Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Metopolophium dirhodum
(rose-grass aphid)



Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grass aphid)


  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Metopolophium dirhodum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rose-grass aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker)

Preferred Common Name

  • rose-grass aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Acyrthosiphon (Metopolophium) dirhodum (Walker)
  • Acyrthosiphon dirhodum (Walker)
  • Amphorophora dirhoda
  • Amphorophora dirhodum
  • Amphorphora dirhoda
  • Aphis dirhoda Walker, 1849
  • Aphis dirhodum Walker
  • Goidanichiella graminum (Theobald)
  • Goidanichiellum dirhodum (Walker)
  • Illinoia dirhodum
  • Macrosiphon caianensis (Del Guercio)
  • Macrosiphon granariae (Kirby)
  • Macrosiphum arundinis Theobald
  • Macrosiphum cereale (Kaltenbach)
  • Macrosiphum dirhodum
  • Metopolophium graminum (Theobald)
  • Rhodobium dirhodum Walker
  • Rhodobium graminum (Theobald)
  • Siphonophora arundinis
  • Siphonophora dirhoda
  • Siphonophora dirhodum
  • Siphonophora longipennis
  • Subacyrthosiphon dirhodum (Walker)
  • Subacyrthosiphon graminum (Theobald)

International Common Names

  • English: grain aphid; rose-grain aphid
  • Spanish: pulgon amarillo (Arg); pulgon de la cebada (Mexico)
  • French: grand puceron des cereales
  • Portuguese: pulgao verde-palido das folhas (Brasil)

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: pulgao verde-palido das folhas
  • Denmark: graesbladlus, stribet; kornlus
  • Finland: elokirva
  • Germany: Blattlaus, Bleich Getreide-; Blattlaus, Grosse Getreide-
  • Italy: sifonofora del grano
  • Netherlands: Roos-grasluis
  • Sweden: graesbladlus, groenstrimmig

EPPO code

  • METODR (Metopolophium dirhodum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Metopolophium
  •                                         Species: Metopolophium dirhodum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ArmeniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
AzerbaijanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ChinaWidespreadZhou et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GansuPresentWang et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GuizhouPresentDu and Chen, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-HenanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-TibetPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-XinjiangPresentHu et al., 1986
-YunnanPresentXu et al., 2004
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-UttarakhandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IranPresentMojeni, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IsraelWidespreadBodenheimer and Swirski, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JapanPresentTorikura, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
JordanPresentMustafa, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MongoliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SyriaPresentMakkouk et al., 1987; Hussein, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TajikistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Alaserhat and Güçlü, 2016
TurkmenistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
YemenPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003


BurundiWidespreadMillar, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EgyptPresentChamberlain, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EthiopiaWidespreadHaile and Megenasa, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KenyaWidespreadMigui et al., 1992; Muthangya et al., 1992; Wangai, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MoroccoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MozambiqueWidespreadMillar, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
RwandaWidespreadMillar, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
South AfricaWidespreadMillar, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Canary IslandsPresentRobles and Blanco Nieto Nafria, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TunisiaPresentHarbaoui et al., 2008

North America

CanadaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ManitobaPresentMalyk and Robinson, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-QuebecPresentBa-Angood and Stewart, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MexicoWidespreadBurnett and Mezzalama, 1990; Robinson, 1992; Ranieri et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
USAWidespreadHein et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArizonaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-IdahoWidespreadFeng et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MontanaWidespreadFeng et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-WashingtonPresentClement et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-WyomingPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

South America

ArgentinaPresentBotto et al., 1979; Ramirez, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BoliviaWidespreadFox et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BrazilPresentLazzari, 1985; Zuniga, 1985; Ramirez, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParanaWidespreadLazzari and Foerster, 1983; Lazzari, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rio Grande do SulPresentFagundes and Arnt, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ChileWidespreadCarillo and Zuniga, 1974; Carillo and Mellado, 1975; Ramirez, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ColombiaPresentFox et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EcuadorPresentFox et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PeruPresentValencia et al., 1975; Fox et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Mallqui and Cobián, 2011
UruguayPresentRamirez, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003


BelarusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BelgiumWidespreadLatteur and Oger, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BulgariaPresentNatskova, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CroatiaWidespreadIgrc, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Czech RepublicWidespreadHonek, 1985; Honek, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadHonek, 1987
DenmarkWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
FinlandWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
FrancePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GermanyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GreeceWidespreadLykouressis and Tsitsipis, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
HungaryWidespreadKuroli and Nemeth, 1987; Kozma et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IrelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Kennedy and Connery, 2005
IrelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Kennedy and Connery, 2005
ItalyWidespreadSuss, 1978; Suss and Colombo, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LatviaWidespreadDamrose, 1975; Damroze, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LithuaniaPresentRakauskas and Strumskyte, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NetherlandsWidespreadHand and Hand, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NorwayWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
PolandWidespreadWalczak, 1978; Lisowicz, 1992; Zlotkowski, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
RomaniaWidespreadPopov et al., 1988; Banita et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Northern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SlovakiaWidespreadPraslicka, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SloveniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SwedenWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UKPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ScotlandPresentPickup et al., 2009
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadPetrovic, 1996
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003


AustraliaWidespreadWaterhouse and Helms, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New South WalesPresentCarver, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-South AustraliaPresentde Barro, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TasmaniaPresentDixon, 1987; Guy, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-VictoriaPresentDixon, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
New ZealandWidespreadFarrell and Stufkens, 1988; Farrell and Stufkens, 1990; Farrell and Stufkens, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Agonum dorsale Predator Adults/Nymphs
Allograpta pulchra Predator Adults/Nymphs
Allothrombium fuliginosum Parasite
Allothrombium mossi Parasite
Allothrombium triticium Parasite
Alloxysta macrophadna Parasite
Alloxysta victrix Parasite
Aphelinus abdominalis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Aphelinus varipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Aphidius ervi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile; Morocco Bromus maximus; cereals
Aphidius frumentarius Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius picipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius rhopalosiphi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile; New Zealand cereals
Aphidius uzbekistanicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile; France wheat
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bembidion lampros Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bembidion obtusum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Carabidae Predator Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Coccinella transversoguttata Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus thromboides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Dendrocerus carpenteri Parasite
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs UK cereals
Eriopis connexa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Erynia kondoiensis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Australia barley
Erynia neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia phalloides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hemerobius humulinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia quinquesignata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Lioadalia flavomaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Monoctonus nervosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Monotrombium simplicium Parasite
Nebria brevicollis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa agrestis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa amentata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa palustris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phaenoglyphis villosa Parasite
Praon gallicum Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile cereals
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pterostichus cupreus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria philanthus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Tachyporus obtusus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Toxares deltiger Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Trechus quadristriatus Predator Adults/Nymphs


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Alaserhat I; Güçlü S, 2016. Survey of aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their associated parasitoid and predator species on Rosa spp. in Turkey. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 26(4):849-850.

Alves LFA; Prestes TMV; Zanini A; Dalmolin MF; Menezes Júnior Ade O, 2005. Natural biological control of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a wheat field by parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) in Medianeira, PR, Brazil. (Controle biológico natural de pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em lavoura de trigo por parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae), no município de Medianeira, PR, Brasil.) Semina: Ciencias Agrárias (Londrina), 26(2):155-160.

Angeles Achón M; Sobrepere M; Minguell R, 2003. Molecular and biological properties of a Sugarcane mosaic potyvirus isolate from Spain. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 110(4):324-331.

Araya JE; Foster JE; Schreiber MM; Wing RE; Fereres A; Tadeo JL; Castanera P, 1990. Early control of aphid vectors of the barley yellow dwarf virus with slow release systemic granulated insecticides. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 16(1):195-203

Auclair JL, 1989. Host-plant resistance. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Vol. C. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers BV, 225-266.

Ba-Angood SA; Stewart RK, 1980. Occurrence, development, and distribution of cereal aphids on early and late cultivars of wheat, barley, and oats in southwestern Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 112(6):615-620

Banita E; searpe D; Vilau F; Voicu M; Kis B; Serafim R; Sterghiu M; Luca E, 1995. Research on relationships between aphid populations and polyphagous predators on winter wheat in the plain of Oltenia. Probleme de Protec^tail~tia Plantelor, 23(2):231-245; 28 ref.

Basky Z; Harrington R, 2000. Cereal aphid flight activity in Hungary and England compared by suction traps. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, 73(3):70-74.

Bodenheimer FS; Swirski E, 1957. Weizmann Sci. Pr. Israel. Jerusalem, 5 + ] 378 pp.

Botto EN, 1980. Aphelinus asychis Walker and Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman), two new parasites of the 'green and yellow cereal aphids' in Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina, 39(3/4):197-202

Botto EN; Hernandez MC, 1982. Parasitism of the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and Sitobion avenae (F.) by parasites of the genus Aphidius (Hym: Aphidiidae) in the Argentine Republic. IDIA, No. 401/404:17-19

Botto EN; Hernandez MC; Boggiatto ME; Crouzel IS de, 1979. Preliminary results of bioecological studies on the yellow cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), carried out at Castelar, Buenos Aires, during 1976 to 1979. I. Field studies. Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina, 38(1/4):37-46

Burnett PA; Mezzalama M, 1990. Barley yellow dwarf virus and aphids in Mexico. In: Burnett PA, ed. World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf. Mexico: CIMMYT, 21-24.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Metopolophium dirhodum. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 649. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cannon RJC, 1985. Colony development and alate production in Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on winter wheat. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 75(2):353-365

Cannon RJC, 1986. Summer populations of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) on winter wheat: three contrasting years. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23(1):101-114

Carillo Ll R; Mellado Z M, 1975. Effect of the sowing date and the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) on the yield of cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agricultura Tecnica, 35(4):190-204

Carillo LR; Zuniga PE, 1974. Key for the determination of species of aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae) that are found on cereals in Chile. Agro Sur, 2(2):86-87

Carver M, 1984. Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Homoptera: Aphididae) newly recorded from Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 23(3):192

Carver M, 1989. Biological control of aphids. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids: their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. C. New York, USA: Elsevier, 141-165.

Chamberlain P, 1992. Polymeric formulations of pesticides. Proceedings, Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1992 Brighton, November 23-26, 1992 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 327-332

Chopa CS; Descamps LR, 2012. Composition and biological activity of essential oils against Metopolophium dirhodum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) cereal crop pest. Pest Management Science, 68(11):1492-1500.

Clayson PJ; Michaud JP; Emden HFvan, 2014. Antibiosis in wheat interacts with crowding stress to affect Metopolophium dirhodum development and susceptibility to malathion. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 153(2):106-113.

Clement SL; Johnson RC; Pike KS, 1990. Field populations of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other cereal aphids on cool-season perennial grass accessions. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):846-849

Damrose IP, 1975. Distribution of aphids as the vectors of virus diseases of cereal crops in Latvia. Trudy Biologo-Pochvennogo Instituta, 28(2):159-160

Damroze I, 1989. Results of 20-year investigations of the distribution of aphid vectors of viruses of major agricultural crops. Trudy Latviiskoi Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii, No. 255:47-55

de Barro PJ, 1992. A survey of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and other wheat-infesting cereal aphids flying over South Australia in 1989. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 31:345-349.

Dewar AM; Dean GJ; Cannon R, 1982. Assessment of methods for estimating the numbers of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cereals. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 72(4):675-685

Dixon AFG, 1987. Cereal aphids as an applied problem. Agricultural Zoology Reviews, 2:1-57

Du YZ; Chen XZ, 1993. Influence of different aphid prey on the development of Metasyrphus corollae (Dip.: Syrphidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 9(3):111-113

Duffield SJ; Bryson RJ; Young JEB; Sylvester-Bradley R; Scott RK, 1997. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser on the population development of the cereal aphids Sitobion avenae (F.) and Metopolophium dirhodum (Wlk.) on field grown winter wheat. Annals of Applied Biology, 130(1):13-26; 36 ref.

El Yamani M; Hill JH, 1991. Aphid vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus in West-Central Morocco. Journal of Phytopathology, 133(2):105-111.

Epperlein K; Schmidt HW; Schwalbe R, 1997. Influence of Gaucho used as seed treatment of maize on the infestation with viruses, pests and on the epedaphic soil fauna. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 31(2):185-200; 19 ref.

Fagundes AC; Arnt T, 1978. The occurrence of the aphid Aphis gossypii on wheat in Rio Grande do Sul. Agronomia Sulriograndense, 14(1):143-144

Farrell JA; Stufkens MW, 1988. Population density of the rose-grain aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum, on four cereal species in Canterbury. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 16(3):299-303

Farrell JA; Stufkens MW, 1990. The impact of Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on populations of the rose grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cereals in Canterbury, New Zealand. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 80(4):377-383

Farrell JA; Stufkens MW, 1992. Cereal aphid flights and barley yellow dwarf virus infection of cereals in Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 20(4):407-412.

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Nowierski RM; Halbert SE, 1992. Population trends and biological aspects of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and their natural mortality factors on winter wheat in southwestern Idaho. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 68(4):248-260

Feng MG; Nowierski RM, 1992. Spatial patterns and sampling plans for cereal aphids (Hom.: Aphididae) killed by entomophthoralean fungi and hymenopterous parasitoids in spring wheat. Entomophaga, 37(2):265-275

Feng MG; Nowierski RM; Scharen AL; Sands DC, 1991. Entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycotina: Entomophthorales) infecting cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Montana. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 7(1):55-64

Fox PN; Tola J; Chicaiza O, 1990. Barley yellow dwarf in the Andean countries of South America. In: Burnett PA, ed. Barley Yellow Dwarf. Mexico: CIMMYT, 25-28.

Gash AFJ, 2012. Wheat nitrogen fertilisation effects on the performance of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. Agronomy, 2(1):1-13.

Gildow F; Damsteegt V; Stone A; Schneider W; Luster D; Levy L, 2004. Plum pox in North America: identification of aphid vectors and a potential role for fruit in virus spread. Phytopathology, 94(8):868-874.

Gildow FE; Levy L; Damsteegt VD; Stone AL; Schneider WL; Luster DG, 2004. Transmission of three North American isolates of Plum pox virus: identification of aphid vectors and species-specific transmission from infected stone fruits. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops: Fruit Tree Diseases, Valencia, Spain, 21-25 July, 2003.], No.657:207-211.

Guglielmone L; Caciagli P, 1996. Biological characterization of an Italian isolate of barley yellow dwarf luteovirus from barley. Journal of Phytopathology, 144(7/8):383-386; 22 ref.

Guy PL, 1988. Pasture ecology of barley yellow dwarf viruses at Sandford, Tasmania. Plant Pathology, 37(43):546-550

Haile A; Megenasa T, 1987. Survey of aphids on barley in parts of Shewa, Welo and Tigrai, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9(1):39-53

Hand SC; Hand L, 1986. Monitoring of the winter populations of cereal aphids near Wageningen, the Netherlands, in 1982/1983. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(4):137-146

Harbaoui H; Mezghani KM; Marrakchi M; Makni M; Makni H, 2008. Morphological and toxicological study of cereal aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) in Tunisia. (Étude morphologique et toxicologique des pucerons (Homoptères: Aphididae) des céréales en Tunisie.) Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France [Troisième Congrès Franco-Tunisien de Zoologie, Tabarka, Tunisia, 3-7 November 2006.], 133(1/3):203-213.

Hein GL; Elliott NC; Michels GJ Jr; Kieckhefer RW, 1995. A general method for estimating cereal aphid populations in small grain fields based on frequency of occurrence. Canadian Entomologist, 127(1):59-63

Holt J; Griffiths E; Wratten SD, 1984. The influence of wheat growth stage on yield reductions caused by the rose-grain aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum. Annals of Applied Biology, 105(1):7-14

Honek A, 1985. Temperature and plant vigour influence annual variation of abundance in cereal aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 92(6):588-593

Honek A, 1987. Effect of plant quality and microclimate on population growth and maximum abundances of cereal aphids, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hom., Aphididae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 104(3):304-313

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