Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Aeschynomene americana
(shyleaf)

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Datasheet

Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aeschynomene americana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shyleaf
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Aeschynomene americana is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and parts of the Caribbean. It has been intentionally introduced in agroforestry systems in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, being used...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves and flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves and flowers.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves and flowers.
HabitAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves and flowers.©Dinesh Valke/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); flowers.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); flowers.
FlowersAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); flowers.©Dinesh Valke/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.
TitleHabit
CaptionAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.
HabitAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.
TitleHabit
CaptionAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.
HabitAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); habit, with with leaves, flowers, and seedpods.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); seeds. Note scale.
TitleSeeds
CaptionAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); seeds. Note scale.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by United States Dept .of Agriculture (USDA)/original image by Steve Hurst.
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf); seeds. Note scale.
SeedsAeschynomene americana (shyleaf); seeds. Note scale.Public Domain - Released by United States Dept .of Agriculture (USDA)/original image by Steve Hurst.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aeschynomene americana L.

Preferred Common Name

  • shyleaf

Other Scientific Names

  • Aeschynomene glandulosa Poir. ex Lam.
  • Aeschynomene javanica var. luxurians Miq.
  • Aeschynomene mexicana Colla
  • Aeschynomene mimulosa Miq
  • Aeschynomene tricholoma Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Hippocrepis mimosula Noronha

International Common Names

  • English: joint vetch; American joint vetch; thornless mimosa
  • Spanish: adormidera; dormidera; pega-pega; yerba rosario
  • French: honteuse femelle
  • Chinese: min gan he meng

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: adormidera cimarrona; dormidera cimarrona; tamarindillo; yerba lechera
  • Haiti: ronte
  • India: thornless mimosa
  • Indonesia: anjang; asem-aseman; kacang meongan
  • Jamaica: bastard sensitive plant
  • Philippines: karaparak
  • Puerto Rico: moriviví bobo
  • Sri Lanka: thornless mimosa
  • Thailand: sano khon; sano-bok; sano-don
  • Vietnam: pötuk; rokdönao; rui köjing

EPPO code

  • AESAM (Aeschynomene americana)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Aeschynomene americana is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and parts of the Caribbean. It has been intentionally introduced in agroforestry systems in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, being used for forage, green manure, and land reclamation in wetlands. Plants are heavy seeding and, once seedlings are established, growth is vigorous and difficult to control. It is also tolerant to waterlogged conditions and can grow on poor soils. Consequently, it has naturalized throughout large parts of the tropics and subtropics and has also become a weed in pastures, agricultural lands, along roadsides, and in any disturbed sites near cultivation. It is listed as invasive in Singapore, Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Palau, Taiwan, India and Cuba.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Aeschynomene
  •                                     Species: Aeschynomene americana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants. This family includes about 745 genera and 19,500 species which can be found throughout the world growing in a great variety of climates and environments (Stevens, 2012). The genus Aeschynomene includes over 150 species of herbs or shrublets (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).  Collections of A. americana house a wide diversity of material differing in range of maturity and perenniality, plant habit and size, and flora morphology. Many varieties have therefore been described for this species (Rudd, 1955; Stevens, 2012). Currently the varieties A. americana var. americana, distributed predominantly in the Caribbean and adjacent areas, and A.americana var. glandulosa (Poir.) Rudd, considered native to Central America and tropical and subtropical South America, are accepted infraspecific taxa (ILDIS, 2015).

Description

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Erect or ascending, annual or short- perennial herbs or shrublets, 0.5-2 m tall. Stems erect, many branched, glabrous, viscid. Stipules lanceolate, 10-12 × 1-3 mm, membranous, base auriculate, apex acute. Leaves pinnate, 3-8 cm long, grey green to dark green in colour, often with purplish tinge; leaflets (pinnae) 8-38 pairs, 3-15 mm long, 1-3 mm wide, linear or oblong linear; exhibiting nyctinastic (night) and thigmotactic (touch-responsive) movement causing pinnae to fold on the rachis; rachis and leaflet margins and midribs often ciliate. Inflorescences axillary, racemose, laxly branched, 2-4-flowered; bracts cordate, membranous. Bracteoles linear-ovate, striate. Calyx deeply 2-lobed. Corolla from pinkish to yellow, ca. 7 mm. Legume oblong, 2.5-3 cm × 2.5-3 mm, herbaceous to leathery, slightly curved, abaxial suture undulate and indented; articles 4-7, rounded, slightly muricate. Seeds brown, reniform, 2-3 mm long and 1.5-2 mm wide (Cook et al., 2005; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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A. americana is native to tropical and subtropical America, extending from the southern USA to Argentina (ILDIS, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). In the Caribbean, it is listed as both native and introduced depending on the source (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2015). For example, A. americana is listed as introduced in Cuba by Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012) and similarly on the United States Virgin Islands by the Plant Database (USDA-NRCS, 2015), yet Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) list this species as native to the Caribbean. Additionally, A. americana has been introduced into several countries in Asia, Africa, and in Australia in addition to islands in the Pacific and Indian Ocean (see distribution table for details; Bishop, 1992a; ILDIS, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). Belgium is the only country within Europe where there is a recorded history of introduction of this species (Verloove, 2006DASIE, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

British Indian Ocean Territory
-Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedInvasiveListed as Aeschynomene americana var. glandulosa
Hong KongPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePresent based on regional distribution
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroduced
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasive
-BiharPresentIntroduced
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MizoramPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OdishaPresent
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Chandra (2012)
-West BengalPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveNaturalized and invasive along roadsides
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroduced2003NaturalizedListed as a casual naturalized species accidentally introduced via grain in 2003

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
BahamasPresentNative
BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeTortola
Cayman IslandsPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMost authors list A. americana as introduced and invasive in Cuba but it is listed as native by Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
CuraçaoPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeTobago
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentNativePresent based on regional distribution
-AlabamaPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MarylandPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedPresent based on regional distribution
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Mackee (1994)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
VanuatuPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNativePresent based on regional distribution
-AcrePresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-AmazonasPresentNativeA. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-BahiaPresentNativeA. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-CearaPresentNativeA. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-GoiasPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-MaranhaoPresentNativeA. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-ParaPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-ParaibaPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-ParanaPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-PernambucoPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-PiauiPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-RondoniaPresentNativeA.americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-RoraimaPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-Sao PauloPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
-TocantinsPresentNativeA. americana var. americana
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since the early 1970s A. americana has been intentionally introduced and often used in agroforestry systems in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Australia, the cultivar 'Glenn' was registered for use in 1983 and the cultivar 'Lee' was registered in 1991 (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; PROTA, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of A. americana is high. This species is commonly used in agroforestry systems and is still widely used commercially around the world. In addition, it is a fast-growing herb with a high reproductive potential (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2015). Therefore, the likelihood of escape from cultivation and colonization of new areas is high.

Habitat

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A. americana occurs from about 30°N in the USA to about 26°S in Argentina. It grows in wet or moist places, but also in dry habitats from near sea level to >2000 masl in the tropics (Cook et al., 2005; Vibrans, 2009). It can be found naturalized along roadsides, in wet places such as drainage ditches, in disturbed sites and secondary forests. It is also a weed of pastures and agricultural lands (Vibrans, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Throughout its distribution range, A. americana is listed as a weed of rice, bean, soybeans, and maize plantations (Thro et al., 1990; Bishop, 1992a; Vibrans, 2009; FAO, 2015).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeHabitat/association
    Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeHabitat/association
      Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeHabitat/association
        Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeHabitat/association

          Growth Stages

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          Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

          Biology and Ecology

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          Genetics

          A. americana is reported to have a chromosome number of 2n = 20 (Seijo and Vanni, 1999).

          Reproductive biology

          A. americana is largely self-pollinating, but can have up to 30% outcrossing promoted mostly by visiting insects (Cook et al., 2005).

          Physiology and phenology

          In Taiwan, A. americana has been recorded flowering and fruiting from October to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In Louisiana and Florida (USA), it flowers in January/February. In Central America it has been recorded flowering in April (Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2015).

          Longevity and Activity patterns

          A. americana is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with crowns surviving 2-4 years. The seedling phase is relatively slow, but subsequent growth is rapid in hot and moist conditions. Nodulation is prolific and, under waterlogged conditions, nodules form on lower parts of the main stem and branches. This species has a short-day flowering response. Flowering starts 60-200 days after germination, with another 30-60 days to ripe seed. Away from the equator, perennial plants will also flower and seed in spring. Seeds require scarification before sowing. Natural breakdown of hard seededness is sufficient to allow re-establishment in the field (Bishop, 1992a).

          Associations

          A. americana is a nitrogen-fixing species and grows in association with Rhizobium bacteria such is Bradyrhizobium (Cook et al., 2005).

          Environmental requirements

          A. americana is essentially a wetland plant and grows best in tropical areas with hot, moist climates, normally with a mean annual rainfall over 1000 mm and mean annual temperatures between 20-27°C. However, its natural distribution covers a wide range of latitudes and altitudes. It is found growing on sandy clay, sandy and rocky loams, but mostly on finer-textured soils, with pH ranges from as low as 4 to as high as 8, but preferring a pH range of 5.5-7.0. This species is more tolerant of waterlogging and flooding than most warm season legumes, and its growth appears to be favoured by periods of waterlogging. It has slight drought and frost tolerance, growing best in areas with full sunlight, but it can survive and reproduce in partially shaded areas (~50% sunlight) (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2015).

          Climate

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          ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
          Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
          Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
          As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
          Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
          Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
          Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

          Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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          Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
          30 26 0 >2000

          Air Temperature

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          Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
          Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 27

          Rainfall

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          ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
          Mean annual rainfall6004000mm; lower/upper limits

          Rainfall Regime

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          Bimodal
          Uniform

          Soil Tolerances

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          Soil drainage

          • seasonally waterlogged

          Soil reaction

          • acid
          • neutral

          Soil texture

          • heavy
          • light
          • medium

          Special soil tolerances

          • saline

          Natural enemies

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          Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
          Botrytis cinerea Pathogen Adults not specific
          Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Adults not specific
          Helicoverpa armigera Herbivore Adults not specific
          Oidium Pathogen Other|All Stages not specific

          Notes on Natural Enemies

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          The main diseases affecting A. americana are (Bishop, 1992b; Cook et al., 2005):

          1. Powdery mildew caused by Oidium sp., forming a white mycelium on the leaf surface,
          2. Botrytis stem rot caused by Botrytis cinerea,
          3. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata],
          4. Flowers and developing pods are often attacked by heliothis (Helicoverpa armigera) larvae. Severe heliothis attack can reduce or eliminate seed production.

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

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          A. americana spreads by seed. Reproductive plants are heavy seeders and seeds can be dispersed by water, cattle, and as a contaminant in hay and forages. This species spreads rapidly with no rhizobial limitations, particularly in suitable wet habitats (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; Vibrans, 2009; FAO, 2015).

          Pathway Causes

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          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Animal productionUsed as a cut-and-carry forage for animals Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
          Crop productionHay crop Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
          DisturbanceNaturalized along roadsides Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
          Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
          ForageUsed as a cut-and-carry forage for animals Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
          Habitat restoration and improvementGreen manure Yes Yes Bishop (1992a)

          Pathway Vectors

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          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Debris and waste associated with human activitiesUsed as forage and green manure Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
          Plants or parts of plantsUsed as forage and green manure Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
          Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
          Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
          WaterSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)

          Impact Summary

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          CategoryImpact
          Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
          Environment (generally) Positive and negative

          Impact

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          A. americana is a weed and invasive species impacting both natural and agricultural lands. Due to it being a fast-growing herb it may suppress competing plants very quickly. Once established, plants are so hardy and reproduce so easily that it may become a weed that is very difficult to control. As a nitrogen-fixing legume which tolerates waterlogging, this species is able to alter soil nutrients and soil water availability (Bishop, 1992a). Due to its rapid growth rate and high densities achieved when grown under favourable conditions, this species has the potential to suppress competing plants very quickly when competing for water and nutrients (Vibrans, 2009).

          Risk and Impact Factors

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          Invasiveness
          • Proved invasive outside its native range
          • Has a broad native range
          • Abundant in its native range
          • Highly adaptable to different environments
          • Is a habitat generalist
          • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
          • Pioneering in disturbed areas
          • Highly mobile locally
          • Fast growing
          • Has high reproductive potential
          • Gregarious
          Impact outcomes
          • Altered trophic level
          • Damaged ecosystem services
          • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
          • Modification of nutrient regime
          • Modification of successional patterns
          • Monoculture formation
          • Negatively impacts agriculture
          • Reduced native biodiversity
          • Threat to/ loss of native species
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Competition - smothering
          • Rapid growth
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
          • Difficult/costly to control

          Uses

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          A. americana is planted in agroforestry systems as a semi-permanent or regenerating component of pasture, or as a nitrogen-fixing pioneer. It is often used as cut-and-carry forage for animals, as hay crop, and as a green manure crop in rice cropping systems. It can also be used as a component of fresh water wetland reclamation seeding (Bishop, 1992a). 

          Uses List

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          Animal feed, fodder, forage

          • Fodder/animal feed
          • Forage

          Environmental

          • Agroforestry
          • Land reclamation
          • Soil improvement

          Materials

          • Green manure

          Prevention and Control

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          Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

          A. americana is tolerant of trifluralin, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB and MCPA, fluazifop butyl, and sethoxydim, but susceptible to acifluorfen, bentazone, fluroxypyr, imazethapyr and dicamba (Cook et al., 2005).

          References

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          Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, USA: 1192. https://naturalhistory2.si.edu/botany/WestIndies/catalog.htm

          Bishop HG, 1992a. Aeschynomene americana L. In: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, [ed. by Mannetje L, Jones RM]. Bogor, Indonesia: http://www.proseanet.org

          Bishop HG, 1992b. Aeschynomene americana L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 4: Forages, [ed. by Mannetje L, Jones RM]. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands: 37-39.

          Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. University of the West Indies, Barbados: http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

          Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research.273. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

          Cook B, Pengelly B, Brown S, Donnelly J, Eagle D, Franco A, Hanson J, Mullen B, Partridge I, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT and ILRI.http://www.tropicalforages.info/

          DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway.www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

          Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

          Gonzalez-Oliva L, Borroto-Páez R, Oviedo Prieto R, Wong LJ, Pagad S, 2019. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Cuba. (Version 2.3) : Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG.https://doi.org/10.15468/jzyeh0

          ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

          Lima LCP, Oliveira MLAA, Souza VC, 2015. Aeschynomene. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB82585

          Lorence DH, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae, Lawai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden.

          MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle.164 .

          Oviedo Prieto R , González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(2), 1-88.

          Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6 (Special Issue 1), 22-96.

          PIER, Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

          PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. In: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, Wageningen, Netherlands: https://www.prota4u.org/database/

          Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. 37, 1-69.

          Rivers J, 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipeligo, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific, 16.

          Rojas-Sandoval, J., Tremblay, R. L., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Díaz-Soltero, H., 2017. Invasive plant species in the West Indies: geographical, ecological, and floristic insights. Ecology and Evolution, 7(13), 4522-4533. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758 doi: 10.1002/ece3.2984

          Rudd VE, 1955. The American species of Aeschynomene. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 32, 23-30.

          Seijo G, Vanni R, 1999. Chromosome numbers in legumes of Paraguay. (Números cromosómicos en leguminosas de Paraguay). Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Argentina, 34, 119-122.

          Sekar, K. C., 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(2), 177-184. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=17533 doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32021

          Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species, Hilo, Hawaii: USDA Forest Service.227.

          Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

          Thro, A. M., Wier, A. T., Barker, F. G., 1990. Weed potential of the forage legume aeschynomene (Aeschynomene americana) in rice (Oryza sativa) and soybeans (Glycine max. Weed Technology, 4(2), 284-290.

          USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

          USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

          Verloove, F., 2006. Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005). Scripta Botanica Belgica, 39, 89 pp.

          Vibrans H, 2009. Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera. (Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

          Wu T, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants, Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1, 384.

          Distribution References

          Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

          Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

          CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

          DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: European Invasive Alien Species Gateway, http://www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

          Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

          Gonzalez-Oliva L, Borroto-Páez R, Oviedo Prieto R, Wong LJ, Pagad S, 2019. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Cuba. Version 2.3., Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. https://doi.org/10.15468/jzyeh0

          ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

          Lima LCP, Oliveira MLAA, Souza VC, 2015. Aeschynomene. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB82585

          Lorence DH, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae., Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. 26 pp.

          Nayak S K, Satapathy K B, 2015. Diversity, uses and origin of invasive alien plants in Dhenkanal district of Odisha, India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (2), 21-27. http://www.isca.in/IJBS/Archive/v4/i2/4.ISCA-IRJBS-2014-223.pdf

          Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

          PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

          Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. In: University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37 1-69.

          Rivers J, 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipeligo, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific., 16.

          Rojas-Sandoval J, Tremblay R L, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Díaz-Soltero H, 2017. Invasive plant species in the West Indies: geographical, ecological, and floristic insights. Ecology and Evolution. 7 (13), 4522-4533. DOI:10.1002/ece3.2984

          Sekar K C, 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 3 (2), 177-184. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=17533 DOI:10.4236/ajps.2012.32021

          Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species., Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 233 pp.

          USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)., Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

          USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

          Verloove F, 2006. Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005). Scripta Botanica Belgica. 89 pp.

          Wu T, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants., 1 Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin. 384.

          Links to Websites

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          WebsiteURLComment
          Germplasm Resource Information Networkhttp://www.ars-grin.gov
          GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
          Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
          International Legume Database & Information Servicewww.ildis.org
          Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA)https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/PROSEA,_Introduction
          Tropicos.org http://www.tropicos.org
          USDA Plants Database http://plants.usda.gov

          Contributors

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          01/12/15 Original text by:

          Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

          Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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