Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Panonychus citri
(citrus red mite)

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Datasheet

Panonychus citri (citrus red mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Panonychus citri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • citrus red mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleColour illustration of adult
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Colour illustration of adult©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Panonychus citri McGregor

Preferred Common Name

  • citrus red mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Metatetranychus citri Pritchard & Baker
  • Panaonychus mori Yokoyama
  • Paratetranychus citri McGregor
  • Tetranychus citri McGregor

International Common Names

  • English: citrus red spider mite; purple mite; red spider mite
  • Spanish: acaro de los citricos; acaro rojo de los cítricos; arana roja del citrico
  • French: acarien rouge des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: aranuela de los citrus
  • Brazil: acaro purpureo
  • Germany: Milbe, Rote Zitrus-; Spinnmilbe, Rote Citrus-; Zitrusspinnmilbe, Rote
  • Turkey: kirmizi orumcek

EPPO code

  • METTCI (Panonychus citri)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Tetranychidae
  •                                     Genus: Panonychus
  •                                         Species: Panonychus citri

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MoroccoPresentEl-Ghanmi (1989)
MozambiquePresentCABI (Undated b)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1964); Jeppson et al. (1975)
-ChongqingPresentLei HuiDe et al. (2006)
-FujianPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-GuangdongPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-GuangxiPresentPu et al. (1990)
-GuizhouPresentCABI (Undated b)
-HubeiPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-HunanPresentZhou et al. (1991)
-JiangxiPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-YunnanPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentGupta (1980)
-DelhiPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Meena-Thakur Sangita-Sharma Dinabandhoo CL (2004)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhagat et al. (1999)
-MaharashtraPresentShivankar and Rao (2003)
-PunjabPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-West BengalPresentChakrabarti and Maity (1978)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
IsraelPresentGokkes et al. (1987)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-KyushuPresentOhno et al. (2011); UK, CAB International (1964)
-ShikokuPresentOsakabe and Sakagami (1993)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1981)
PhilippinesPresentCorpuz-Raros (2001)
South KoreaPresentAPPPC (1987); Lee et al. (1992)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
TaiwanPresentHo (2000)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1964)

Europe

CroatiaPresentCiglar and Barić (1998)
CyprusPresentVassiliou and Papadoulis (2009)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentPetanovic (1980)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
FrancePresentFauvel and Cotton (1986)
GreecePresentPapaioannou-Souliotis et al. (1993)
ItalyPresentDuso (1997)
-SardiniaPresentOrtu and Prota (1983)
PortugalPresentPereira et al. (2006)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
SpainPresentSantaballa et al. (1994)
-Canary IslandsPresentPande et al. (1989)

North America

BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentSteiner and Elliott (1983)
-British ColumbiaPresentSteiner and Elliott (1983)
Costa RicaPresentAguilar (1989); Ochoa et al. (1994); Aguilar-Piedra and Solano-Guevara (2020)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
MexicoPresentGonzalez V. and Sifuentes A. (1972)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1964); Baker and Tuttle (1994)
-ArizonaPresentBaker and Tuttle (1994)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1964); Hare and Phillips (1992); Baker and Tuttle (1994); CABI (Undated)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1964); Baker and Tuttle (1994)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1964); Baker and Tuttle (1994)
-OregonPresentPratt and Croft (1998)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1964); Baker and Tuttle (1994)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1964); Baker and Tuttle (1994)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-New South WalesPresentBeattie et al. (1991)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1964); APPPC (1987); Sale (1988)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
-Sao PauloPresentMariconi et al. (1975)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1964)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1964)
VenezuelaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1973)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agistemus exsertus Predator Adults/Nymphs China; Sichuan Citrus
Agistemus terminalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius addoensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius aerialis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius citri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius citrifolius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius eharai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius elinae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius herbicolus Predator Adults/Nymphs China; China; Guangdong Citrus
Amblyseius lentiginosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius maai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius makuwa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius newsami Predator Adults/Nymphs Guangdong
Amblyseius nicholsi Predator Adults/Nymphs China; China; Guangdong; Guizhou Citrus
Amblyseius okinawanus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius orientalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius pseudolongispinosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius sojaensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius taiwanicus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anystis baccarum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Clitostethus arcuatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Clubiona reichlini Predator Adults/Nymphs
Conwentzia psociformis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cunaxa africanus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Entomophthora Pathogen
Euseius hibisci Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius mesembrinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius nicholsi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius ovalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius stipulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs California; Italy; Sardinia Citrus
Euseius tularensis Predator Adults/Nymphs USA; California oranges
Galendromus annectens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Galendromus helveolus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Halmus chalybeus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia axyridis Predator
Lasioseius scapulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Leptomastix dactylopii Parasite
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus californicus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus longispinosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oligota kashmirica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oligota kashmirica benefica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oligota yasumatsui Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phytoseiulus macropilis Predator
Phytoseiulus persimilis Predator Adults/Nymphs Italy; Sardinia Citrus
Propylea japonica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Saula japonica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scolothrips takahashii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Semidalis aleyrodiformis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Serangium bicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethorus aptus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethorus chengi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethorus guangxiensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethorus histrio Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile lemons; oranges
Stethorus loi Predator Adults/Nymphs Taiwan Averrhoa carambola
Stethorus nigripes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethorus punctillum Predator Adults/Nymphs Guizhou
Stethorus punctum picipes Predator Adults/Nymphs USA; California oranges
Stethorus siphonulus Predator Adults/Nymphs China
Typhlodromips caspiansis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus exhilaratus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus phialatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus pini Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus porresi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus validus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus vulgaris Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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1981. International symposium on problems of insect pest management in developing countries. Proceedings of a Symposium on Tropical Agricultural Research, Kyoto, August 6-7, 1980. International symposium on problems of insect pest management in developing countries. Proceedings of a Symposium on Tropical Agricultural Research, Kyoto, August 6-7, 1980. Tropical Agriculture Research Center. Yatabe Japan, iv + 162 pp.

1981. International symposium on problems of insect pest management in developing countries. Proceedings of a Symposium on Tropical Agricultural Research, Kyoto, August 6-7, 1980. International symposium on problems of insect pest management in developing countries. Proceedings of a Symposium on Tropical Agricultural Research, Kyoto, August 6-7, 1980. Tropical Agriculture Research Center. Yatabe Japan, iv + 162 pp.

Aguilar H, 1989. Presence of the red citrus mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Carica papaya L. in the southern region of Costa Rica. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No. 14:61-67

Aguilera P A, 1987. New localities for Stethorus histrio Chazeau (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Chile. Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 15:33-36

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Baker EW; Tuttle DM, 1994. A guide to the spider mites (Tetranychidae) of the United States. West Bloomfield, USA: Indira Publishing House, 347 pp.

Beattie GAC; Roberts EA; Vanhoff CL; Flack LK, 1991. Effects of climate, natural enemies and biocides on three citrus mites in coastal New South Wales. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 11(4):271-295

Bhagat KC; Nehru RK; Koul VK, 1999. Sap feeding pests of citrus in Jammu. Insect Environment, 5(3):123.

Bolland HR; Gutierrez J; Flechtmann CHW, 1998. World Catalogue of the Spider Mite Family (Acari: Tetranychidae). Leiden, Netherlands: K. Brill, 392 pp.

Chakrabarti S; Maity SP, 1978. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life cycle of Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Science and Culture, 44(5):233-234

CIE, 1964. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests. Map No. 192. Panonychus citri. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ciglar I; Baric B, 1998. Pernicious insects and mites fauna in Croatian orhards. Entomologia Croatica, 4(1/2):63-69; 14 ref.

Corpuz-Raros LA, 2001. New mite pests and new host records of phytophagous mites (Acari) from the Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 84(4):341-351.

Davidson RH; Lyon WF, 1987. Insect pests of farm, garden, and orchard. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 8: 640 pp.

DeBach P; Rosen D, 1991. Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2:xiv + 440 pp.

Duso C, 1997. The occurrence of Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in northern Italy: distribution, host range and phenology. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 32(1/2):141-155; 39 ref.

El-Ghanmi M, 1989. Red citrus mite, Panonychus citri McGregor, identified [in Morocco]. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37(2):97

Fauvel G; Cotton D, 1986. The citrus red mite on hedges of cherry laurel in the Montpellier region. Phytoma, No. 379:41

Ferragut F; Laborda R; Costa-Comelles J; García-Marí F, 1992. Feeding behaviour of Euseius stipulatus and Typhlodromus phialatus on the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae). Entomophaga, 37(4):537-543; 12 ref.

French JV; Hutchinson EM, 1980. Citrus red mite in Lower Rio Grande Valley. Citrograph, 65(7):197-198

Gokkes M; Israeli E; Ofer I; Matzliah J; Birati I, 1987. Control of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Alon Hanotea, 41(9):961-963

Gonzalez V F; Sifuentes A JA, 1972. Pests of Citrus and their control in Nuevo Leon. Agricultura Tecnica en Mexico, 3(4):159-160

Gupta YN, 1980. Some spider mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands with descriptions of three new species. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 77(1/4):111-117

Hare JD; Pehrson JE; Clemens T; Menge JA; Coggins CW Jr; Embleton TW; Meyer JL, 1992. Effect of citrus red mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) and cultural practices on total yield, fruit size, and crop value of 'Navel' orange: years 3 and 4. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(2):486-495

Hare JD; Phillips PA, 1992. Economic effect of the citrus red mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on southern California coastal lemons. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1926-1932

Helle W; Pijnacker LP, 1985. Parthenogenesis, chromosomes and sex. In: Helle W, Sabelis MW, eds. Spider Mites: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol. 1A. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 129-139.

Ho ChyiChen, 2000. Spider-mite problems and control in Taiwan. Special issue: Population biology of plant-inhabiting mites - Part 1. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Population Dynamics of Plant-Inhabiting Mites held from 10-14 May 1999 in Kyoto, Japan. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 24: 5-6, 453-462.

Huffaker CB; Messenger PS, 1976. Theory and practice of biological control. Theory and practice of biological control., xxii + 788 pp.; [many fig., 240 X 170 mm].

Jeppson LR; Keifer HH; Baker EW, 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.

Kranz J; Schmutterer H; Koch W, eds. , 1977. Diseases, pests and weeds in tropical crops. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Verlag Paul Parey, 666 pp.

Lee SC; Kim SS; Kim DI, 1992. An observation of insect pests on the citron trees in southern region of Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology, 22(3):223-226

Lei HuiDe; Li HongYun; Yao TingShan; Liu HaoQiang; Zhang QuanBing, 2006. Experiment of using 2 kinds of 0.5% Guosheng Liquid for control of citrus red mite and arrowhead scale. South China Fruits, No.1:17-18.

Lipa JJ, 1971. Microbial Control of Insects and Mites. London, UK: Academic Press, 357-372.

Mariconi FM; Bleicher E; Franco JF; Domiciano NL; Pulz FS, 1975. Experimental chemical control of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor, 1916) on citrus. Anais da Sociedade Entomologico do Brasil, 4(1):104-108

McMurtry JA, 1985. Citrus. In: Helle W, Sabelis MW, eds. Spider Mites, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 1(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 339-347.

McMurtry JA; Morse JG; Johnson HG, 1992. Studies of the impact of Euseius species (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on citrus mites using predator exclusion and predator release experiments. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 15(4):233-248

McMurtry JA; Shaw JG; Johnson HG, 1979. Citrus red mite populations in relation to virus disease and predaceous mites in Southern California. Environmental Entomology, 8(1):160-164

Meena-Thakur; Sangita-Sharma; Dinabandhoo CL, 2004. Phytophagous mites associated with temperate and sub-tropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 12(1):83-87.

Nikolaishvili AA; Kharebava LG; Vniichski ChP, 1989. Composition of the volatile complex of the leaves and fruits of Meier lemon, infested by the citrus red mite. Subtropicheskie Kul'tury, No. 2:98-102

Ochoa R; Aguilar H; Vargas C, 1994. Phytophagous mites of Central America: an illustrated guide. Turrialba, Costa Rica: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Ense±anza. xi + 234 pp.

Ohno S; Miyagi A; Gotoh T; Ganaha-Kikumura T; Shiromoto K; Kijima K; Ooishi T, 2011. Wild host plants of four spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting fruit crops in Okinawa. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 14(3):281-284. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861511000434

Ortu S; Prota R, 1983. Results from integrated control trials of citrus pests in Sardinia. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 3. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare British Crop Protection Council Croydon UK, 1022

Osakabe M; Sakagami Y, 1993. Protein differences detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis among local populations of Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 28(4):497-502

Pande YD; Carnero A; Hernandez M, 1989. Notes on biological observations on some unrecorded species of phytophagous and predatory mites in Canary Islands. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccioon Vegetales, 4(2):275-281.

Papaioannou-Souliotis P; Tsagarakou A; Dermatas P, 1993. Integrated pest control in citrus-groves, evaluation on new acaricides used in the treatment of citrus red mite (Panonychus citri Koch.). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16(7):125-131

Pereira N; Ferreira Mdos A; Sousa ME; Franco JC, 2006. Mites, lemon trees and ground cover interactions in Mafra region. Bulletin OILB/SROP [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.], 29(3):143-150.

Petanovic R, 1980. Some morphological characteristics of importance in the differentiation of Panonychus ulmi Koch. and Panonychus citri McGregor (Tetranychidae, Acarina). Interim report. Arhiv za Poljoprivredne Nauke, 41(143):517-522

Pratt PD; Croft BA, 1998. Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae) on ornamental Skimmia in Oregon, with assessment of predation by native phytoseiid mites. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 74(3):163-168; 17 ref.

PRITCHARD AE; BAKER EW, 1955. Mem. Pacif. Coast ent. Soc, 2. San Francisco, Cal., 7 + 472 pp.

Pu TS; Zeng T; Wei DW; Pan GH; Liao GN, 1990. Investigations on predacious mite resources in Citrus orchards in Guangxi and their utilization. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 17(4):355-358.

Ragusa S; Morsellino F; Sciacchitano A, 1983. Biological observations on citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Phytophaga, 1:115-132

Reed DK, 1974. Effects of temperature on virus-host relationships and on activity of the noninclusion virus of citrus red mites, Panonychus citri. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 24(2):218-223

Rodrigues M da C, 1973. The mites on Citrus in Mozambique. II. Agronomia Mocambicana, 7(2):91-95.

Sale P, 1988. Mite pests of citrus in New Zealand. Orchardist of New Zealand, 61(1):26-27

Santaballa E; Roca M; Laborda R, 1994. Behaviour of clofentezine on the mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its predator Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Heriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in the Spanish agriculture. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 20(2):419-428

Servicio para el Agricultor, 1973. Control of pests on Citrus. Noticias Agricolas, 6(34):135-138

Shivankar VJ; Rao CN, 2003. Incidence of citrus nursery insect pests in central India. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 11(1):150-151.

Smith Meyer MKP, 1987. African Tetranychidae (Acari: Prostigmata), with reference to the world genera. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa, No. 69, 175 pp.

Snzer T; Aytas M; Yumruktepe R, 1992. Chemical experiment on citrus white fly (Dialeurodes citri Ashmead), citrus red mite (Panonychus citri Mc. Gregor) and citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashmead) in the Mediterranean region. Zirai Mu^umlaut~cadele Aras^tail~trma Yllg^breve~, No. 22-23:61-63.

Song JeongHeub; Lee ChangHoon; Kang SangHoon; Kim DongHwan; Kang SiYong; Riu KeyZung, 2001. Binomial sampling plans for the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae) on satsuma mandarin groves in Jeju. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 40(3):197-202; 23 ref.

Steiner MY; Elliott DP, 1983. Biological pest management for interior plantscapes. Biological pest management for interior plantscapes. Alberta Environmental Centre Vegreville, Alberta Canada, 30 pp.

Vassiliou VA; Papadoulis G, 2009. First record of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri in Cyprus. Phytoparasitica, 37(1):99-100. http://www.springerlink.com/content/k4434725j2586738/?p=af80187a445c4212aa5ac9fae63e52d3&pi=14

Wainstein BA, 1960. Tetranichovye Kleshchi Kazachstana (s reviziei semeistva) [Tetranychoid mites of Kazakhstan (with revision of the family)]. Kazachskaya Akademiya Sel'skokhozyaistvennich Nauk. Trudy, Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, Tom 5:1-276.

Yang XiaoLong; Shen MiaoQing; Xiong JiWen; Guo ZhenZhong, 1996. Approaches to enhance the effectiveness of biocontrol of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae) with Stethorus punctillum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in citrus orchards in Guizhou. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 1:21-27; 7 ref.

Yang ZQ; Cao KJ; Li WP, 1987. A preliminary study on Amblyseius orientalis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Natural Enemies of Insects, 9(4):203-206

Yue BiSong; Tsai JH, 1995. Agistemus exsertus Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as a predator of citrus red mite (Panonychus citri [McGregor]). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 103(1):107-113; 22 ref.

Zhimo Z; McMurtry JA, 1990. Development and reproduction of three Euseius (Acari: Phytoseiidae) species in the presence and absence of supplementary foods. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 8(4):233-242

Zhou CA; Zou JJ; Peng JC; Ouyang ZY; Hu LC; Yang ZL; Wang XB, 1991. Predation of major natural enemies on Panonychus citri and its comprehensive evaluation in citrus orchards in Hunan, China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 18(3):225-229

Distribution References

Aguilar H, 1989. Presence of the red citrus mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Carica papaya L. in the southern region of Costa Rica. (Presencia del acaro rojo de los citricos Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), sobre Carica papaya L. en la zona sur de Costa Rica.). Manejo Integrado de Plagas. 61-67.

Aguilar-Piedra H, Solano-Guevara A M, 2020. New hosts and records of plant feeding mites for Costa Rica: interval 2013-2018. (Nuevos hospederos y registros de ácaros fitófagos para Costa Rica: período 2013-2018.). Agronomía Costarricense. 44 (1), 9-28. http://www.mag.go.cr/rev_agr/v44n01_009.pdf

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Baker E W, Tuttle D M, 1994. A guide to the spider mites (Tetranychidae) of the United States. West Bloomfield, USA: Indira Publishing House. 347 pp.

Beattie G A C, Roberts E A, Vanhoff C L, Flack L K, 1991. Effects of climate, natural enemies and biocides on three citrus mites in coastal New South Wales. Experimental & Applied Acarology. 11 (4), 271-295. DOI:10.1007/BF01202875

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