Invasive Species Compendium

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Aeschynomene americana
(shyleaf)

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Datasheet

Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aeschynomene americana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shyleaf
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Aeschynomene americana is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and parts of the Caribbean. It has been intentionally introduced in agroforestry systems in tropical and subtropical regions...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aeschynomene americana L.

Preferred Common Name

  • shyleaf

Other Scientific Names

  • Aeschynomene glandulosa Poir. ex Lam.
  • Aeschynomene javanica var. luxurians Miq.
  • Aeschynomene mexicana Colla
  • Aeschynomene mimulosa Miq
  • Aeschynomene tricholoma Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Hippocrepis mimosula Noronha

International Common Names

  • English: joint vetch; American joint vetch; thornless mimosa
  • Spanish: adormidera; dormidera; pega-pega; yerba rosario
  • French: honteuse femelle
  • Chinese: min gan he meng

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: adormidera cimarrona; dormidera cimarrona; tamarindillo; yerba lechera
  • Haiti: ronte
  • India: thornless mimosa
  • Indonesia: anjang; asem-aseman; kacang meongan
  • Jamaica: bastard sensitive plant
  • Philippines: karaparak
  • Puerto Rico: moriviví bobo
  • Sri Lanka: thornless mimosa
  • Thailand: sano khon; sano-bok; sano-don
  • Vietnam: pötuk; rokdönao; rui köjing

EPPO code

  • AESAM (Aeschynomene americana)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Aeschynomene americana is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and parts of the Caribbean. It has been intentionally introduced in agroforestry systems in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, being used for forage, green manure, and land reclamation in wetlands. Plants are heavy seeding and, once seedlings are established, growth is vigorous and difficult to control. It is also tolerant to waterlogged conditions and can grow on poor soils. Consequently, it has naturalized throughout large parts of the tropics and subtropics and has also become a weed in pastures, agricultural lands, along roadsides, and in any disturbed sites near cultivation. It is listed as invasive in Singapore, Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Palau, Taiwan, India and Cuba.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Aeschynomene
  •                                     Species: Aeschynomene americana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants. This family includes about 745 genera and 19,500 species which can be found throughout the world growing in a great variety of climates and environments (Stevens, 2012). The genus Aeschynomene includes over 150 species of herbs or shrublets (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).  Collections of A. americana house a wide diversity of material differing in range of maturity and perenniality, plant habit and size, and flora morphology. Many varieties have therefore been described for this species (Rudd, 1955; Stevens, 2012). Currently the varieties A. americana var. americana, distributed predominantly in the Caribbean and adjacent areas, and A.americana var. glandulosa (Poir.) Rudd, considered native to Central America and tropical and subtropical South America, are accepted infraspecific taxa (ILDIS, 2015).

Description

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Erect or ascending, annual or short- perennial herbs or shrublets, 0.5-2 m tall. Stems erect, many branched, glabrous, viscid. Stipules lanceolate, 10-12 × 1-3 mm, membranous, base auriculate, apex acute. Leaves pinnate, 3-8 cm long, grey green to dark green in colour, often with purplish tinge; leaflets (pinnae) 8-38 pairs, 3-15 mm long, 1-3 mm wide, linear or oblong linear; exhibiting nyctinastic (night) and thigmotactic (touch-responsive) movement causing pinnae to fold on the rachis; rachis and leaflet margins and midribs often ciliate. Inflorescences axillary, racemose, laxly branched, 2-4-flowered; bracts cordate, membranous. Bracteoles linear-ovate, striate. Calyx deeply 2-lobed. Corolla from pinkish to yellow, ca. 7 mm. Legume oblong, 2.5-3 cm × 2.5-3 mm, herbaceous to leathery, slightly curved, abaxial suture undulate and indented; articles 4-7, rounded, slightly muricate. Seeds brown, reniform, 2-3 mm long and 1.5-2 mm wide (Cook et al., 2005; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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A. americana is native to tropical and subtropical America, extending from the southern USA to Argentina (ILDIS, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). In the Caribbean, it is listed as both native and introduced depending on the source (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2015). For example, A. americana is listed as introduced in Cuba by Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012) and similarly on the United States Virgin Islands by the Plant Database (USDA-NRCS, 2015), yet Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) list this species as native to the Caribbean. Additionally, A. americana has been introduced into several countries in Asia, Africa, and in Australia in addition to islands in the Pacific and Indian Ocean (see distribution table for details; Bishop, 1992a; ILDIS, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). Belgium is the only country within Europe where there is a recorded history of introduction of this species (Verloove, 2006DASIE, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Rivers, 2004Listed as Aeschynomene americana var. glandulosa
China
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001
IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Present based on regional distribution
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-BiharPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-KeralaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-NagalandPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-West BengalPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-JavaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Naturalized and invasive along roadsides
ThailandPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
VietnamPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
MadagascarPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
MalawiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
MauritiusPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
NigeriaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
RéunionPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
SeychellesPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
ZambiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015

North America

MexicoPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
USAPresentNativePresent based on regional distribution
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentNativeILDIS, 2015
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Oviedo Prieto & González-Oliva, 2015; Rojas-Sandoval et al., 2017; Gonzalez-Oliva et al., 2019Most authors list A. americana as introduced and invasive in Cuba but it is listed as native by Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
CuraçaoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
GrenadaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
PanamaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Tobago
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2015

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
BoliviaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
BrazilPresentNativePresent based on regional distribution
-AcrePresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-AmazonasPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-BahiaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-CearaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-GoiasPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-MaranhaoPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-ParaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-ParaibaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-ParanaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-PernambucoPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-PiauiPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-RondoniaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A.americana var. americana and A. americana var. glandulosa
-RoraimaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-Sao PauloPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
-TocantinsPresentNativeLima et al., 2015A. americana var. americana
ColombiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
EcuadorPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
French GuianaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
GuyanaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
ParaguayPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
PeruPresentNativeILDIS, 2015
VenezuelaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroduced2003 Not invasive Verloove, 2006; DAISIE, 2015Listed as a casual naturalized species accidentally introduced via grain in 2003

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedPresent based on regional distribution
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
GuamPresentIntroducedRaulerson, 2006
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Lorence and Flynn, 2010
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMackee, 1994
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedRaulerson, 2006
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
VanuatuPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since the early 1970s A. americana has been intentionally introduced and often used in agroforestry systems in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Australia, the cultivar 'Glenn' was registered for use in 1983 and the cultivar 'Lee' was registered in 1991 (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; PROTA, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of A. americana is high. This species is commonly used in agroforestry systems and is still widely used commercially around the world. In addition, it is a fast-growing herb with a high reproductive potential (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2015). Therefore, the likelihood of escape from cultivation and colonization of new areas is high.

Habitat

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A. americana occurs from about 30°N in the USA to about 26°S in Argentina. It grows in wet or moist places, but also in dry habitats from near sea level to >2000 masl in the tropics (Cook et al., 2005; Vibrans, 2009). It can be found naturalized along roadsides, in wet places such as drainage ditches, in disturbed sites and secondary forests. It is also a weed of pastures and agricultural lands (Vibrans, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Throughout its distribution range, A. americana is listed as a weed of rice, bean, soybeans, and maize plantations (Thro et al., 1990; Bishop, 1992a; Vibrans, 2009; FAO, 2015).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeHabitat/association
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeHabitat/association
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeHabitat/association

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A. americana is reported to have a chromosome number of 2n = 20 (Seijo and Vanni, 1999).

Reproductive biology

A. americana is largely self-pollinating, but can have up to 30% outcrossing promoted mostly by visiting insects (Cook et al., 2005).

Physiology and phenology

In Taiwan, A. americana has been recorded flowering and fruiting from October to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In Louisiana and Florida (USA), it flowers in January/February. In Central America it has been recorded flowering in April (Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2015).

Longevity and Activity patterns

A. americana is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with crowns surviving 2-4 years. The seedling phase is relatively slow, but subsequent growth is rapid in hot and moist conditions. Nodulation is prolific and, under waterlogged conditions, nodules form on lower parts of the main stem and branches. This species has a short-day flowering response. Flowering starts 60-200 days after germination, with another 30-60 days to ripe seed. Away from the equator, perennial plants will also flower and seed in spring. Seeds require scarification before sowing. Natural breakdown of hard seededness is sufficient to allow re-establishment in the field (Bishop, 1992a).

Associations

A. americana is a nitrogen-fixing species and grows in association with Rhizobium bacteria such is Bradyrhizobium (Cook et al., 2005).

Environmental requirements

A. americana is essentially a wetland plant and grows best in tropical areas with hot, moist climates, normally with a mean annual rainfall over 1000 mm and mean annual temperatures between 20-27°C. However, its natural distribution covers a wide range of latitudes and altitudes. It is found growing on sandy clay, sandy and rocky loams, but mostly on finer-textured soils, with pH ranges from as low as 4 to as high as 8, but preferring a pH range of 5.5-7.0. This species is more tolerant of waterlogging and flooding than most warm season legumes, and its growth appears to be favoured by periods of waterlogging. It has slight drought and frost tolerance, growing best in areas with full sunlight, but it can survive and reproduce in partially shaded areas (~50% sunlight) (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 26 0 >2000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 27

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Botrytis cinerea Pathogen Adults not specific
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Adults not specific
Helicoverpa armigera Herbivore Adults not specific
Oidium Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The main diseases affecting A. americana are (Bishop, 1992b; Cook et al., 2005):

  1. Powdery mildew caused by Oidium sp., forming a white mycelium on the leaf surface,
  2. Botrytis stem rot caused by Botrytis cinerea,
  3. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata],
  4. Flowers and developing pods are often attacked by heliothis (Helicoverpa armigera) larvae. Severe heliothis attack can reduce or eliminate seed production.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. americana spreads by seed. Reproductive plants are heavy seeders and seeds can be dispersed by water, cattle, and as a contaminant in hay and forages. This species spreads rapidly with no rhizobial limitations, particularly in suitable wet habitats (Bishop, 1992a; Cook et al., 2005; Vibrans, 2009; FAO, 2015).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionUsed as a cut-and-carry forage for animals Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Crop productionHay crop Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
DisturbanceNaturalized along roadsides Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
ForageUsed as a cut-and-carry forage for animals Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Habitat restoration and improvementGreen manure Yes Yes Bishop, 1992a

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesUsed as forage and green manure Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Plants or parts of plantsUsed as forage and green manure Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Impact

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A. americana is a weed and invasive species impacting both natural and agricultural lands. Due to it being a fast-growing herb it may suppress competing plants very quickly. Once established, plants are so hardy and reproduce so easily that it may become a weed that is very difficult to control. As a nitrogen-fixing legume which tolerates waterlogging, this species is able to alter soil nutrients and soil water availability (Bishop, 1992a). Due to its rapid growth rate and high densities achieved when grown under favourable conditions, this species has the potential to suppress competing plants very quickly when competing for water and nutrients (Vibrans, 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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A. americana is planted in agroforestry systems as a semi-permanent or regenerating component of pasture, or as a nitrogen-fixing pioneer. It is often used as cut-and-carry forage for animals, as hay crop, and as a green manure crop in rice cropping systems. It can also be used as a component of fresh water wetland reclamation seeding (Bishop, 1992a). 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Land reclamation
  • Soil improvement

Materials

  • Green manure

Prevention and Control

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A. americana is tolerant of trifluralin, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB and MCPA, fluazifop butyl, and sethoxydim, but susceptible to acifluorfen, bentazone, fluroxypyr, imazethapyr and dicamba (Cook et al., 2005).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, USA: 1192. https://naturalhistory2.si.edu/botany/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bishop HG, 1992a. Aeschynomene americana L. In: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, [ed. by Mannetje L, Jones RM]. Bogor, Indonesia: http://www.proseanet.org

Bishop HG, 1992b. Aeschynomene americana L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 4: Forages, [ed. by Mannetje L, Jones RM]. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands: 37-39.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. University of the West Indies, Barbados: http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research.273. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Cook B, Pengelly B, Brown S, Donnelly J, Eagle D, Franco A, Hanson J, Mullen B, Partridge I, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT and ILRI.http://www.tropicalforages.info/

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway.www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gonzalez-Oliva L, Borroto-Páez R, Oviedo Prieto R, Wong LJ, Pagad S, 2019. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Cuba. (Version 2.3) : Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG.https://doi.org/10.15468/jzyeh0

ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

Lima LCP, Oliveira MLAA, Souza VC, 2015. Aeschynomene. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB82585

Lorence DH, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae, Lawai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle.164 .

Oviedo Prieto R , González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(2), 1-88.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6 (Special Issue 1), 22-96.

PIER, Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Germplasm Resource Information Networkhttp://www.ars-grin.gov
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
International Legume Database & Information Servicewww.ildis.org
Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA)https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/PROSEA,_Introduction
Tropicos.org http://www.tropicos.org
USDA Plants Database http://plants.usda.gov

Contributors

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01/12/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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