Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Metamasius hemipterus
(West Indian cane weevil)

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Datasheet

Metamasius hemipterus (West Indian cane weevil)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Metamasius hemipterus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • West Indian cane weevil
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult of M. hemipterus (9-14 mm).
TitleCane weevil adult
CaptionAdult of M. hemipterus (9-14 mm).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult of M. hemipterus (9-14 mm).
Cane weevil adultAdult of M. hemipterus (9-14 mm).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Metamasius hemipterus Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • West Indian cane weevil

Other Scientific Names

  • Calandra hemipterus sericeus Olivier, 1807
  • Calandra sacchari Guild.
  • Curculio hemipterus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Curculio rufofasciatus De Greer, 1775
  • Curculio variegatus Fabricius, 1787
  • Rhynchophorus hemipterus carbonarius Chevrolat, 1833
  • Sphenophorus ambiguus Gyllenhal, 1838
  • Sphenophorus decoratus Gyllenhal, 1838
  • Sphenophorus hemipterus
  • Sphenophorus inscripta Gyllenhal, 1838
  • Sphenophorus sacchari Gyllenhal, 1838
  • Sphenophorus sexguttatus Dru.

International Common Names

  • English: rotten cane stalk borer; silky cane weevil; weevil borer
  • Spanish: gorgojo de la raiz y tallo; gorgojo del tallo de la caña podrida; gorgojo rayado de la caña de azúcar; picudo de la caña; picudo sedoso de la caña
  • Portuguese: metamasio (Portugal)

EPPO code

  • METAHE (Metamasius hemipterus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Curculionidae
  •                             Genus: Metamasius
  •                                 Species: Metamasius hemipterus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Equatorial GuineaPresent
GabonPresent
NigeriaPresent

Asia

IndonesiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Intercepted onlyAbsent, confirmed by survey, intercepted only.
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United States
-FloridaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, Intercepted only
-QueenslandAbsent, Intercepted only

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent, Widespread
BrazilPresent, Widespread
-AlagoasPresent
-AmapaPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-RondoniaPresent
-RoraimaPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / internal red necrosis
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / unusual odour

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae

References

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Alpizar, D., Fallas, M., Oehlschlager, A. C., Gonzalez, L. M., 2012. Management of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus in banana by pheromone-based mass trapping. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 38(3), 245-252. doi: 10.1007/s10886-012-0091-0

Alpizar, D., Fallas, M., Oehlschlager, A. C., Gonzalez, L. M., Chinchilla, C. M., Bulgarelli, J., 2002. Pheromone mass trapping of the West Indian sugarcane weevil and the American palm weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in palmito palm. Florida Entomologist, 85(3), 426-430. doi: 10.1653/0015-4040(2002)085[0426:PMTOTW]2.0.CO;2

Anderson RS, 1992. Curculionoidea of southern Florida: an annotated checklist (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea (excluding Curculionidae; Scolytinae, Platypodinae)). Insecta Mundi, 6(3-4):193-248

Anderson WH, 1948. Larvae of some genera of Calendrinae (= Rhynchophorinae) and Stromboscerinae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 41:413-437

Anon., 1945. Insect Pest Control. Report Dep. Sci. Agric. Barbados 1944-45. Barbados: Dep. Sci. Agric., 14-15.

Aristizábal, L. F., Ospina, K. A., Vallejo, U. A., Henao, E. R., Salgado, M., Arthurs, S. P., 2013. Entomofauna associated with Heliconia spp. (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae) grown in the central area of Colombia. Florida Entomologist, 96(1), 112-119. doi: 10.1653/024.096.0114

Ashby SF, 1917. Leaf-bitten diseases of coconuts. Jamaica Agric. Soc., Kingston, 21(7):269-273

Bennett FD, 1962. An assessment of the damage caused by Diatraea spp. in Grenada, April 1961. Tech. Bull. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 2:87-100

Box HE, 1950. The more important insect pests of sugar cane in northern Venezuela. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 14(1):41-51

Box HE, 1953. List of sugar-cane Insects. London, UK: Commonwealth Institute of Entomology

Broglio SMF, Santos JMdos, Batista NS, Santos JRTdos, Micheletti LB, 2014. Record of species coleoborers attacking banana cultivar 'Terra'. (Registro de espécies de coleobrocas atacando bananeiras da cultivar 'Terra'.) Revista Caatinga, 27(1):200-204. http://periodicos.ufersa.edu.br/revistas/index.php/sistema/article/view/2978/pdf_104

CABI/EPPO, 2007. Metamasius hemipterus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 229 (1st Revision)

Carballo V M, Arias de Lopez M, 1994. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana for the control of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under field conditions. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, 31:22-24

Costa Lima A da, 1956. Insects of Brazil. Volume 10. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Directoria de Estatistica da Produccao, 7-373

Cotterell GS, 1963. The more important insect pests of limited distribution in Africa which attack economic plants, and their world distribution (including a section listing pests of widespread distribution.). Docum. Inter-African Phytosanitary Comm.,63(3)

Cotton RT, 1924. A contribution toward the classification of the weevil larvae of the subfamily Calendrinae, occurring in North America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum No. 2542, 66(5):1-11

Dionisio, L. F. S., Lima, A. C. S., Morais, E. G. F. de, Correia, R. G., Santos, A. V. F. dos, Ximenes, C. K. dos S., 2015. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an oil palm plantation (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) in Roraima. (Distribuição espacial de metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) em Roraima). Agro@mbiente On-line, 9(3), 327-336. doi: 10.18227/1982-8470ragro.v9i3.2517

Edwards WH, 1935. Report of the Government Entomologist. Rep. Dep. Agric. Jamaica 1933, 21-23

Edwards WH, 1939. Report of the Entomologist for the year 1938. Jamaica: Jamaica Department of Agriculture, 65-69

Edwards WH, 1940. The economic significance of pests affecting sugar cane in Jamaica and an outline of surveys in cane fields to investigate conditions which may cause low yields in ratoons. Jamaican Ass. Sugar Techn. Quarterly, 3(4)

EPPO, 2009. Pest Risk Analysis for Metamasius hemipterus. EPPO, Paris, 70 spp

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global Database. Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int

Fancelli M, Borges AL, Ritzinger CHSP, Silva Ddos S, Ringenberg R, 2012. Metamasius hemipterus L. as a pest of bananas cv. Terra. (Metamasius hemipterus L. como praga de bananeiras cv. Terra.) Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 34(3):944-946. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0100-2945&lng=pt&nrm=iso

Fennah RG, 1947. The Insect Pests of Food-Crops in the Lesser Antilles. St. George's, Granada: Department of Agriculture for the Winward Islands; and St. John's, Antigua: Department of Agriculture for the Leeward Islands

Giblin-Davis RM, Oehlschlager AC, Perez A, Gries G, Gries R, Weissling TJ, Chinchilla CM, Pena JE, Hallett RH, Pierce HDJr, Gonzalez LM, 1996. Chemical and behavioral ecology of palm weevils (Curculionidae: Rhynchophorinae). Florida Entomologist, 79(2):153-167; 76 ref

Giblin-Davis RM, Pena JE, Duncan RE, 1994. Lethal pitfall trap for evaluation of semiochemical-mediated attraction of Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist, 77(2):247-255

Giblin-Davis RM, Pena JE, Duncan RE, 1996. Evaluation of an entomopathogenic nematode and chemical insecticides for control of Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 31(3):240-251; 10 ref

Giblin-Davis RM, Pena JE, Oehlschlager AC, Perez AL, 1996. Optimization of semiochemical-based trapping of Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22(8):1389-1410; 11 ref

Hagley EAC, 1964. Role of insects as vectors of red ring disease. Nature, 204(4961):905-906

Hord HHV, Flippen RS, 1956. Studies of banana weevils in Honduras. Journal of Economic Entomology, 49:296-300

Hustache A, 1932. Curculionids of Guadeloupe. In: Gruvel A, ed. Faune des Colonies Frantaises. Volume 5. Paris, France

King ABS, Saunders JL, 1984. The invertebrate pests of annual food crops in Central America. A guide to their recognition and control. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration

Lepesme P, 1947. The insects of Palms. Paris, France: Paul Lechevalier

Lepesme P, Paulian R, 1941. On the presence of Metamasius sericeus Ol. in West Africa (Col. Curculionidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 46(3):31-37

Mauritius, Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, 1989. Annual Report 1988. Reduit, Mauritius, 65 pp

Medler JT, 1980. Insects of Nigeria - check list and bibliography. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, No. 30

Nardon P, Louis C, Nicolas G, Kermarrec A, 1985. Demonstration and study of the symbiotic bacteria in two weevil pests of banana: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) and Metamasius hemipterus (L.) (Col. Curculionidae). Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France, 21(3):245-258

Nihei, S. S., Pavarini, R., 2011. Taxonomic redescription and biological notes on Diaugia angusta (Diptera, Tachinidae): parasitoid of the palm boring weevils Metamasius ensirostris and M. hemipterus (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae). Zookeys, (No.84), 23-38. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/756/taxonomic-redescription-and-biological-notes-on-diaugia-angusta-diptera-tachinidae-parasitoid-of-the-palm-boring-weevils

Nonveiller G, 1969. First results of the entomological inspection of sugarcane plants grown from cuttings imported at N'Kolbisson (Yaounde-Cameroon) with a view of their propagation. Agronomie Tropical, 24:302-304

Nonveiller G, 1984. Catalogue of the insects of agricultural importance of Cameroon. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Institut Pour la Protection des Plantes, 15

O'Brien CW, Thomas MC, 1990. The species of Metamasius in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomology Circular, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, 330

Pena JE, 1995. Update on status of pests of tropical fruit crops in South Florida. 107th Annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society, Orlando, Florida, USA, 30 October - 1 November 1994. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 107:340-342

Pena JE, Gilbin-Davis RM, Duncan R, 1995. Impact of indigenous Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin on banana weevil and rotten sugarcane weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations in banana in Florida. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 12(2/3):163-167

Perez AL, Campos Y, Chinchilla CM, Oehlschlager AC, Gries G, Gries R, Giblin-Davis RM, Castrillo G, Pena JE, Duncan RE, Gonzßlez LM, Pierce HDJr, McDonald R, Andrade R, 1997. Aggregation pheromones and host kairomones of West Indian sugarcane weevil, Metamasius hemipterus sericeus. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23(4):869-888; 33 ref

Posligua, V. A. R., Rojas, J. A. R., Mendoza, K. J. O., 2017. Evaluation of four types of traps for monitoring Metamasius hemipterus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in barraganete plantain. (Evaluación de cuatro tipos de trampas para el monitoreo de Metamasius hemipterus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en plátano barraganete). Centro Agricola, 44(3), 91-93. http://oaji.net/articles/2017/2674-1507919404.pdf

Prando HF, Lichtemberg LA, Hinz RH, 1987. Population fluctuation of the banana borer. Pesquisa em Andamento, Empresa Catarinense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, No. 74

Raigosa J, 1974. New trap design for the control of pests in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Second Congress Soc. Ent. Colombia, 5-24

Ramirez-Lucas P, Rochat D, Zagatti P, 1996. Field trapping of Metamasius hemipterus with synthetic aggregation pheromone. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 80(3):453-460; 30 ref

Risco HS, 1967. Control of the sugar-cane borers D. saccharalis and M. hemipterus in Ecuador. In: Anon., ed. VIIth Latin American meeting on Phytotechnology, 17th - 23rd September 1967. Maracay, Venezuela, 67-68

Rodríguez Rodríguez, J. M., 2010. Biology and spatial distribution of the weevil (Metamasius spp.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a commercial pineapple plantation (Ananas comosus) (l.) Merr. Cutris, San Carlos. (Biología y distribución espacial del picudo (Metamasius spp.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en una plantación comercial de piña (Ananas comosus) (l.) Merr. Cutris, San Carlos). https://repositoriotec.tec.ac.cr/handle/2238/2748?show=full

Rojas T, Goitfa W, 1995. Detection in Venezuela of entomopathogenic fungi attacking Cosmopolites sordidus Germar and Metamasius hemipterus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Boleti^acute~n de Entomologi^acute~a Venezolana, 10(2):211; 4 ref

Rossignoli A CE, 1972. Poison bait-traps against Metamasius hemipterus L. at the Valdez sugar plantation, Ecuador. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 15:165-168

Ruiz, B. A., Martínez, M., Medina, H. H., 2013. Recognition of potentially harmful insects Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (Arecaceae) in the village El Tapón, town of Tado, Choco, Colombia. (Reconocimiento de insectos potencialmente perjudiciales en Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (Arecaceae) en el corregimiento El Tapón, municipio de Tadó-Chocó, Colombia). RIA, Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, 39(2), 198-206. http://www.inta.gov.ar/ediciones/ria/index.htm

Ruiz-Montiel, C., Illescas-Riquelme, C. P., Altamirano Hernández, U., Wallace Jones, R., 2015. New records of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) affecting sugarcane in Veracruz, Mexico. (Nuevos registros de picudos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) afectando caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.) en Veracruz, México). Southwestern Entomologist, 40(2), 427-431. http://www.bioone.org/loi/swen

Simmonds FJ, 1953. Insect pests of sugar-cane in the French Antilles. Tropical Agriculture, 30(4-6):122-127

Sosa OJr, 1995. The West Indian cane weevil and the sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil - likely pests of sugarcane in Florida. Sugar Journal, 58(1):27-29; 4 ref

Sosa OJr, Shine JMJr, Tai PYP, 1997. West Indian cane weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): a new pest of sugarcane in Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(2):634-638; 13 ref

Soto-Hernández, M., Reyes Castillo, P., García Martínez, O., Ordaz Silva, S., 2016. Weevils collected in diverse localities of Mexico (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). (Curculiónidos de diversas localidades de la República Mexicana (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea)). Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 32(1), 62-70. http://www1.inecol.edu.mx/azm/2016/1/08-AZM-32-1-Soto-et-al.pdf

Sudhaus, W., Kiontke, K., Giblin-Davis, R. M., 2011. Description of Caenorhabditis angaria n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), an associate of sugarcane and palm weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Nematology, 13(1), 61-78. doi: 10.1163/138855410X500334

Swabey C, 1935. Notes on insect attack on Mora (Mora excelsa Benth.) in Trinidad. Leaflet For Department of Trinidad and Tobago, No. 9

Tryon H, Benson AH, 1920. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordida, Chevr.). Queensland Agricultural Journal, 13(4):165-168

Vasquez, J., Delgado, C., Couturier, G., Mejia, K., Freitas, L., Castillo, D. del, 2008. Pest insects of the palm tree Mauritia flexuosa L.f., dwarf form, in Peruvian Amazonia. Fruits (Paris), 63(4), 227-238. doi: 10.1051/fruits:2008016

Vaurie P, 1966. A revision of the Neotropical genus Metamasius (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Rhynchophorinae). Species groups I and II. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 131(3):213-337

Walters EA, 1927. Control of insect pests. Report Agriculture Department of St Lucia (1926), 9-10

Whitehead PF, 1991. Some British records of exotic invertebrates. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 127(1520-1523):96

Williams JR, Metcalfe JR, Mungomery RW, Mathes R, 1969. Pests of Sugar Cane. New York, USA: Elsevier Publishing Company

Wilson CE, 1923. Report of the Entomologist. Report Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station (1922), 15-18

Wolcott GN, 1948. The insects of Puerto Rico: Coleoptera. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 32:225-416

Wolcott GN, 1955. Economic Entomology of Puerto Rico. Bull. 125. Est. Exper. Agr., University of Puerto Rico

Woodruff RE, Baranowski RM, 1985. Metamasius hemipterus (Linnpus) recently established in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 272:1-4

Wyniger R, 1962. Pests of crops in warm climates and their control. Basel, Switzerland: Verlag für Recht und Gesellscahft Ag, 179

Zorzenon, F. J., Bergmann, E. C., Bicudo, J. E. A., 2000. Occurrence of Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Metamasius ensirostris (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in palm tree crops (Euterpe and Bactris) in Brazil. (Primeira ocorrência de Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) e Metamasius ensirostris (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) em palmiteiros dos gêneros Euterpe e Bactris (Arecaceae) no Brasil). Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo), 67(2), 265-268.

Distribution References

Alpizar D, Fallas M, Oehlschlager A C, Gonzalez L M, 2012. Management of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus in banana by pheromone-based mass trapping. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 38 (3), 245-252. DOI:10.1007/s10886-012-0091-0

Alpizar D, Fallas M, Oehlschlager A C, Gonzalez L M, Chinchilla C M, Bulgarelli J, 2002. Pheromone mass trapping of the West Indian sugarcane weevil and the American palm weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in palmito palm. Florida Entomologist. 85 (3), 426-430. DOI:10.1653/0015-4040(2002)085[0426:PMTOTW]2.0.CO;2

Anderson R S, 2002. The Dryophthoridae of Costa Rica and Panama: Checklist with keys, new synonymy and descriptions of new species of Cactophagus, Mesocordylus, Metamasius and Rhodobaenus (Coleoptera; Curculionoidea). Zootaxa. 1-94. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.80.1.1

Aragon A R, 2006. Insect diversity studies in the Jibacoa-Hanabanilla region. Guamuhaya Massif. (Estudios de diversidad de insectos en la región JibacoaHanabanilla. Macizo Guamuhaya). Centro Agrícola. 33 (2), 49-56. http://cagricola.uclv.edu.cu/descargas/pdf/V33-Numero_2/cag082061483.pdf

Araujo J J, Keller H A, Hilgert N I, 2018. Management of pindo palm (Syagrus romanzoffianaArecaceae) in rearing of Coleoptera edible larvae bythe Guarani of Northeastern Argentina. Ethnobiology and Conservation. 7 (1), 1-18. DOI:10.15451/ec2018-01-7.01-1-18

Aristizábal L F, Ospina K A, Vallejo U A, Henao E R, Salgado M, Arthurs S P, 2013. Entomofauna associated with Heliconia spp. (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae) grown in the central area of Colombia. Florida Entomologist. 96 (1), 112-119. DOI:10.1653/024.096.0114

Ashby S F, 1917. Leaf-bitten diseases of coconuts. Jamaica Agric. Soc., Kingston. 21 (7), 269-273.

Bennett FD, 1962. An assessment of the damage caused by Diatraea spp. in Grenada, April 1961. In: Tech. Bull. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 2 87-100.

Box H E, 1950. The more important Insect Pests of Sugar Cane in northern Venezuela. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 14 (1), 41-51 pp.

Box H E, 1953. List of sugar-cane Insects. London, UK: Commonwealth Institute of Entomology.

Broglio S M F, Santos J M dos, Batista N S, Santos J R T dos, Micheletti L B, 2014. Record of species coleoborers attacking banana cultivar 'Terra'. (Registro de espécies de coleobrocas atacando bananeiras da cultivar 'Terra'.). Revista Caatinga. 27 (1), 200-204. http://periodicos.ufersa.edu.br/revistas/index.php/sistema/article/view/2978/pdf_104

CABI, EPPO, 2007. Metamasius hemipterus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 229 (1st Revisio. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20073255769

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cl J, Zent E L, Simpson B B, 2009. The importance of traditional ecological knowledge for palm-weevil cultivation in the Venezuelan Amazon. Journal of Ethnobiology. 29 (1), 113-128. DOI:10.2993/0278-0771-29.1.113

Costa Lima A da, 1956. Insects of Brazil., 10 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Directoria de Estatistica da Produccao. 7-373.

Cotterell GS, 1963. The more important insect pests of limited distribution in Africa which attack economic plants, and their world distribution (including a section listing pests of widespread distribution.). In: Docum. Inter-African Phytosanitary Comm. 63 (3)

Dassou A G, Dépigny S, Canard E, Vinatier F, Carval D, Tixier P, 2016. Contrasting effects of plant diversity across arthropod trophic groups in plantain-based agroecosystems. Basic and Applied Ecology. 17 (1), 11-20. DOI:10.1016/j.baae.2015.09.003

Dionisio L F S, Lima A C S, Morais E G F de, Correia R G, Santos A V F dos, Ximenes C K dos S, 2015. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an oil palm plantation (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) in Roraima. (Distribuição espacial de metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) em Roraima.). Agro@mbiente On-line. 9 (3), 327-336. DOI:10.18227/1982-8470ragro.v9i3.2517

Dutrillaux A M, Xie H, Dutrillaux B, 2008. Mitotic and meiotic studies of seven Caribbean weevils: difference of sex bivalent compaction at pachynema between Curculionidae and Dryophthoridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) species. Comparative Cytogenetics. 2 (1), 7-20. http://www.zin.ru/journals/compcyt/pdf/2/dutrillaux.pdf

Edwards W H, 1935. Rep. Dep. Agric. Jamaica 1933. Kingston. 21-23 pp.

Edwards W H, 1939. Report of the Entomologist for the year 1938. Jamaica: Jamaica Department of Agriculture. 65-69.

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