Melastoma malabathricum (Banks melastoma)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Melastoma malabathricum L.
Preferred Common Name
- Banks melastoma
Other Scientific Names
- Melastoma candidum D. Don
International Common Names
- English: pink lasiandra
- French: Melastome du Malabar
Local Common Names
- Germany: Malabar- Erdbeerstrauch
- MESMA (Melastoma malabathricum)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Myrtales
- Family: Melastomataceae
- Genus: Melastoma
- Species: Melastoma malabathricum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
There are differences of opinion on the use of the names Melastoma malabathricum and M. affine. Kostermans et al. (1987) describe M. affine D. Don (= M. polyanthum Bl.) as the weed of rice in Indonesia, giving M. malabathricum as a synonym, but 'auct non L.', that is, it is not the same as M. malabathricum L., though the two are very similar, the Linnaean species differing (only?) in the way flower buds are enclosed by the bracts. In Waterhouse (1994), however, M. affine is given as a synonym for M. malabathricum L. and the illustration of M. affine from Kostermans et al. (1987) is used to illustrate 'M. malabathricum'. It is reported by Kon (1993) that the name for the weedy species should be changed from M. malabathricum to M. affine, but this has not been universally accepted.
DescriptionTop of page M. malabathricum is an evergreen, spreading shrub that is generally 1.8-2.0 m high, with a spread of about 2 m. The stems are erect, branching, slender, 4-sided, scabrous, and densely covered with minute, rigid, appressed, ciliate scales. The leaves are 5-12 cm long, petiolate, blades narrowly elliptical or oblong-elliptical, acute at both ends, conspicuously 3-5 nerved, both surfaces covered with small, stiff, prostrate hairs, upper surface with rows of white cells at the base of the hairs. The flowers are pink, violet or mauve, 7.5 cm across, 3-6, in sessile terminal corymbs, 5-7 parted, subtended by large deciduous bracts; anthers dimorphic; appearing predominantly in summer. The fruit is a berry with red, sweet, astringent pulp, and is covered with the scaly, bristle-tipped calyx, and contains many minute seeds (Adams, 1972; Westbrooks, 1989; Bodkin, 1991).
DistributionTop of page M. malabathricum is native to tropical Asia and Polynesia, and Australia (Adams, 1972; Bodkin, 1991). It was introduced to Hawaii in 1916 as an ornamental (Haselwood and Motter, 1966).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page M. malabathricum is listed as a Federal Noxious Weed in the USA. It is also listed as a state noxious weed in Hawaii. The berries and minute seeds of M. malabathricum are plant parts that may contaminate agricultural products harvested from the same environment (Westbrooks, 1989).
HabitatTop of page M. malabathricum is a plant of secondary forests in the moist tropics of South-East Asia, flourishing in open, disturbed sites associated with plantation crops. It is also found in upland and tidal ricefields and tends to build up to dense, pure stands.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page M. malabathricum is an evergreen shrub that reproduces by berries. The berries are eaten and distributed by birds and are also dispersed by water (Neal, 1965). The plant prefers rich, well-composted, well-drained, moist soils, in a protected sunny site. It is susceptible to drought and frost. Propagation as an ornamental is by seed or cuttings (Bodkin, 1991). According to Neal (1965), the plant is grown as ornamental, has edible fruit, has medicinal value as an astringent, and is used as a dye.
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Natural enemies of M. malabathricum were surveyed in South-East Asia by Krauss (1965). He found 26 insect species associated with this weed, of which three Lepidoptera were selected for introduction into Hawaii for control of the weed. A list of these and other more recent records is included in Waterhouse (1994). These insects do not provide adequate control; however, Waterhouse (1994) suggests that, as it is not an important weed further east in Papua New Guinea, there may be other more effective natural enemies to be found there.
ImpactTop of page M. malabathricum is recognized as an important weed in 1- to 8-year-old plantations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Sumatra, Indonesia (Nazif and Pratiwi, 1989). It is also a primary weed commonly found growing in industrial forest plantations of Benakat, Sumatra, Indonesia. Affected plantations include Acacia crassicarpa, A. leptocarpa, A. mangium, Eucalyptus deglupta, E. urophylla, Gmelina arborea, Peronema canescens, Pinus caribaea and Schima wallichii (Pratiwi and Nazif, 1989).
It is also considered a problem weed in its native range in Malaysia (Ooi, 1992) where it is a weed in pineapple plantations and other cropping situations where Imperata cylindrica is controlled (Yeoh and Pushparajah, 1976; Lee, 1983). In such situations, the establishment of legume cover crops after control of I. cylindrica may overcome the problem (Yeoh, 1980). In Hawaii, it is a weed of pastures and range lands, where it forms dense thickets and crowds out desirable forage (Haselwood and Motter, 1966). M. malabathricum is also a weed of rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, and western Africa (Holm et al., 1977).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Dubautia imbricata subsp. imbricata (bog dubautia)||NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources||NatureServe, 2010|
|Dubautia pauciflorula (Wahiawa Bog dubautia)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources||NatureServe, 2010|
|Phyllostegia wawrana (fuzzystem phyllostegia)||NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009|
|Viola helenae (Wahiawa stream violet)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Impact mechanisms
- Competition - monopolizing resources
Uses ListTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page Fruits and seeds are the parts of the plant that are likely to be intercepted as contaminants of imported commodities (Westbrooks, 1989).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Apart from the confusion between M. malabathricum and M. affine (see Notes on Taxonomy), there do not appear to be problems in distinguishing this species from related or similar weed species.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Triclopyr has apparently been used for control of M. malabathricum (and other shrubs) in Malaysia; a study comparing three methods of application concluded that controlled-droplet application at very low volume required least labour, but that knapsack or power sprayers were more suitable for dense and tall infestations (Ahmad-Faiz, 1989).
In trials in pineapples at three sites in Malaysia, M. malabathricum was best controlled by diuron, this being superior to butralin, atrazine, bromacil and fluometuron (Lee, 1983).
In 1986, a study in Malaysia demonstrated that M. malabathricum is damaged by Altica cyanea feeding; it is thus important to conserve natural reservoirs for biological control agents (Ooi, 1987). In an earlier test in which the insects were caged with leaf cuttings of eggplant, oil palm, and cocoa, there were no signs of feeding injury on any of the plants. In this test, both larvae and adults fed voraciously on leaves of M. malabathricum and proved to be relatively host-specific (Kamarudin and Shah, 1978).
Biological control has been attempted in Hawaii using moths imported from South-East Asia. Two pyralids, Ategumia adipalis from Malaysia (1965) and A. fatualis from the Philippines (1958) became established but are not effective. A noctuid, Rhynchopalpus brunella from Singapore and Malaysia (1965), which damages the foliage and causes dieback, was more successful and provides partial control (Waterhouse, 1994).
ReferencesTop of page
Adams C, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.
Bodkin F, 1991. Encyclopedia Botanica. The essential reference guide to native and exotic plants in Australia. North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia: Cornstalk Publishing.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Gryzenhout M, Rodas CA, Mena Portales J, Clegg P, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, 2006. Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia. Mycological Research, 110(7):833-845. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7XMR-4KH8819-B&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=11&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2329677%232006%23998899992%23628866%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=29677&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=14&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f86373f6c2734887c880398d74885653
Haselwood E, Motter G, 1966. Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds. Hawaii: Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association.
Hiratsuka M, Toma T, Diana R, Hadriyanto D, Morikawa Y, 2006. Biomass recovery of naturally regenerated vegetation after the 1998 forest fire in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 40(3):277-282.
Kostermans AJGH, Wirjahardja S, Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565
Lee S, 1983. Effectiveness of pre-emergence herbicides at three localities in peninsular Malaysia. MARDI Research Bulletin, 11(3):320-327.
Napompeth B, 1990. Country report: Thailand. Biological control of weeds in Thailand. BIOTROP Special Publication, No. 38:23-36; [a symposium on weed management held in Bogor, Indonesia, 7-9 June 1989].
NatureServe, 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer
Nazif M, Pratiwi, 1989. Weed species of Swietenia macrophylla plantations in the reforested area at Benekat, South Sumatra. Buletin Penelitian Hutan Bogor, Indonesia; Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan, No. 520:31-41
Neal M, 1965. In gardens of Hawaii. Special Publication 50. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.
Ooi P, 1992. Biological control of weeds in Malaysian plantations. In: Proceedings of the First International Weed Control Congress, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria, Inc., 248-255.
Pratiwi, Nazif M, 1989. Identification of important weeds in some industrial forest plantations at Benakat, South Sumatra. Buletin Penelitian Hutan Bogor, Indonesia; Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan, No. 519:55-67
Turner I, Ong B, Tan H, 1995. Vegetation analysis, leaf structure and nutrient status of a Malaysian heath community. Biotropica, 27(1):2-12.
Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.
Westbrooks R, 1989. Regulatory exclusion of Federal Noxious Weeds from the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation. Raleigh, North Carolina: Department of Botany, North Carolina State University.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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