Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Melilotus indica
(Indian sweetclover)

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Datasheet

Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Melilotus indica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian sweetclover
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Close-up of flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionClose-up of flowers.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Close-up of flowers.
FlowersClose-up of flowers.©Sheldon Navie
Habit of single plant.
TitleHabit
CaptionHabit of single plant.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Habit of single plant.
HabitHabit of single plant.©Sheldon Navie
Habit showing leaves and stem.
TitleHabit
CaptionHabit showing leaves and stem.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Habit showing leaves and stem.
HabitHabit showing leaves and stem.©Sheldon Navie
Flowers and leaves.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers and leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Flowers and leaves.
FlowersFlowers and leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Immature fruits.
TitleFruits
CaptionImmature fruits.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Immature fruits.
FruitsImmature fruits.©Sheldon Navie

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Melilotus indica (L.) All. 1785

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian sweetclover

Other Scientific Names

  • Melilotus parviflora Desf.

International Common Names

  • English: annual yellow sweetclover; small-flowered melilot
  • Spanish: meliloto de flor pequeña
  • French: mélilot à petites fleurs; mélilot des Indes; trèfle musqué
  • Portuguese: anafe-menor

Local Common Names

  • Australia: King Island melilot
  • Belgium: Kleinbloemiger honingklaver
  • Brazil: trevo-doce-amarelo
  • France: melilot a petites fleurs; melilot des Indes
  • Germany: Indischer steunklee; Kleinbluetiger Steinklee
  • India: huring upu; jhir; metha; rammethi; senji; vanmethika; zir
  • Italy: meliloto a fiore piccolo
  • Mexico: trebol amarillo
  • Netherlands: honingklaver, kleinbloemige
  • Sweden: soetvaeppling, dvaerg-

EPPO code

  • MEUIN (Melilotus indica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Papilionoideae
  •                                 Genus: Melilotus
  •                                     Species: Melilotus indica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentTackholm (1974)
EthiopiaPresentThulin (1989)
KenyaPresentThulin (1989)
LesothoPresentWells et al. (1986)
NamibiaPresentWells et al. (1986)
South AfricaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Duthie, 1960
SudanPresentThulin (1989)
UgandaPresentThulin (1989)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
BahrainPresentChaudhary et al. (1981)
ChinaPresentBlatter (1919)
-SichuanPresentKuang (1985)
IndiaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
-BiharPresentSingh et al. (1996)
-GujaratPresentBhattacharyya and Pandya (1996)
-HaryanaPresent, WidespreadSingh et al. (1995)
-Himachal PradeshPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1962)
-KarnatakaPresent, WidespreadSaldanha (1984); CABI (Undated)
-Madhya PradeshPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1962)
-OdishaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1962)
-PunjabPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1962)
-RajasthanPresentYadav (1997)
-West BengalPresent, WidespreadHooker (1879)
IranPresentHolm et al. (1991)
IraqPresentHolm et al. (1991)
IsraelPresentHolm et al. (1991)
JordanPresentHolm et al. (1991)
OmanPresentChaudhary et al. (1981)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadRashid et al. (1988)
Saudi ArabiaPresentChaudhary et al. (1981)
SyriaPresentSauerborn and Saxena (1987)
TurkeyPresentHansen (1968)
United Arab EmiratesPresentChaudhary et al. (1981)

Europe

ItalyPresentHolm et al. (1991)
SpainPresentCarretero (1977)

North America

CanadaPresentMuenscher (1955)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Watt & Breyer-Brandzijk, 1962
United StatesPresentMuenscher (1955)
-AlabamaPresentMohr (1969)
-FloridaPresentMohr (1969)
-HawaiiPresentHolm et al. (1991)
-MississippiPresentMohr (1969)
-South CarolinaPresentMohr (1969)
-TexasPresentMohr (1969)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
-New South WalesPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-Northern TerritoryPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-QueenslandPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-VictoriaPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-Western AustraliaPresentLazarides et al. (1997)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi (1982)
ChilePresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1991)

References

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Agharkar SP, 1953. Medicinal Plants of Bombay Presidency. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 188-189.

Anon., 1962. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Vol. VI. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, 329-331.

Arora A; Yaduraju NT, 1998. High-temperature effects on germination and viability of weed seeds in soil. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 181(1):35-43.

Atwood S, 1936. Tetraploid and aneuploid Melilotus alba resulting from heat treatment. American Journal of Botany, 23:674-677.

Balyan RS; Malik RK, 1993. Chemical control of complex weed flora in wheat. Haryana Journal of Agronomy, 9(1):74-76

Bhagawati PC; Faroda AS; Malik RK, 1989. Competition between wheat and associated weeds at different nitrogen rates. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin, 27(4):427-433

Bhattacharya NK, 1958. A comparative study of the cytology of a few species of two allied genera, Trigonella and Melilotus. Caryologia, 11:165-180.

Bhattacharyya G; Pandya SM, 1996. Ecological assessment on agroecosystems of Saurashtra with special reference to weeds. Advances in Plant Sciences, 9(1):153-158; 11 ref.

Blatter E, 1919. Records of the Botanical Survey of India - Flora Arabica. Calcutta, India: Superintendent Government Printing, 8(1):135-136.

Carretero JL, 1977. Determination of weed seed content in an agricultural soil as a means of predicting the weed flora. Anales del Instituto Botanico Antonio Jose Cavanilles, 34(1):267-278

Chakaravarti SC, 1966. Certain observations on the germination of immature weed seeds. Proceedings of the Second Weed Control Seminar, Indian Society of Weed Science. Hisar, India: Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University.

Chaudhary SA; Parker C; Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of Central, Southern and Eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):181-190.

De Candolle C, 1978. Records of the Botanical Survey of India. Dehradun, India: M/S Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, 6(1):382.

Gill HS; Mehra SP, 1981. Growth and development of Phalaris minor Retz., Chenopodium album and Melilotus indica All. in wheat crop ecosystem. Proceedings of the Eighth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 175-179.

Greenshields JER, 1957. Sweet Clover in Western Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Department of Agriculture Publication, 998.

Hansen A, 1968. 54. Melilotus L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea Volume 2. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 150-158.

Harbir Singh; Singh VP; Bhan VM; Malik RK, 1993. Influence of herbicides in wheat grown on normal and saline soils. Crop Research (Hisar), 6(3):370-376

Heywood VH, 1982. Popular Encyclopedia of Plants. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Hooker JD, 1879. The Flora of British India. Sabiaceae to Cornaceae. Ashford, Kent, UK: L. Reeve & Co. Ltd.

Jaiswal VP, 1994. Differential response of weed species to herbicides in potato. Journal of the Indian Potato Association, 21(1-2):157-159.

Johri AK; Govindra Singh; Sharma D, 1992. Nutrient uptake by wheat and associated weeds as influenced by management practices. Tropical Agriculture, 69(4):391-393

Kolar JS; Mehra SP, 1992. Changing scenario of weed flora in agroecosystems of Punjab. In: Dhaliwal GS, Hansra BS, Jerath N, eds. Changing scenario of our environment. Ludhiana, India: Punjab Agricultural University, 252-262.

Kuang CZ, 1985. Studies on the biology and control of Peridroma saucia Hubner. Insect Knowledge (Kunchong Zhishi), 22(2):61-64

Lal SS, 1994. Weed-crop competition studies in potato in north-western hills. Potato: present and future. Proceedings of the National Symposium held at Modipuram during 1-3 March, 1993., 156-157; 2 ref.

Lazarides M; Cowley K; Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds., vii + 264 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Malik RK; Singh S, 1994. Weed Flora in Gram and Raya Crops in Haryana State. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 24:7-14.

Malik RS; Yadav SK; Malik RK, 1993. Evaluation of tribenuron, clopyralid and fluroxypyr for weed control in wheat. Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium. Hisar, Haryana, India: Indian Society of Weed Science, 2:174-176.

Mandal RC, 1990. Weeds, weedicides and weed control - principle and practice. Bikaner, India: Agro Botanical Publishers.

Mehra SP; Kanwar RS; Brar LS, 1993. Chemical control of weeds in autumn planted sugarcane + wheat intercropping system. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 30(1-2):1-7

Mohr C, 1969. In: Cramer J ed. Plant Life of Alabama. Vol. 2. Reprints of US-Floras. New York, USA: Wheldon & Wesley, Ltd. / Stechert - Hafner Service Agency Inc., 560-561.

Muenscher WC, 1955. Weeds, 2nd edition. New York, USA: Macmillan, 560 pp.

Naqvi QA; Mahmood K, 1978. Studies on Melilotus mosaic virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 93(3):249-257

Narayanan TR; Dabadghao PM, 1972. Forage Crops of India. New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Oliver D, 1979. Flora of Tropical Africa. New Delhi, India: A.J. Reprints Agency, 52-53.

Pandey J; Singh RP, 1994. Effect of sulphonyl urea herbicides on weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 39(4):565-568

Panwar RS; Malik RK; Rathi SS, 1995. Effect of isoproturon and its combination with tralkoxydim on control of weeds in wheat. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 25(4):181-186; 5 ref.

Parker IM; Mertens SK; Schemske DW, 1993. Distribution of seven native and two exotic plants in a tallgrass prairie in southeastern Wisconsin: the importance of human disturbance. American Midland Naturalist, 130(1):43-55

Porwal MK; Gupta DP, 1989. Phenology of weeds in wheat as influenced by weed control. Madras Agricultural Journal, 76(11):630-635

Punia SS; Hooda RS; Malik RK; Singh BP, 1996. Response of varying doses of tribenuron-methyl on weed control in wheat. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 26(4):243-248; 4 ref.

Rashid A; Khan S; Hussain F, 1988. Distribution of some weeds in turmeric fields of District Bannu. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(4):556-560; 9 ref.

Royle JF, 1970. Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains and of the Flora of Kashmir. Volume 1. New Delhi, India: Today & Tomorrow's Printers & Publishers.

Sabnis TS, 1986. The Flora of Punjab Plains and The Associated Hill Regions. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. Scientific Publishers. Vol. XLII.

Saldanha CJ, 1984. Flora of Karnataka. Magnoliaceae to Fabaceae. New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.

Satour MM; El-Sherif EM; El-Ghareeb L; El-Hadad SA; El-Wakil HR, 1991. Achievements of soil solarization in Egypt. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper, No. 109:200-212

Sauerborn J; Saxena MC, 1987. Weed survey of faba bean fields in Syria with special reference to Orobanche spp. and Cuscuta spp. FABIS Newsletter, Faba Bean Information Service, ICARDA, 17:38-40.

Schlesselman J, 1977. Annual weed control in deciduous trees and vines. Proceedings 29th Annual California Weed Conference, 96-99.

Seringe D, 1825. Melilotus Tourn. In DC. Prodromus systematis naturalis. Vol. 2, Paris.

Seymour FC, 1969. The Flora of New England. Rutland, Vermont,USA: The Charlese E. Tuttle Company Publishers.

Sharma S; Tiagi B, 1979. Flora of North East Rajasthan. New Delhi, Ludhiana, India: Kalyani Publishers.

Singh G; Tiwari S; Singh MP, 1989. Evaluation of fluroxypyr for weed control in wheat. Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Taipei, Taiwan: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society, 1:85-89.

Singh S; Malik RK, 1992. Evaluation of tralkoxydim against weeds in wheat. Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars, 13:60-61.

Singh S; Malik RK; Balyan RS; Singh S, 1995. Distribution of weed flora of wheat in Haryana. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 27:114-121.

Singh S; Malik RK; Samdyan JS, 1992. Evaluation of herbicides for weed control in onion (Allium cepa L.). Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars, 13:54-55.

Singh SS; Ehsanullah M; Samarjeet Singh; Mishra SS, 1996. Weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum) under rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat system of north Bihar. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 41(2):243-246; 4 ref.

Sinskaya EN, 1961. Flora of Cultivated Plants of the USSR. Perennial Leguminous Plants. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 13:523-525.

Smith WK; Gorz HJ, 1965. Sweet clover improvement. Advances in Agronomy, 17:163-231.

Stevenson GA, 1969. An agronomic and taxonomic review of the genus Melilotus Mill. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 49:1-20.

Stevenson GA; Long HD, 1926. Sweet clover seed studies. North Dakota Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin No. 197.

Stevenson TM, 1937. Sweet clover studies on habit of growth, seed pigmentation and permeability of the seed coat. Sci. Agric, 17:627-654.

Stuart M, 1979. The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism. London, UK: Orbis Publishing.

Tackholm V, 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt. 2nd edition. Cairo, Egypt: University of Cairo.

Tewari AN; Rathi KS; Singh B, 1998. Integrated weed management in garlic (Allium sativum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 68(5):281-283; 1 ref.

Thakur C, 1984. Weed Science. New Delhi, India: Metropolitan Book Co.(P) Ltd.

Thulin M, 1989. 95. Fabaceae (Leguminosae). In: Hedberg I, Edwards S, eds. Flora of Ethiopia Volume 3. Pittosporaceae to Arialaceae. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: National Herbarium, 49-251.

Watt JM; Breyer-Brandwijk MG, 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Edinburgh and London, UK: E & S Livingstone Ltd.

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Yadav AS, 1997. Phytosociology of the weeds of black-mustard, gram and wheat fields. Journal of Phytological Research, 10(1-2):55-57.

Distribution References

Bhattacharyya G, Pandya S M, 1996. Ecological assessment on agroecosystems of Saurashtra with special reference to weeds. Advances in Plant Sciences. 9 (1), 153-158.

Blatter E, 1919. Records of the Botanical Survey of India. In: Flora Arabica. 8(1) Calcutta, India: Superintendent Government Printing. 135-136.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carretero J L, 1977. Determination of weed seed content in an agricultural soil as a means of predicting the weed flora. (Estimacion del contenido de semillas de malas hierbas de un suelo agricola como prediccion de su flora adventicia.). Anales del Instituto Botanico Antonio Jose Cavanilles. 34 (1), 267-278.

Chaudhary S A, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of central, southern and eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management. 27 (2), 181-190.

Hansen A, 1968. Melilotus L. In: Flora Europaea Volume 2. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae, 2 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 150-158.

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Hooker J D, 1879. The Flora of British India. Sabiaceae to Cornaceae. Ashford, Kent, UK: L. Reeve & Co. Ltd.

Kuang C Z, 1985. Studies on the biology and control of Peridroma saucia Hubner. Insect Knowledge (Kunchong Zhishi). 22 (2), 61-64.

Lazarides M, Cowley K, Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds. Collingwood, Vic. Australia: CSIRO Publishing. vii + 264 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 425 pp.

Mohr C, 1969. Plant Life of Alabama. In: Reprints of US-Floras, 2 [ed. by Cramer J]. New York, USA: Wheldon & Wesley, Ltd. / Stechert - Hafner Service Agency Inc. 560-561.

Muenscher W C, 1955. Weeds. New York, USA: MacMillan.

Rashid A, Khan S, Hussain F, 1988. Distribution of some weeds in turmeric fields of District Bannu. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research. 9 (4), 556-560.

Saldanha CJ, 1984. Flora of Karnataka. Magnoliaceae to Fabaceae., New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.

Sauerborn J, Saxena M C, 1987. Weed survey of faba bean fields in Syria with special reference to Orobanche spp. and Cuscuta spp. FABIS Newsletter, Faba Bean Information Service, ICARDA. 38-40.

Singh S S, Ehsanullah M, Samarjeet Singh, Mishra S S, 1996. Weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum) under rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat system of north Bihar. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 41 (2), 243-246.

Singh S, Malik RK, Balyan RS, Singh S, 1995. Distribution of weed flora of wheat in Haryana. In: Indian Journal of Weed Science, 27 114-121.

Tackholm V, 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt., Cairo, Egypt: University of Cairo.

Thulin M, 1989. 95. Fabaceae (Leguminosae). In: Flora of Ethiopia Volume 3. Pittosporaceae to Arialaceae, 3 [ed. by Hedberg I, Edwards S]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: National Herbarium. 49-251.

Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.

Yadav A S, 1997. Phytosociology of the weeds of black-mustard, gram and wheat fields. Journal of Phytological Research. 10 (1/2), 55-57.

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