Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mimosa arenosa
(elegant mimosa)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mimosa arenosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • elegant mimosa
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Mimosa arenosa is native to Central and South America and has been introduced to regions of the Caribbean. It is an aggressive species that rapidly colonizes secondary forests, abandoned pastures, rangelands, r...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit in a fence line. Eastern Brazil. December 2002.
TitleHabit
CaptionMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit in a fence line. Eastern Brazil. December 2002.
Copyright©Alison José da Silva/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit in a fence line. Eastern Brazil. December 2002.
HabitMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit in a fence line. Eastern Brazil. December 2002.©Alison José da Silva/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2018.
Copyright©Cesar-Augusto Delnatte (ONF)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2018.
HabitMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2018.©Cesar-Augusto Delnatte (ONF)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. March 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. March 2018.
Copyright©Cesar-Augusto Delnatte (ONF)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. March 2018.
HabitMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); habit with flowers and foliage. Martinique, French West Indies. March 2018.©Cesar-Augusto Delnatte (ONF)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); open and closed inflorescences. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); open and closed inflorescences. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2016.
Copyright©Cesar-Augusto Delnatte (ONF)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); open and closed inflorescences. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2016.
FlowersMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa); open and closed inflorescences. Martinique, French West Indies. November 2016.©Cesar-Augusto Delnatte (ONF)

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mimosa arenosa (Willd.) Poir.

Preferred Common Name

  • elegant mimosa

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia arenosa Willd.
  • Acacia malacocentra Mart.
  • Mimosa malacocentra (Mart.) Benth.
  • Mimosa xantholasia Benth.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: tepehuiste

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: calumbí; calumbí-de-vaqueiro; jurema-branca
  • Mexico: cucharita de cerro
  • Nicaragua: tepehüiste
  • Venezuela: cují y narauli; cujicillo; ñaragato; ñarauli

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Mimosa arenosa is native to Central and South America and has been introduced to regions of the Caribbean. It is an aggressive species that rapidly colonizes secondary forests, abandoned pastures, rangelands, roadsides, waste grounds and ruderal sites. This species often behaves as a weed in disturbed open sites where it grows forming thorny and almost impenetrable thickets that inhibit the germination and establishment of seedlings of other species, including native plants, altering natural successional patterns. Its high seed-set and dispersal capacity, and its ability to tolerate a remarkable range of habitats including disturbed sites, seasonally flooded areas, and low nutrient habitats are traits facilitating its rapid expansion. These traits suggest that M. arenosa has the potential to spread into many more new regions than it has to date.

 

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Mimosa
  •                                     Species: Mimosa arenosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants. This family includes about 766 genera and 19,580 species growing in a great variety of climates and habitats worldwide (Stevens, 2017). Mimosa is a monophyletic genus within the subfamily Mimosoideae comprising about 540 species, most of which (~490 species) are native to the Americas. Mimosa species are recognized by a set of characters including bipinnate leaves with sessile leaflets, spicate or capitulate inflorescences of trimerous to pentamerous flowers, haplostemonous or diplostemonous androecia with white, pinkish or yellow filaments, and anthers without apical glands (Simon et al., 2011; Dourado et al., 2013; Stevens, 2017). The most recent classification of Mimosa proposed by Barneby (1991) divided the genus into five sections, 41 series and 37 subseries.

Description

Top of page

Thorny shrub or tree, usually 3 to 5 m (up to 12 m) in height. Stem diameters of 15 cm or more. Young and undisturbed plants have a single stem that may branch several times near the ground. As trees become older and heavier, they tend to lie down and produce new, vertical sprouts. Stems are covered by dark brown, shallowly furrowed bark. The inner bark is green. Twigs are greenish brown with 3 to 4 mm, curved spines. The alternate, compound leaves commonly have 4 to 22 pinnae each with 15 to 35 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescences are 6 cm spikes with paniculiform branching bearing many tiny, white flowers. The fruits, which are borne in clusters, are linear-oblong, flat, brown legumes, 4-5 cm by 5-6 mm in size. The seeds are yellow, flattened, and are approximately 4.5 mm by 5 mm in size (Francis, 2004).

In Venezuela and Brazil, the leaflets of M. arenosa vary from glabrous ciliolate to pubescent on both faces. In Brazil pubescent leaflets seem to occur only locally in north-central Minas Gerais and are commonly accompanied by cauline aculei curved upward. In arid zones in northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela the species is represented by plants in which the leaf-formula is quite plastic and leaflets include glabrous and villosulous forms (Barneby, 1991). 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

M. arenosa is native to Central and South America, from Colombia to Venezuela and Brazil and also Mexico and Nicaragua. It has been introduced and can be found naturalized in regions of the Caribbean (Lesser Antilles, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico) (Barneby, 1991; Francis, 2004; ILDIS, 2010; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013; Flora Mesoamericana, 2019).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

DominicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedBroome et al. (2007)Naturalized
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedFrancis (2004)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedInvasiveJoseph and Abati (2016)
MexicoPresentNativeVillaseñor (2016)
NicaraguaPresentNativeFlora of Nicaragua (2018)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-NRCS (2019)Spreading-potentially invasive

South America

BrazilPresentNativeCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution
-BahiaPresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-CearaPresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-ParaibaPresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-PernambucoPresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-PiauiPresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
-SergipePresentNativeDutra and Morim (2015)
ColombiaPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Grandtner and Chevrette (2013)
VenezuelaPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Grandtner and Chevrette (2013)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of new introductions of M. arenosa is moderate because it is not a preferred species for agroforestry or ornamental purposes. However, in areas where it has been introduced, the likelihood of spreading across disturbed sites is very high (Francis and Liogier, 1991).

Habitat

Top of page

M. arenosa can be found growing in moist grasslands and hillsides, disturbed brush-woodlands, savannas (i.e., Cerrado), xeric scrublands (i.e., Caatinga), dry forests, chaparral, vacant lots, roadsides, fencerows, and abandoned pastures at elevations from near sea level to 950 m. Occasionally it grows in low places that are flooded during the rainy season (Barneby, 1991; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Francis, 2004; Flora of Nicaragua, 2018).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number of M. arenosa is 2n=26 (Santos et al., 2012).

Reproductive biology

In Brazil, the flowers of M. arenosa are visited and pollinated by bees (Maia-Silva, 2018). Pollination by insects has also been reported from Puerto Rico (Francis, 2004).

Physiology and phenology

In Nicaragua, M. arenosa produces flowers from June through September and fruits during September and October (Flora of Nicaragua, 2018). In Puerto Rico, trees have been reported with flowers in March and other stands with heavy seed crops during that same period (Francis, 2004). In the Brazilian Caatinga, this species has been reported flowering during the rainy season (Maia-Silva, 2018).

Longevity

M. arenosa is a perennial, fast-growing tree with a short life span. A chronosequence study performed in the dry forest of Chamela, Mexico showed that populations of M. arenosa dominate in the three to five-year-old secondary forest but its abundance diminishes remarkably in the intermediate successional category, and was practically absent in the old-growth forest (Maza-Villalobos et al., 2011).

Associations

M. arenosa grows associated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In Mexico, M. arenosa is described as a typical pioneer species and thus very abundant (and sometimes the dominant species) in secondary forests. It has been suggested that their foliage can create favorable shady conditions which may facilitate the establishment and development of seedlings of tree species in secondary dry forests (Romero-Duque et al., 2007; Maza-Villalobos et al., 2011).

Environmental requirements

M. arenosa grows in areas with mean annual temperatures ranging from 20°C to 28°C and mean annual rainfall ranging from 650 mm to 1600 mm. This species is shade intolerant; it competes rigorously with grass, herbs, and low shrubs but cannot survive in the understory or in areas covered by tall trees. It is adapted to a wide range of soil types with pH in the range of 4.5 to 7.0. This species is also adapted to seasonally water-stressed habitats with a markedly dry season and shallow soils (Barneby, 1991; Francis and Liogier, 1991; Francis, 2004; Pineda‐García and Meinzer, 2013).

Movement and Dispersal – Summary

M. arenosa is spread by seeds. Dry pods can be dispersed by wind and floodwaters and by being eaten by animals (i.e., livestock). Seeds can also be dispersed by gravity, in mud attached to vehicles and machinery and by other human activities (Francis, 2004; Maza-Villalobos et al., 2011).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
23 23 0 950

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 28

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6501600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceCommon in disturbed sites, roadsides, abandoned pastures, etc. Yes Yes Francis, 2004
ForageFodder for goats and cattle Yes Yes Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
LivestockSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
WindSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

M. arenosa is a fast-growing weedy species that rapidly forms thorny and almost impenetrable thickets that inhibit the germination and establishment of seedlings of other species, including native plants, and alter natural successional patterns. It is also an aggressive invader of abandoned pastures, rangeland, and disturbed open areas. As a nitrogen-fixing species, M. arenosa has the potential to change soil nitrogen levels, impacting nutrient balances and cycling in invaded areas (Francis and Liogier, 1991; Francis, 2004; Romero-Duque et al., 2007; Joseph and Abati, 2016).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page

M. arenosa forms dense thickets that alter successional processes and outcompete native plant species, with a consequent reduction in native biodiversity. Across the Caribbean islands (i.e., Puerto Rico and Martinique), this species is invading mostly disturbed sites within dry forest, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world (Murphy and Lugo, 1986; Francis, 2004; Romero-Duque et al., 2007; Joseph and Abati, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs

Uses

Top of page

Within its native distribution range, M. arenosa is occasionally used for restoration of degraded habitats. The leaves and fruits are widely used as fodder for cattle and goats, especially in the dry season when there is no pasture. The wood is used used as firewood and fencing stakes (Francis, 2004; Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Wood Products

Top of page

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Fences

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

M. arenosa resembles the partly sympatric M. tenuiflora, which differs, however, in resinously glandular foliage, hooded calyx- and corolla-lobes, and viscid-glandular pod bullately distended over each seed (Barneby, 1991).

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barneby, R. C., 1991. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 65. iii + 835 pp.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Dourado, D. A. O., Conceição, A. de S., Santos-Silva, J., 2013. The genus Mimosa L. (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) in the Serra Branca APA/Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brazil. (O gênero Mimosa L. (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) na APA Serra Branca/Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil). Biota Neotropica, 13(4), 225-240. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032013000400225&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/S1676-06032013000400020

Dutra VF, Morim MP, 2015. Mimosa in List of Species of Flora of Brazil. (Mimosa in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil). In: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB18763

Flora Mesoamericana, 2019. Mimosa arenosa (Willd.) Poir. In: Flora Mesoamericana, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.https://www.tropicos.org/NamePage.aspx?nameid=13036128&projectid=3

Flora of Nicaragua, 2018. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Francis, J. K., 2004. General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service (IITF) (No.IITF-GTR-26), vi + 830 pp.

Francis, J. K., Liogier, H. A., 1991. Naturalized exotic tree species in Puerto Rico. In: General Technical Report - Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service , (No. SO-82) . i + 12 pp.

ILDIS, 2010. International Legume Database and Information Service. In: World Database of Legumes (version 10) Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

Joseph P, Abati Y, 2016. The flower plants introduced in the Lesser Antilles: Martinique’s example (general summary of the key data and ecosystem impacts. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10, 88-108.

Liogier AH, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (2nd Edition) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, Universidad de Puerto Rico.394.

Maia-Silva C, Limão AA, Hrncir M, da Silva Pereira J, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL, 2018. The Contribution of Palynological Surveys to Stingless Bee Conservation: A Case Study with Melipona subnitida. In: Pot-Pollen in Stingless Bee Melittology, Springer, Cham. 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61839-5_7

Maza-Villalobos, S., Lemus-Herrera, C., Martínez-Ramos, M., 2011. Successional trends in soil seed banks of abandoned pastures of a Neotropical dry region. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 27(1), 35-49. http://www.journals.cup.org/action/displayFulltext?fromPage=online&type=6&fid=S0266467410000556&aid=7941015&next=true&jid=TRO&volumeId=27&issueId=01&next=Y doi: 10.1017/S0266467410000611

Murphy PG, Lugo AE, 1986. Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17(1), 67-88.

Pineda-García, F., Paz, H., Meinzer, F. C., 2013. Drought resistance in early and late secondary successional species from a tropical dry forest: the interplay between xylem resistance to embolism, sapwood water storage and leaf shedding. Plant, Cell and Environment, 36(2), 405-418. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02582.x/abstract doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02582.x

Romero-Duque, L. P., Jaramillo, V. J., Pérez-Jiménez, A., 2007. Structure and diversity of secondary tropical dry forests in Mexico, differing in their prior land-use history. Forest Ecology and Management, 253(1/3), 38-47. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781127 doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.07.002

Santos EC, Carvalho R, Almeida EM, Felix LP, 2012. Chromosome number variation and evolution in Neotropical Leguminoseae (Mimosoideae) from northeastern Brazil. Genetics and Molecular Research, 11(3), 2451-75.

Simon, M. F., Grether, R., Queiroz, L. P. de, Särkinen, T. E., Dutra, V. F., Hughes, C. E., 2011. The evolutionary history of Mimosa (Leguminosae): toward a phylogeny of the sensitive plants. American Journal of Botany, 98(7), 1201-1221. http://www.amjbot.org/content/98/7/1201.abstract doi: 10.3732/ajb.1000520

Stevens PF, 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-NRCS, 2019. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

Villaseñor, J. L., 2016. Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 87(3), 559-902. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1870345316300707#!

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dutra VF, Morim MP, 2015. Mimosa. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB18763

Flora of Nicaragua, 2018. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website., St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Francis J K, 2004. General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service (IITF). vi + 830 pp.

Joseph P, Abati Y, 2016. The flower plants introduced in the Lesser Antilles: Martinique’s example (general summary of the key data and ecosystem impacts). In: Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10 88-108.

USDA-NRCS, 2019. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Villaseñor J L, 2016. Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad. 87 (3), 559-902. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1870345316300707#!

Contributors

Top of page

16/06/18 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map