Invasive Species Compendium

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Mirabilis jalapa
(four o'clock flower)

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Datasheet

Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.
Copyright©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.
HabitMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flower. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.
TitleFlower
CaptionMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flower. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.
Copyright©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flower. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.
FlowerMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flower. Osaka-fu, Japan. September 2006.©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit, yellowed morph. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. November 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit, yellowed morph. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. November 2013.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit, yellowed morph. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. November 2013.
HabitMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); flowering habit, yellowed morph. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. November 2013.Public Domain - Released by David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); habit, with flowers and fruits. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); habit, with flowers and fruits. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); habit, with flowers and fruits. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
HabitMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); habit, with flowers and fruits. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); fruiting habit. Pakistan. June 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); fruiting habit. Pakistan. June 2008.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Khalid Mahmood/via wikipedia - CC0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); fruiting habit. Pakistan. June 2008.
HabitMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); fruiting habit. Pakistan. June 2008.Public Domain - Released by Khalid Mahmood/via wikipedia - CC0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); seedling in hand. West Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleSeedling
CaptionMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); seedling in hand. West Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2015 - CC BY 4.0
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); seedling in hand. West Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
SeedlingMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower); seedling in hand. West Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr-2015 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mirabilis jalapa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • four o'clock flower

Other Scientific Names

  • Jalapa congesta Moench
  • Jalapa officinalis Garsault
  • Mirabilis ambigua Trautv.
  • Mirabilis lindheimeri (Standl.) Shinners
  • Mirabilis pedunculata Stokes
  • Mirabilis planiflora Trautv.
  • Mirabilis procera Bertol.
  • Mirabilis pubescens Zipp. ex Span.
  • Mirabilis suaveoles Billb. ex Beurl.
  • Mirabilis xalapa Noronha
  • Nyctago hortensis Dum.Cours.
  • Nyctago jalapae (L.) DC.
  • Nyctago versicilor Salisb.

International Common Names

  • English: beauty of the night; common four-o'clock (USA); false jalap; garden four o’clock; marvel of Peru; prairie four-o'clock (USA)
  • Spanish: buenas tardes; clavellina; dengue (Chile); Don Diego de noche; Don Juán de noche; eucaliptp azul; falsa jalapa; flor de not; flor de Panamá; hierba triste; hoja de xalapa; jalapa; lampedro; maravilla; trompetilla (Chile)
  • French: belle de nuit; merveille du Pérou
  • Chinese: zi mo li
  • Portuguese: jalapa verdadeira; jalapa-bastarda; maravilhas-do-Peru

Local Common Names

  • : sheb al-leil
  • Albania: luleakshami
  • American Samoa: peteli
  • Australia: common four-­o'clock
  • Bahamas: morning rose
  • Bangladesh: sandyamalati
  • Benin: azehonzo
  • Brazil: bonina; maravilha; munuminha
  • Burundi: karifomo
  • Congo: bende
  • Congo Democratic Republic: kalofomo
  • Cook Islands: tiare moe; tiare numero; ura ura
  • Croatia: nocurak
  • Cuba: suspiros
  • Czech Republic: nocenka zahradní
  • Denmark: vidunderblomst
  • Dominican Republic: jalape; jasmin; jazmín
  • Ethiopia: ababa diimaa
  • Fiji: lalawavu; lali vau; laweivou; ronggolali; vakarau ni lali
  • Finland: ihmekukka
  • French Guiana: herbe de quatre heures; nyctage faux jalap
  • French Polynesia: numera; tinapi piro
  • Germany: Wunderblume, Gemeine
  • Greece: deilino
  • Haiti: belle de nuit blanche; belle de nuit rose
  • Hungary: nagy csodatölcsér
  • India: akashmuri; andhi mandarai; anthimalari; antimantaram; chandrakantha; chandramalli; godhuli gopal; goolabbas; gul abbas; gulabaas; gulabas; gulamaji; gulbakshi; indraganti; krishnakeli; krustna keli; meremdi; mukak lei; naalku ghanta hoo; naalu mani poovu; rangini; saayankaale; sandhya malati; sanje mallige; sham di sohnap
  • India/Jammu and Kashmir: abási
  • Indonesia: bunga pukul empat
  • Iran: laleh abbasi; sandhya moni
  • Israel: lilanit rav-gonit
  • Italy: bella di note; bella di note commune
  • Japan: oshiroibana; oshiroi-bana
  • Kiribati: marvel of te aouaua; te aoaaua; te aoaua; te aoua; te auaua; te awaaua; te awaawa
  • Korea, Republic of: punkkot
  • Madagascar: belakariva; folera; sakalawa; voampolera
  • Malta: bajtar; hummerjr; tax-Xewk
  • Marshall Islands: eman aur; eman awa; emen auo; emen aur
  • Mexico: aretito; arrebolera; linda tarde; tlalquilín; tsutsuy-xiu; tzujoyó
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: apetin woun; gaelun; kulok elu; pesikulck; pilooris; pilores; pohk kiloak; pwohrkuloak
  • Namibia: vieruurtjie
  • Nauru: teoua; teowa
  • Netherlands: nachtschone; wonderbloem
  • Norway: mirakelblom
  • Pakistan: gul adnan; gul-e-abbas
  • Pitcairn Island: low red shrub
  • Portugal: arrebique; bellas noites; boas-noites; boninas; erva triste; jalapa bastarda; jalapa bastarda menor; jalapa menor; jalapa-falsa; maravilhas; maravilla do Perú; siciliana; suspiros
  • Romania: barba împăaratului; barba imparatului
  • Russian Federation: nochnaya krasavitsa
  • Slovenia: nocna frajlica
  • South Africa: vieruurtiie
  • Spain: arrebolera; bella de nit; Bella de noche; boas-noites; Diego; Diego de nits; Diego de noche; Don Diego; Don Diego de noche; Don Juán de noche; Don Pedro; Don Pedro de llamas; Don Pedro desmayado; Don Pedro enamorado; Don Pedro pintado; Don Pedro remendado; Don Pedro salpicado; flor de nit; galán de noche; gau-lore; gau-lorea; jazmines de méjico; llampedro; maravilla de noche; meravella de nit; mirabajá; pepicos; pericón; pericones; periquitos; sanpedros; santjoans; trompetilla; tumba vaquero
  • Sri Lanka: hendirikka
  • Suriname: fojoeroe-bromke; nachtschone; vierruursbloem
  • Sweden: underblomma
  • Tonga: maravillas de Indias; matala po’uli
  • Turkey: aksam sefasi
  • Tuvalu: peteli
  • UK: garden jalap; jalap plant; japanese wonder flower; marvel of the world; pearl of Egypt ; pretty-by-night
  • USA/Hawaii: nani ahiahi; nani-akiahi; pua ahiahi

EPPO code

  • MIBJA (Mirabilis jalapa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. jalapa is a perennial herb in tropical and subtropical regions (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). It is an annual in temperate climates (Dave’s Garden, 2016). It has been introduced into various continents as an ornamental since the 1500’s (Le Duc, 1995; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The species is listed as invasive in Asia (China, Indonesia, Maldives, Philippines), Africa (Kenya, Seychelles, South Africa, Uganda), South America (Chile, Ecuador) and Oceania (Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Hawaii-USA, Kiribati, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Pitcairn, Tonga, US Minor Outlying Islands) (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016; PIER, 2016). Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012) consider it a species with the potential of becoming invasive in Cuba. It has also been separately reported as invasive in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia.

Although its popularity has decreased (Flora of India, 2015; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017), the species is still popular in some countries and it is available from nurseries and over the internet worldwide (Fuentes Fiallo et al., 2001; Dave’s Garden, 2016; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The species has a high reproductive potential as it can re-seed easily and propagate vegetatively through its tuberous roots (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016).

M. jalapa is cited as not having a weed potential (PFAF, 2016), but also as an environmental weed, a "sleeper weed" or as a possible noxious weed (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016; Dave’s Garden; 2016). It can escape from gardens into nearby areas and will naturalise in disturbed areas (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Nyctaginaceae
  •                             Genus: Mirabilis
  •                                 Species: Mirabilis jalapa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Nyctaginaceae is mostly distributed in the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with about 32 genera and 400 species, including important ornamental Bouganvillea and Mirabilis species (Damascena and Coelho, 2009). The genus Mirabilis consists of about 54 species, being M. jalapa the most commonly grown ornamental species of the genus (Le Duc, 1995). Mirabilis in Latin means ‘wonderful’ and jalapa is a place name of towns in Central America and Mexico (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The reason behind the common name ‘Four o’clock plant’, is that according to legend, it can be best viewed at four o’clock in the afternoon, when the flowers typically open (Flora of India, 2015; Blackstone, 2016).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016):

Herbs annual, to 1 m tall. Roots tuberous, black or black-brown. Stems erect, much branched, cylindric, glabrous or slightly pubescent, inflated on nodes. Petiole 1-4 cm; leaf blade ovate or ovate­triangular, 3-15 × 2-9 cm, base truncate or cordate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Flowers usually several clustered at apex of branches, fragrant; pedicel 1-2 mm. Involucre campanulate, ca. 1 cm, 5-lobed, lobes triangular­-ovate, acuminate, glabrous, persistent. Perianth purple, red, yellow, white, or variegated; tube 2-6 cm; limb 2.5-3 cm in diameter, opening in late afternoon, closing next morning. Stamens 5; filaments slender, exserted; anther globose. Fruit black, globose, 5-8 mm in diam., coriaceous, ribbed and plicate. Endosperm white mealy.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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M. jalapa is probably native to Mexico, as it is one of the species reported in the chronicles of the conquest of Mexico, growing in Aztec gardens prior to 1521 (Quintanar A, 1968; Le Duc, 1995). According to CONABIO (2016) the species is native to Tropical America, possibly only to Mexico, and introduced elsewhere. Some references cite the species as native to the Peruvian Andes, because it was exported from that region into Europe during the 1500’s (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). It is reported as native to the Lesser Antilles (Broome et al., 2007). The species type is from India, but described from a cultivated plant in 1753, which accounts for some references citing the species as native from that country (Le Duc, 1995).

The species now occurs in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania, (see Distribution Table for details). It is expected to occur in other countries due to its seeds being availabile over the internet and its recommended uses as an ornamental species. Although not reported for some countries, the available common names in several languages suggest a wider distribution.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Zhou et al., 2008; PIER, 2016
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Also cultivated.
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
IndiaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
-Andhra PradeshPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of India, 2015
-AssamPresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life, 2016
-GujaratPresentIntroducedBedi, 1978
-Indian PunjabPresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life, 2016
-KarnatakaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of India, 2015
-KeralaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of India, 2015
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life, 2016
-Tamil NaduPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Flora of India, 2015
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
IsraelPresentIntroducedUotila, 2011
JapanPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Main country and offshore islands.
JordanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Uotila, 2011
LebanonPresentIntroducedUotila, 2011
MalaysiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHamilton and Holttum, 1933
MaldivesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
NepalPresentIntroducedManandhar, 1991Kabhrepalanchok
PakistanPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
SingaporePresentIntroduced Not invasive Cantley and Dennys, 1886; PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
SyriaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Uotila, 2011

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
BurundiPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
CameroonPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ComorosPresentIntroduced1850Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016Grande Comore, Mayotte
CongoPresentIntroducedRoyal Museum for Central Africa, 2016
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
EgyptPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1750Ladwig-Cooper, 2012Gardens and walks in Cairo.
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Royal Museum for Central Africa, 2016; Witt and Luke, 2017
GabonPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
GhanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive BioNET-­EAFRINET, 2016; PROTA, 2016
LibyaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Uotila, 2011
MadagascarPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PROTA, 2016Antananarivo
MalawiPresentIntroduced Invasive PROTA, 2016; Witt and Luke, 2017
MauritiusPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
NamibiaPresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life, 2016
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedBalfour, 1879; PROTA, 2016
RwandaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Invasive Species South Africa, 2016Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedUotila, 2011; DAISIE, 2016
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; Witt and Luke, 2017
UgandaPresentIntroduced Invasive BioNET-­EAFRINET, 2016; PROTA, 2016
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PROTA, 2016; Witt and Luke, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced1913New York Botanical GardenWarwick
CanadaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MexicoWidespreadNativeCONABIO, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Estado de México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedSEINet, 2016
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-ColoradoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroducedHitchcock, 1899; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated. Hawai’i, Kaua’i,Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i Islands. Dry, disturbed areas, 0-610 m.
-IdahoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedSEINet, 2016
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IowaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-KansasPresent1889IntroducedSmyth, 1889
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MichiganPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-MinnesotaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-MississippiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MissouriPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-MontanaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-NebraskaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-NevadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New HampshirePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New MexicoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroducedSEINet, 2016
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-TennesseePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-TexasPresentIntroducedReverchon, 1886; PROTA, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-UtahPresentIntroducedSEINet, 2016
-VermontPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-West VirginiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016
-WisconsinPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave’s Garden, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BahamasPresentIntroducedGardiner and Brace, 1889; PROTA, 2016Acklins and Crooked, Bimini, New Providence
BarbadosPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; New York Botanical Garden, 2016
BelizePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; New York Botanical Garden, 2016Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José
CubaPresentIntroducedOviedo-Prieto et al., 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016As a transformer species and a potential invasive; naturalised at various sites and with a great capacity to disperse.
DominicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; New York Botanical Garden, 2016Barahona, La Vega, Pedernales, Santiago
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Ahuachapán, La Libertad, Santa Ana
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; New York Botanical Garden, 2016
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced1895Broome et al., 2007; New York Botanical Garden, 2016
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Alta Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Jalapa, Petén, Quetzaltenango, Retalhuleu, Sacatepéquez, Santa Rosa, Zacapa.
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Atlántida, Comayagua, Cortés, Francisco Morazán, La Paz, Olancho.
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1890Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MartiniquePresentIntroduced1819Broome et al., 2007; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Saba, St. Eustatius
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Atlántico Norte, Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Estelí, Granada, Jinotega, León, Nadriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rivas.
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Darién, Herrera, Los Santos, Panamá, San Blás, Veraguas.
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; New York Botanical Garden, 2016Mona, Vieques.
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced1901New York Botanical Garden, 2016
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedCleall et al., 1807; Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1896Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016St. Croix, St. Thomas.

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Córdoba, Salta, San Juan.
BoliviaPresentIntroducedRusby, 1895; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016Beno, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija.
BrazilPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-AcrePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-BahiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-CearaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-GoiasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-ParanaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-SergipePresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
ChilePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Antioquia, Boyacá, Valle del Cauca.
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016As a garden escape, forming dense populations at abandoned sites and roadsides.
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Esmeraldas, Galápagos, Los Ríos, Manabí, Pichincha, Sucumbíos.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
French GuianaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
GuyanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ParaguayPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Alto Paraguay, Paraguarí
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cajamarca, Cusco, Junín, La Libertad, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco, San Martín.
SurinamePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Neckerie
UruguayPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
VenezuelaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Bolivar, Delta Amacuro, Distrito Federal, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Sucre, Táchira, Trujillo, Vargas.

Europe

AustriaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Antoine, 1876; DAISIE, 2016
BelgiumPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2016
CroatiaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
CyprusPresentIntroduced1985Della and Latrou, 1995; DAISIE, 2016In ditches, roadsides and wastelands.
Czech RepublicPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2016
DenmarkPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
FrancePresentIntroduced Not invasive Uotila, 2011Corsica
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
GibraltarPresentIntroducedUotila, 2011
GreecePresentIntroducedHeldreich, 1863; Uotila, 2011; DAISIE, 2016
HungaryPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2016
ItalyPresentIntroducedPampanini, 1911; Uotila, 2011Sardegna, Sicily.
-SardiniaPresentIntroducedUotila, 2011
-SicilyPresentIntroducedUotila, 2011
MaltaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
PortugalPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2016
-AzoresPresentIntroducedTrelease, 1897; Uotila, 2011; DAISIE, 2016
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
RomaniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2016
Russian FederationPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2016
-Central RussiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Uotila, 2011
SloveniaPresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life, 2016
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroducedUotila, 2011; DAISIE, 2016
SwedenPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2016
UKPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Eyles Stiles, 1765; PFAF, 2016

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Swain's Island. Also cultivated.
AustraliaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Lord Howe Island
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2016
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated. Manihiki, Rakahanga, Aitutaki Atolls; Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Palmerston, Rarotonga Islands.
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Greenwood, 1944; PIER, 2016Cultivated in towns and villages. Naturalised in cultivated fields, including cane fields and along roadsides near sea level.
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated. Tuamotu Archipelago, Austral, Gambier, Marquesas and Society Islands.
GuamPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
KiribatiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated. Line and Tungaru Islands.
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Also cultivated. Ralik and Ratak Chain.
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated. Chuuk, Pohnpei Yap and Kosrae Island.
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated. Gardens, waste ground and disturbed habitats.
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
PalauPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Main island group, Sonsorol group, Rota and Tinian Islands.
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.
TuvaluPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Also cultivated.
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated.

History of Introduction and Spread

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According to Le Duc (1995) M. jalapa was already used in gardens by the Aztecs before the Conquest prior to 1521. It was also used as an ornamental in towns and cities established by Spain in the New World during colonization. The species was exported to Europe in the sixteenth century from Peru (Flora of India, 2015) and cited as an ornamental in Spain before the 1600s (Harvey, 1974). It is reported as present in Europe by 1596 in the Annals of the Museum of Natural History of Paris (Muséum D’Historie Naturelle, 1802).

Some botanical gardens in Europe had the species in their lists of seeds available for exchange: the Imperial Botanic Garden in St. Petersburg by the mid 1800’s (Anon, 1851); in the late 1800’s at the Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (1894), by 1895 at the Berlin Botanic Garden (Botanisher Garten und Botanisches Museum, Berlin-Dahlem (1896) and in 1913 at the Brussels Botanic Garden (National Botanic Garden of Belgium, 1913).

Its popularity as an ornamental during the Victorian era contributed to its use and movement into European colonies on other continents. It is reported in Africa since the 1700’s, in Asia since the 1800’s, in North America (USA) and in the Caribbean since the 1800’s (Cantley and Dennys, 1886; Hitchcock, 1899; Smyth, 1889; Le Duc, 1995; New York Botanical Garden, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). In the tropics and subtropics, the plant will self-seed, contributing to its spread and escape from cultivation (Dave’s Garden, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Singapore Peru 1886 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Cantley and Dennys (1886)
Cyprus 1885 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Della and Latrou (1995)
Egypt 1750 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) No No Ladwig-Cooper (2012)
Rodriguez Island 1874 Yes No Balfour (1879)
USA 1886 Yes No Reverchon (1886) Texas
Bahamas 1889 Yes No Gardiner and Brace (1889)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1806 Yes No Cleall et al. (1807)
Bolivia 1895 No No Rusby (1895) Yungas
Austria 1873 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Antoine (1876)
Greece 1863 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Heldreich (1863) Athens
Italy 1911 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Pampanini (1911)
UK 1765 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Eyles Stiles (1765)
Fiji 1943 Yes No Greenwood (1944)

Risk of Introduction

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M. jalapa is a perennial herb that has been used as an ornamental since the 1500’s (Le Duc, 1995). Its ornamental desirability is because a single plant can have flowers of different colours, or variegated flowers. These traits, plus being easy to grow from seeds or vegetatively, and its commercial availability locally or over the internet, make the species have a high likelihood of further introduction, especially in tropical and subtropical areas.

Habitat

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M. jalapa is an ornamental herb, also found on waste ground, disturbed sites, roadsides, abandoned fields and railways (Dave’s Garden, 2016; CONABIO, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Although it is mostly known from cultivation, its natural habitat is believed to be margins of forests, shrublands and pastures (Fay, 1980; CONABIO, 2016). It is found from near sea level up to 3000 m (Le Duc, 1995; PROTA, 2016). 

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. jalapa is reported as being a weed in apple orchards (CONABIO, 2016). Its allelopathic effects can inhibit the germination and growth of wheat and cabbage (Xu et al., 2008).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of M. jalapa is 2n=58 (Renard et al., 1983). Hybrids of M. jalapa and M. longiflora are reported by Le Duc (1995).

Germplasm collections of the species are maintained at various institutions worldwide (Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). DNA barcode information is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS, 2016). The species is reported as being the model for describing incomplete dominance inheritance (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

M. jalapa reproduces by seeds and vegetatively by tubers (Royal Horticultural Society, 2016). Although the flowers are morphologically adapted for outcrossing, the species is reported as being mostly a selfer (Cruden, 1973). The species will self-pollinate by the stamens rolling toward the stigma when the flower closes (Valla and Ancibor, 1978). It is pollinated by sphinx moths or hawk moths of the Sphingidae family (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). Temperature and nectar production affect the pollination (Martínez del Río and Búrquez, 1986). A temperature of over 13°C is needed for the moths to be able to fly, and maximum visitation of the flowers will occur at the peak of nectar production. The species is pollinated by Phlegethontius sexa paphus [Manduca sexta?] in Argentina (Valla and Ancibor, 1978).

Seeds are viable for several years (PFAF, 2016). 

Physiology and Phenology

M. jalapa is a perennial herb, but it is used as an annual in temperate climates (Dave’s Garden, 2016; PFAF, 2016).

M. jalapa’s main flowering period is mid-summer to late autumn (PFAF, 2016). The flowers of M. jalapa start to open mid-afternoon and close by mid-morning of the following day (Cruden,1973). Flowers produce an intense sweet odour and nectar by early night until around 8 am when flowers start closing (Martínez del Río and Búrquez 1986).

Environmental Requirements

M. jalapa grows in almost any type of soil, as long as it is fertile and well-drained, and in full sun to a partial shade (PFAF, 2016; Royal Horticultural Society, 2016). The soil pH reported is from 6.1 to 7.8 (Dave’s Garden, 2016). In cooler temperate climates, it will die back with the first frosts, and will regrow from the tuberous roots if the temperature does not fall below ­5°C (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; PFAF, 2016). The species is reported as salt and drought tolerant (Xu et al., 2008; Dave’s Garden, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
54 -45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -5

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall601500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Popillia japonica Herbivore Leaves not specific
Potato yellow dwarf virus Pathogen Leaves not specific
Sphaeraspis vitis Herbivore Leaves/Stems not specific
Tobacco curly shoot virus Pathogen Leaves not specific
Tomato chlorotic spot virus Pathogen Leaves not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Although the young plants are susceptible to aphid infestation, no serious insect or pest problems are reported for the species (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). The Royal Horticultural Society (2016) reports that the species might be attacked by aphids and slugs. M. jalapa could be used as a trap cropping species to attract the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, and protect valued species planted nearby (Blackstone, 2016). The Tobacco Curly Shoot Virus (TbCSV), has been reported from M. jalapa in China (Xiong et al., 2010). The Tomato Chlorotic Spot Virus (TCSV00), the Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus (PYDV00) and the scale insect Margarodes vitis are also reported as affecting M. jalapa.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

No dispersal mechanism is reported for this species. Seeds that fall at ground near plant self-seed freely (Dave’s Garden, 2016).

Accidental Introduction

M. jalapa is reported as a potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

M. jalapa ornamental use is reported from the 1500’s in Mexico and it has been introduced into different continents to be grown in gardens (Le Duc, 1995; PROTA, 2016). It is grown commercially in Russia (DAISIE, 2016). Seeds are available through the internet locally and internationally.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosIn the permanent collection of the Botanical Garden of Lisboa, Portugal and the medicinal plants collection of the National Botanic Garden of Cuba. Yes Yes Rankin Rodríguez, 1992
Breeding and propagationCommercially cultivated for ornamental purposes. Yes Yes DAISIE, 2016
DisturbanceEscaped form cultivation into disturbed areas. Yes Dave’s Garden, 2016
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Dave’s Garden, 2016
Garden waste disposalSeeds might be dispersed on garden soil waste. Yes
HorticultureOrnamental use worldwide. Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2016
Internet salesSeeds available for purchase locally and internationally. Yes Yes ,
Medicinal useWith ethnobotanical uses. Yes PROTA, 2016
Nursery tradeCommercially cultivated and available as an ornamental. Yes Yes DAISIE, 2016
Off-site preservation Germplasm preserved at various sites. Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Seed tradeSeeds available for purchase locally and internationally. Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds might spread through waste from its cultivation. Yes ,
GermplasmGermplasm preserved at various sites. Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds might spread through soil waste from its cultivation. Yes

Impact

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M. jalapa seeds and other non-specified plant parts are reported as causing digestive problems and as being poisonous (Dave’s Garden, 2016; PFAF, 2016).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

M. jalapa is regarded by Xu et al. (2008) as an alien species that could threaten the ecology and biodiversity of new habitats because of its high reproductive capacity and allelopathic effects on native species.

Impact on Biodiversity

M. jalapa allelopathic effects on other plants are alteration of mitosis and aberrations of the chromosomes (Zhou et al., 2008). The species is considered as a minor environmental weed or as a "sleeper weed" in some countries and as having the potential of outcompeting native species (Invasive Species South Africa, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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M. jalapa is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental, for cosmetic uses and as the source of crimson dye (Hanelt and IPK, 2016). It has been recorded as an ornamental since the 1500’s (Le Duc, 1995). It is also used for cosmetic powder, beads, for magical charms, and as a source of crimson dye (Bedi, 1978; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; Hanelt and IPK, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

The leaves are eaten as a vegetable, and used as an emergency food. The seeds are used as a substitute for pepper (PFAF, 2016). In India, the leaves are mixed with crushed garlic and given to hens, with the belief that they will yield more eggs (Bedi, 1978).

The following medicinal uses have been reported for the species: as an aphrodisiac, a diuretic and a purgative. It is also used to treat dropsy, scabies, muscular swelling, urinary infections, diarrhoea, indigestion, rash, haemorrhoids, conjunctivitis and fevers (Nagata, 1971; Manandhar, 1991; PFAF, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

The Mirabilis Antiviral Proteins (MAPs) have been isolated from the species, which has shown antiviral and antifungicidal actions, including activity against various mosaic viruses (Kataoka et al., 1991; Ladwig-Cooper, 2012).

Environmental Services

M. jalapa has the potential for soil bioremediation of polluted areas with heavy metals such as cadmium (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The species attracts wildlife: birds, including hummingbirds, insects, rabbits and deer (Pickens, 1931; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). Some insects, like bees and wasps, and birds are nectar robbers (Young, 1980; Martínez del Río and Búrquez, 1986). Sphinx moths or hawk moths of the Sphingidae family are recorded as pollinators (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Research model
  • Ritual uses

Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Beads
  • Cosmetics
  • Dyestuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. gracilis is similar to M. jalapa. This species produces fewer flowers than M. jalapa, with a perianth that is slightly longer, the stamens well exerted and of a lavender colour (Le Duc, 1995).

Prevention and Control

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M. jalapa is susceptible to herbicides with a 2,4-D base (CONABIO, 2016).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More information about the species actual distribution and its invasive effects on native species and habitats is needed.

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Australian Tropical Rainforest Plantshttp://keys.trin.org.au/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-8004-060d07080d04/media/Html/taxon/index.htm#M
BioNET­-EAFRINEThttp://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/index.htm
Flora do Brasilhttp://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Malezas de Mexico-CONABIOhttp://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico

Contributors

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20/12/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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