Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Melanoplus sanguinipes
(lesser migratory grasshopper)

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Datasheet

Melanoplus sanguinipes (lesser migratory grasshopper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Melanoplus sanguinipes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lesser migratory grasshopper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult female of M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).
TitleAdult female
CaptionAdult female of M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).
CopyrightUniversity of Wyoming
Adult female of M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).
Adult femaleAdult female of M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).University of Wyoming
Adult male M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).
TitleAdult male
CaptionAdult male M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).
CopyrightUniversity of Wyoming
Adult male M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).
Adult maleAdult male M. sanguinipes (laboratory picture).University of Wyoming
Adult male M. sanguinipes in the field.
TitleAdult male
CaptionAdult male M. sanguinipes in the field.
CopyrightUniversity of Wyoming
Adult male M. sanguinipes in the field.
Adult maleAdult male M. sanguinipes in the field.University of Wyoming
Adult male M. sanguinipes in the field.
TitleAdult male
CaptionAdult male M. sanguinipes in the field.
CopyrightUniversity of Wyoming
Adult male M. sanguinipes in the field.
Adult maleAdult male M. sanguinipes in the field.University of Wyoming
Aggregation of M. sanguinipes in the field.
TitleAggregation in the field
CaptionAggregation of M. sanguinipes in the field.
CopyrightUniversity of Wyoming
Aggregation of M. sanguinipes in the field.
Aggregation in the fieldAggregation of M. sanguinipes in the field.University of Wyoming

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)

Preferred Common Name

  • lesser migratory grasshopper

Other Scientific Names

  • Gryllus sanguinipes
  • Melanoplus affinis
  • Melanoplus atlanis (Riley)
  • Melanoplus bilituratus (Walker)
  • Melanoplus devastator
  • Melanoplus mexicanus (Saussure)
  • Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus

International Common Names

  • English: Atlantic locust; devastating grasshopper; lesser migratory locust; migratory grasshopper
  • French: criquet voyageur; petit criquet voyageur; petite locuste voyageuse

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Heuschrecke, Felsengebirgs-

EPPO code

  • MENPDE (Melanoplus devastator)
  • MENPME (Melanoplus mexicanus)
  • MENPSA (Melanoplus sanguinipes)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Orthoptera
  •                         Family: Acrididae
  •                             Genus: Melanoplus
  •                                 Species: Melanoplus sanguinipes

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

CanadaPresentPfadt, 1994
-AlbertaPresentPfadt, 1994
-British ColumbiaPresentPfadt, 1994
-ManitobaPresentPfadt, 1994
-New BrunswickPresentPfadt, 1994
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentPfadt, 1994
-Nova ScotiaPresentPfadt, 1994
-OntarioPresentPfadt, 1994
-Prince Edward IslandPresentPfadt, 1994
-QuebecPresentPfadt, 1994
-SaskatchewanPresentPfadt, 1994
-Yukon TerritoryPresentPfadt, 1994
USAPresentPfadt, 1994
-AlabamaPresentPfadt, 1994
-AlaskaPresentPfadt, 1994
-ArizonaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-ArkansasPresentPfadt, 1994
-CaliforniaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-ColoradoWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-ConnecticutPresentPfadt, 1994
-DelawarePresentPfadt, 1994
-FloridaRestricted distributionPfadt, 1994
-GeorgiaPresentPfadt, 1994
-IdahoWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-IllinoisPresentPfadt, 1994
-IndianaPresentPfadt, 1994
-IowaPresentPfadt, 1994
-KansasWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-KentuckyPresentPfadt, 1994
-LouisianaPresentPfadt, 1994
-MainePresentPfadt, 1994
-MarylandPresentPfadt, 1994
-MassachusettsPresentPfadt, 1994
-MichiganPresentPfadt, 1994
-MinnesotaPresentPfadt, 1994
-MississippiPresentPfadt, 1994
-MissouriPresentPfadt, 1994
-MontanaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-NebraskaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-NevadaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-New HampshirePresentPfadt, 1994
-New JerseyPresentPfadt, 1994
-New MexicoWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-New YorkPresentPfadt, 1994
-North CarolinaPresentPfadt, 1994
-North DakotaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-OhioPresentPfadt, 1994
-OklahomaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-OregonWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-PennsylvaniaPresentPfadt, 1994
-Rhode IslandPresentPfadt, 1994
-South CarolinaPresentPfadt, 1994
-South DakotaWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-TennesseePresentPfadt, 1994
-TexasPresentPfadt, 1994
-UtahWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-VermontPresentPfadt, 1994
-VirginiaPresentPfadt, 1994
-WashingtonWidespreadPfadt, 1994
-West VirginiaPresentPfadt, 1994
-WisconsinPresentPfadt, 1994
-WyomingWidespreadPfadt, 1994

Central America and Caribbean

Dominican RepublicPresentPerez-Gelabert and Otte, 2003

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / shredding
Seeds / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Vegetative organs / external feeding
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acemya tibialis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Acridomyia canadensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aspergillus parasiticus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Nymphs
Blaesoxipha hunteri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blaesoxipha opifera Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blaesoxipha reversa Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ceracia dentata Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Dysartia latigena Predator Adults/Nymphs
Entomophaga calopteni Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Entomophaga grylli Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Goniopsita oophaga Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Linsleya sphaericollis Parasite Eggs
Malamoeba locustae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Metarhizium flavoviride Pathogen
Neorhynchocephalus sackenii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Nosema acridophagus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Nosema cuneatum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Nosema locustae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Canada; Alberta pasture plants
Rickettsiella grylli Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Scelio opacus Parasite Eggs
Spizella pallida Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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Barnes OL, 1955. Effects of food plants on the lesser migratory grasshopper. Journal of Economic Entomology, 48:119-124.

Belovsky GE; Slade JB, 2000. Insect herbivory accelerates nutrient cycling and increases plant production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(26):14412-14417; 41 ref.

Bomar CR; Lockwood JA, 1994. Olfactory basis of cannibalism in grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae): I. Laboratory assessment of attractants. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(9):2249-2260

Branting LK; Hastings JD; Lockwood JA, 1997. Integrating cases and models for prediction in biological systems. AI Applications, 11(1):29-48; 21 ref.

Brett CH, 1947. Interrelated effects of food, temperature, and humidity on the development of the lesser migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus (Saussure) (Orthoptera). Technical Bulletin of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, T-26.

Capinera JL; Sechrist TS, 1982. Grasshoppers (Acrididae) of Colorado: identification, biology and management. Colorado, USA: Colorado State University Experiment Station Fort Collins, v + 161 pp.

Carruthers RI; Onsager JA, 1993. Perspective on the use of exotic natural enemies of biological control of pest grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Environmental Entomology, 22(5):885-903

Chapco W, 1991. Hybridization studies in the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.) (Acrididae). Canadian Entomologist, 123(3):417-423

Davis RM; Skold MD; Berry JS; Kemp WP, 1992. The economic threshold for grasshopper control on public rangelands. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 17(1):56-65

DeBrey LD; Brewer MJ; Lockwood JA, 1993. Rangeland grasshopper management. Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin B-980.

Dempster JP, 1963. The population dynamics of grasshoppers and locusts. Biological Reviews, 38:490-529.

Edwards RL; Epp HT, 1965. Influence of soil moisture and soil type on the oviposition behaviour of migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius). Canadian Entomologist, 97:401-409.

Fielding DJ; Brusven MA, 1992. Food and habitat preferences of Melanoplus sanguinipes and Aulocara elliotti (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on disturbed rangeland in southern Idaho. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3):783-788.

Gurney AB, 1962. On the name of the migratory grasshopper of the United States and Canada, Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 75:189-192.

Hastings JD; Branting LK; Lockwood JA, 1996. A multiple-paradigm system for rangeland pest management. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 16(1):47-67; 30 ref.

Helfer JR, 1987. How to know the grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and their allies. Dover, New York.

Hewitt GB; Onsager JA, 1983. Control of grasshoppers on rangeland in the United States -- a perspective. Journal of Range Management, 6:202-207.

Hilbert DW; Logan JA, 1981. A review of the population biology of the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes. Bulletin, Colorado State University Experiment Station, No. 577S:10 pp.

Hinks CF; Olfert O; Westcott ND; Coxworth EM; Craig W, 1990. Preference and performance in grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae), feeding on kochia, oats, and wheat: implications for population dynamics. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(4):1338-1343

Joern A; Gaines SB, 1990. Population dynamics and regulation in grasshoppers. In: Chapman RF, Joern A, eds. Biology of Grasshoppers, Wiley, New York, 415-482.

Lavigne RJ; Pfadt RE, 1964. The role of rangeland grasshoppers as scavengers. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 37:1-4.

Legg DE; Lockwood JA, 1995. Estimating densities of grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) assemblages: an extension of the binomial sampling technique. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 68(2):178-183

Legg DE; Lockwood JA, 2001. Binomial sequential sampling plans for rangeland grasshoppers. International Journal of Pest Management, 47(1):69-73; 19 ref.

Legg DE; Lockwood JA; Brewer MJ, 1996. Variability in rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) counts when using the standard, visualized-sampling method. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89(5):1143-1150; 16 ref.

Lockwood JA, 1989. Ontogeny of cannibalism in rangeland grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 62(4):534-541

Lockwood JA, 1989. Taxonomic status of the Rocky Mountain locust: morphometric comparisons of Melanoplus spretus (Walsh) with solitary and migratory Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.). Canadian Entomologist, 121(12):1103-1109

Lockwood JA, 1993. Benefits and costs of controlling rangeland grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with exotic organisms: search for a null hypothesis and regulatory compromise. Environmental Entomology, 22(5):904-914

Lockwood JA, 1993. Environmental issues involved in biological control of rangeland grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with exotic agents. Environmental Entomology, 22(3):503-518

Lockwood JA, 1997. Grasshopper population dynamics: a prairie perspective. In: Gangwere SK, Muralirangan MC, Muralirangan, M, eds. Bionomics of grasshoppers and their relatives, CABI, London, 103-128.

Lockwood JA, 1997. Rangeland grasshopper ecology. In: Gangwere SK, Muralirangan MC, Muralirangan, M, eds. Bionomics of grasshoppers and their relatives, CABI, London, 83-102.

Lockwood JA; Anderson-Sprecher R; Schell SP, 2002. When less is more: optimization of reduced agent-area treatments (RAATs) for management of rangeland grasshoppers. Crop Protection, 21(7):551-562; 35 ref.

Lockwood JA; Bomar CR; Ewen AB, 1999. The history of biological control with Nosema locustae: Lessons for locust management. Insect Science and Application, 19:1-17.

Lockwood JA; Narisu; Schell SP; Lockwood DR, 2001. Canola oil as a kairomonal attractant of rangeland grasshoppers: an economical liquid bait for insecticide formulation. International Journal of Pest Management, 47(3):185-194; 30 ref.

Lockwood JA; Schell SP, 1995. Rangeland grasshopper outbreak dynamics: Gradient, eruptive, both, or neither? Journal of Orthoptera Research, 4:35-48.

Lockwood JA; Schell SP, 1997. Decreasing economic and environmental costs through reduced area and agent insecticide treatments (RAATs) for the control of rangeland grasshoppers: Empirical results and their implications for pest management. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 6:19-32.

Lockwood JA; Schell SP; Foster RN; Reuter C; Rachadi T, 2000. Reduced agent-area treatments (RAATs) for management of rangeland grasshoppers: efficacy and economics under operational conditions. International Journal of Pest Management, 46:29-42.

McAnelly L, 1985. The adaptive significance and control of migratory behavior in the grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes. Contributions to Marine Science, 27:687-703.

Mulkern GB; Pruess KP; Knutson H; Hagen AF; Campbell JB; Lambley JD, 1969. Food habits and preferences of grassland grasshoppers of the North Central Great Plains. Bulletin of the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, 481:31pp.

Norelius EE; Lockwood JA, 1999. The effects of reduced agent-area insecticide treatments for rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) control on bird densities. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 37(4):519-528; 46 ref.

O'Neill KM; Woods S; Streett D; O'Neill RP, 1993. Aggressive interactions and feeding success of scavenging grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Environmental Entomology, 22(4):751-758

Onsager JA, 1977. Comparison of five methods for estimating density of rangeland grasshoppers. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(2):187-190

Onsager JA, 1991. Toward an optimum strategy for estimating density of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) from a Poisson distribution. Environmental Entomology, 20(3):939-944

Onsager JA, 2000. Suppression of grasshoppers in the Great Plains through grazing management. Journal of Range Management, 53(6):592-602; 53 ref.

Parker JR; Newton RC; Shotwell RL, 1955. Observations on mass flights and other activities of the migratory grasshopper. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1109.

Perez-Gelabert DE; Otte D, 2003. Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae), a pest grasshopper introduced to Dominican Republic, Hispaniola. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 129(3/4):543-548.

Pfadt RE, 1994. Field guide to the common western grasshoppers. Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 912.

Pfadt RE; Smith DS, 1972. Net reproductive rate and capacity for increase of the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes sanguinipes (F.) Acrida, 1:149-165.

Pickford R, 1972. The effects of climatic factors on egg survival and fecundity in grasshoppers. In: Hemming CF, Taylor TH, eds. Proceedings of the International Conference on Current and Future Problems of Acridology, London.

Pickford R; Gillott C, 1976. Effect of varied copulatory periods of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae) females on egg hatchability and hatchling sex ratios. Canadian Entomologist, 108(3):331-335

Pickford R; Randell RL, 1969. A nondiapause strain of the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Canadian Entomologist, 101:894-896.

Putnam LG, 1963. The progress of nymphal development in pest grasshoppers (Acrididae) of western Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 95:1210-1216.

Randell RL; Mukerji MK, 1974. A technique for estimating hatching of natural egg populations of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Canadian Entomologist, 106(8):801-812

Riegert P; Ewen AB; Lockwood JA, 1997. A history of chemical control of grasshoppers and locusts 1940-1990. In: Gangwere SK, Muralirangan MC, Muralirangan, M, eds. Bionomics of grasshoppers and their relatives, CABI, London, 385-406.

Riegert PW, 1961. Embryological development of a non-diapause form of Melanoplus bilituratus Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 39:1046-1051.

Rodell CF, 1977. A grasshopper model for a grassland ecosystem. Ecology, 58(2):227-245

Rogers LE; Uresk DW, 1974. Food plant selection by the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) within a cheatgrass community. Northwest Science, 48:230-234.

Scharff DK, 1954. The role of food plants and weather in the ecology of Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus (Sauss.). Journal of Economic Entomology, 47:485-489.

Scharff DK, 1961. Ecology of the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus bilituratus) on Montana grasslands. PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Schell SP; Lockwood JA, 1997. Landsat thermal band aids in rangeland grasshopper detection. EOSAT Notes, 12:7-10.

Schell SP; Lockwood JA, 1997. Spatial analysis of ecological factors related to rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) outbreaks in Wyoming. Environmental Entomology, 26(6):1343-1353; 47 ref.

Schell SP; Lockwood JA, 1997. Spatial characteristics of rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) population dynamics in Wyoming: implications for pest management. Environmental Entomology, 26(5):1056-1065; 38 ref.

Shotwell RL, 1941. A study of the lesser migratory grasshopper. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 190.

Smith DS, 1959. Utilization of food plants by the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus biluturatus (Walker) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), with some observations on the nutritional value of the plants. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 52:674-680.

Smith DS, 1970. Crowding in grasshoppers I: effect of crowding within one generation on Melanoplus sanguinipes. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63:1775-1776.

Smith DS, 1970. Crowding in grasshoppers II: continuing effects of crowding on subsequent generations of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Environmental Entomology, 1:314-317.

Streett DA; McGuire MR, 1990. Pathogenic diseases of grasshoppers. In: Chapman RF, Joern A, eds. Biology of Grasshoppers, Wiley, New York, 483-516.

Sutton BD; Carlson DA; Lockwood JA; Nunamaker RA, 1996. Cuticular hydrocarbons of glacially-preserved Melanoplus (Orthoptera: Acrididae): Identification by GC/MS and comparison with hydrocarbons of Melanoplus sanguinipes and Melanoplus spretus. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 5:1-12.

Thompson DC, 1987. Sampling rangeland grasshoppers. In: Capinera JL, ed. Integrated pest management on rangeland: a shortgrass perspective. Westview Press, Boulder, USA, 219-233.

Zimmerman KM, 2000. A spatial model for Markov chain analysis of grasshopper population dynamics in Wyoming. MS thesis, University of Wyoming.

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