Jamaica about 1782 and, by the eighteenth century it was also found growing on the mainland of Central America. By 1833 it is also recorded in Mexico, in the Yucatan Peninsula.
Mango seeds were imported into Miami from the West Indies in 1862-1863. In Puerto Rico, mangos have been grown since about 1750-1800, but in 1948 the University of Puerto Rico began a program of mango improvement with the introduction and testing of over 150 cultivars. In Hawaii, mango was first recorded in an introduction of several small plants from Manila in 1825 (Morton, 1987). It is now found in all the tropical and subtropical regions such as the Canary Islands, Madeira, along the shores of the Mediterranean, Australia, the Persian Gulf region, and in southern Brazil and the southern USA.
HabitatTop of page
M. indica grows from sea level up to 1200 m in wet valleys, riversides, coastal forests and natural grasslands. It also thrives in open and disturbed areas along roadsides, pastures, and secondary wet and dry forests (Orwa et al., 2009). It is very common in abandoned gardens, plantations and old farms (Bally, 2006).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Productive/non-natural|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Productive/non-natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Productive/non-natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Natural forests||Present, no further details||Productive/non-natural|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Productive/non-natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number reported for M. indica is n = 20 (Singhal and Gill, 1990). There are over a thousand varieties around the world, with India having more than 50% (over 500 named). Bioversity International promotes and coordinates germplasm collections in all important mango-growing countries.
The juvenile period of seedling trees can range from 2 years under subtropical conditions to 7 years, and mature trees can survive for several hundred years. Flowers are visited and possibly pollinated by flies, ants, beetles and bats, but bees appear to be the most effective pollinators. Bisexual flowers are predominantly outcrossing and exhibit protogynousdychogamy, but trees are generally self-compatible and the occurrence of geitonogamy is common. About 65-85% of bisexual flowers remain unpollinated and only 0.1-0.25% of the flowers pollinated reach the harvesting stage, with fruit drop (abortion) occurring at all stages (Orwa et al., 2009).
Physiology and Phenology
Normally only the buds at the compressed shoot tip partake in extension growth and flowering. Vigour finds expression in shoots of larger size and in the leafing out of more (often up to five) lateral buds at the shoot tip. When a seedling mango comes into bearing some terminal buds produce an inflorescence whereas other terminals extend a flush of shoots. With the onset of bearing, the number of flushes is reduced to two or three, including the dry-season flush which coincides with flowering. Studies of several mango cultivars have revealed biennial flowering at the twig level, which means that shoots emerging from twigs which have flowered are unlikely to flower in their turn, even where flowering did not result in fruiting. Also, shoots of the last flush before flowering are less likely to break into bloom than twigs of previous flushes which have gone through much longer quiescent periods. In many Indian cultivars these tendencies are so strong that prolific bloom or late flushing necessarily lead to failure of the following bloom, thus leading to biennial bearing.
In India, the general flowering season is between January and March. In south-east Asia, flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season (Orwa et al., 2009). In the West Indies, flowering occurs from November to July (Parrotta, 1993). Studies of several mango cultivars have shown biennial flowering but most varieties flower only once a year. The inflorescence can reach full bloom from the time of flower initiation within 25-30 days and the fruits ripen after 3-4 months. One in 1000 perfect flowers can be expected to yield a fruit (Troup, 1921; Kostermans and Bompard, 1993).
The mango thrives both in the subtropics and the tropics. In the subtropics the cold months ensure excellent floral induction, but late frosts are a major risk: tender parts of the tree are killed by frost. In the tropics the mango grows almost anywhere up to 1200 m elevation, but for fruit production a prominent dry season lasting more than 3 months is necessary. A flowering flush is produced during the dry season, but contrary to the subtropics, flowering is erratic and a yield-limiting factor. At elevations above 600 m in the tropics the climate becomes too cool for the commercial cultivars, the optimum temperature being around 24-27°C.
Rainfall ranges from 750 to 2500 mm per year in tropical centres of production. Mangoes grow in a wide range of soils and moisture regimes. The trees are drought-tolerant, and on the other hand do not seem to suffer from occasional flooding. A deep (rooting depth 2.5 m) but rather poor soil is preferred; easy access to water and nutrients tends to stimulate growth at the expense of flowering. A high pH is less detrimental than acid soils, the preferred range being 5.5-7.
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||5|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||12||42|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||28||49|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||9||22|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||3||8||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||750||2500||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Bimodal
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Some 25 fungus diseases affect mango, the most serious and widespread disease being anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). Anthracnose infects shoots, flowers and fruits; it is particularly ruinous if the trees flower under wet conditions. The dark-brown spots can develop at any time.
Other fungus diseases are powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae) (which infects flowers and fruitlets as well as the leaves), and leaf spots and various storage rots of the fruit. Malformation of inflorescences, caused by Fusarium sacchari in conjunction with mites, affects the trees in the subtropics but apparently does not thrive in the warmer tropical climates. There are also several bacterial diseases.
Mango hoppers (Amritodus atkinsoni and Idioscopus spp.) can ruin even a heavy bloom and are important mango pests. A host of other insects can do serious damage, such as mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae, Perissopneumon ferox), mango gall midges (Erosomyia indica, Dasineura amaramanjarae, Procystiphora mangiferae, Amradiplosis allahabadensis, Procontarinia), mango shoot gall psylla (Apsylla cistellata, Pauropsylla brevicornis), fruit flies (Bactrocera, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha), fruit-sucking moths (Eudocima, Achaea), fruit borers, thrips, ants, termites (Isoptera), grey weevil (Myllocerus), flea weevil (Rhynchaenus mangiferae), leaf-cutting weevil (Deporaus (Eugnamptus) marginatus), aphids, stone weevil (Sternochetus), leaf-eating caterpillars, shoot borers, leaf miners (Acrocercops), bark-eating caterpillars (Indarbela quadrinotata), stem borers (Batocera), coccids and mango leaf webbers (Orthaga, Lamida carbonifera).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
M. indica spreads by seeds. This species is mainly moved and dispersed by humans through the commercialization and consumption of its fruits. In addition to humans, fruits are also eaten and dispersed by large variety of animals including monkeys, bats, elephants, hornbills, raccoons and porcupines (Orwa et al., 2009).
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Crop production||Fruit production||Yes||Yes||Bally, 2006|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Yes||Orwa et al., 2009|
|Food||Fruit production||Yes||Yes||Bally, 2006|
|Horticulture||Often interplanted with other fruits and vegetables||Yes||Yes||Bally, 2006|
|Landscape improvement||Planted as a shade tree||Yes||Yes||Bally, 2006|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Cultural/amenity||Positive and negative|
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
|Environment (generally)||Positive and negative|
|Human health||Positive and negative|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Long lived
- Has high genetic variability
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of successional patterns
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Causes allergic responses
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Pest and disease transmission
- Induces hypersensitivity
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
Mango is cultivated for the fruit which can be eaten in three distinct ways, depending largely on the cultivar: unripe (mature green, very popular in Thailand and the Philippines); ripe (the common way to enjoy mango throughout the world); and processed (at various stages of maturity, in the form of pickles or chutneys, dried slices, canned slices in syrup, juice, puree or paste, etc.). The green fruit is also used to flavour fish and meat dishes in the same way as tamarind and other sour fruits.
Seed kernels form a by-product of processing; they can be used as feed for cattle and poultry. In India the kernels are also important as a famine-food, but the astringency has to be removed by boiling, roasting or soaking the kernels for a long time. Young leaves are eaten fresh or cooked as a vegetable.
Dried flowers or bark and decoctions of the kernels serve as astringents in traditional medicine. Extracts of unripe fruit and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. The wood is fairly strong, hard and easy to work but it must be treated with preservatives when used in construction and outdoor applications. It makes excellent charcoal and is also used to culture mushrooms.
Mangoes are an important component of the diet in many less developed countries in the subtropics and tropics. In regions of the world that have experienced low living standards and serious nutritional deficiencies their attractiveness and flavour have also enhanced the quality of life. Surplus production has increasingly been processed and fruit of certain cultivars is destined for export as fresh fruit. Approximately 1% of mango production is processed for juice, nectars, preserves (including chutney), fruit leather, dried fruit slices, frozen pulp and as flavouring for baked goods, ice cream, yoghurt, etc. No part of the fruit is wasted. In India and the subcontinent, the seed is used for extraction of starch ‘amchur’, and the peels (skin) have been used as a source of anacardic acid. Mango wood is a low quality timber, and the bark of the tree is an important source of tannins for curing leather. The fruit also has some medicinal characteristics (Garrido and Valdes, 2012).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Boundary, barrier or support
- Shade and shelter
- Soil improvement
Human food and beverage
- Beverage base
- Emergency (famine) food
- Honey/honey flora
- Spices and culinary herbs
- Carved material
- Miscellaneous materials
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Wood ProductsTop of page
Sawn or hewn building timbers
- For heavy construction
- For light construction
- Wall panelling
- Industrial and domestic woodware
- Tool handles
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ContributorsTop of page
20/05/14 Updated by:
Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA
Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA
Distribution MapsTop of page
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