Invasive Species Compendium

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Meligethes aeneus
(rape beetle)

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Datasheet

Meligethes aeneus (rape beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meligethes aeneus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rape beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Larvae of M. aeneus on rape.
TitleLarvae
CaptionLarvae of M. aeneus on rape.
CopyrightAgrEvo
Larvae of M. aeneus on rape.
LarvaeLarvae of M. aeneus on rape.AgrEvo
M. aeneus adult, revealing clubbed antenae.
TitleAdult
CaptionM. aeneus adult, revealing clubbed antenae.
CopyrightAgrEvo
M. aeneus adult, revealing clubbed antenae.
AdultM. aeneus adult, revealing clubbed antenae.AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meligethes aeneus Fabricius, 1775

Preferred Common Name

  • rape beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Dermestes psyllius Herbst, 1784
  • Meligethes aeneus var. californicus Reitter, 1871
  • Meligethes aeneus var. coeruleus Reitter, 1871
  • Meligethes aeneus var. rotundangulus Ganglbauer, 1899
  • Meligethes aeneus var. rubripennis Reitter, 1871
  • Meligethes aeneus var. semiaeneus Ganglbauer, 1899
  • Meligethes asperrimus Guillebeau, 1897
  • Meligethes australis Küster, 1848
  • Meligethes bonvouloiri C. Brisout de Barneville, 1872
  • Meligethes boops Easton, 1957
  • Meligethes brassicae Reitter, 1875
  • Meligethes cleominis Easton, 1959
  • Meligethes dauricus Motschulsky, 1849
  • Meligethes minor Rey, 1889
  • Meligethes moerens LeConte, 1857
  • Meligethes mutatus Harold, 1868
  • Meligethes nigricornis Stephens, 1830
  • Meligethes peristericus Roubal, 1943
  • Meligethes pubens Rey, 1889
  • Meligethes ruficornis LeConte, 1859
  • Meligethes rufimanus LeConte, 1857
  • Meligethes urticae Stephens, 1830
  • Meligethes viridipennis Motschulsky, 1860
  • Nitidula aenea Fabricius, 1775
  • Nitidula aeneus Fabricius
  • Nitidula alpestris Heer, 1841
  • Nitidula coerulea Marsham, 1802
  • Nitidula latipes Marsham, 1802
  • Nitidula nigrina Marsham, 1802
  • Nitidula pedicularia var. B Paykull, 1798
  • Nitidula subtilis Waltl, 1838
  • Scarabaeus florilegulus Fourcroy, 1785

International Common Names

  • English: beetle, rape; blossom beetle; pollen beetle; rape blossom beetle
  • Spanish: escarabajo o meliguete de la colza; escarabajuelo de los nabos
  • French: méligèthes des crucifères; méligèthes du colza

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: glimmerboesse; Glimmerbøsse
  • Estonia: naeri-hiilamardikas
  • Finland: rapsikuoriainen; rapsikuoriainen
  • Germany: Glanzkaefer, Raps-; Glimmerbossen; Rapsglanzkäfer
  • Italy: meligete della colza
  • Netherlands: Koolzaadglanskever
  • Norway: rapsglansbille
  • Sweden: rapsbaggar; rapsbagge

EPPO code

  • MELIAE (Meligethes aeneus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Nitidulidae
  •                             Genus: Meligethes
  •                                 Species: Meligethes aeneus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page This species has been known consistently as Meligethes aeneus in Europe since the nineteenth century and there has been little confusion over its identity this century. However, the separation of specimens from Asia and western North America is a matter of debate. Easton (1955) regarded the western North American specimens as belonging to a distinct species, M. rufimanus LeConte, with the Asian specimens as a subspecies, M. rufimanus dauricus Motschulsky. As Motschulsky's name is older, it has priority and Easton (1959) later corrected the western North American species to M. dauricus, with M. rufimanus as a synonym. Kirejtshuk (1992) treated dauricus as a subspecies of aeneus, with rufimanus in synonymy and Audisio (1993) listed all the names in synonymy with M. aeneus. Key works by which the species can be identified include Easton (1955), Kirk-Spriggs (1996), Spornraft (1967), Kirejtshuk (1992) and Audisio (1993). A simplified key to adults and larvae is included in Alford et al. (2003).

Description

Top of page A very detailed description with figures of the immature stages of M. aeneus was given by Osborne (1965), from which the following is a brief summary.

Eggs

Length 0.81 mm, breadth 0.29 mm. Cylindrical, rounded at both ends, greyish-white but becoming milky as development occurs. Chorion smooth and shiny.

Larvae

The final instar larva is elongate, up to 4.4 mm long, somewhat depressed and with the body milky white, the head black and prognathous (pointing forwards). The pronotal shield is dark brown to black and irregularly sclerotized. The other segments have a pair of small, rounded, brownish-black dorsolateral plates and a pair of smaller dorsomedian plates, the latter being fused together and increasing in size from abdominal segment IV. Ninth abdominal segment with weak, broadly rounded urogomphi.

Pupae

Average length 2.35 mm. Creamy-white, oval in outline, depressed in abdominal region. Head strongly deflexed ventrally, concealed from above by pronotum, setae around margins of pronotum and abdomen.

Adults

Length 1.9-2.7 mm, oval in shape, broadly rounded anteriorly and posteriorly, with head relatively broad. Head and body black with distinct metallic greenish, bluish or purplish sheen, legs slightly paler, especially anterior tibiae pitchy to dark yellowish. Antennae about as long as head width, with the apical three segments forming a distinct, oval, compact club. Anterior tibiae with outer edge finely toothed. Middle femora simple, without tooth on lower edge at apical third.

For critical identification of Meligethes species, it is necessary to examine the male genitalia and the female ovipositor. Recent key works (Audisio, 1993; Kirk-Spriggs, 1996) figure both male and female genitalia, while Spornraft (1967) figured the male genitalia.

Distribution

Top of page M. aeneus is a common and widespread species throughout most of the Holarctic Region. Audisio (1993) gave its distribution as the whole of Europe, North Africa, eastwards through Central Asia to the Russian Far East and Mongolia, and in the western states of North America as far south as the north of Mexico. The Asian and North American populations have been regarded as separate subspecies or as valid species by some previous authors (see Notes on Taxonomy).

Countries indicated within the range of M. aeneus by Audisio (1993) but for which published records have not been located so far include several of the Caucasus and Central Asian countries (former states of the Soviet Union), some Middle Eastern countries, parts of North Africa (Egypt, Libya), and some of the smaller European and Mediterranean countries.

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of M. aeneus from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the list of countries (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanRestricted distributionEaston, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2001
ChinaWidespreadHe-ChunGui, 2001
-GansuPresentHe-ChunGui, 2001
JordanWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
KazakhstanPresentKirejtshuk, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MongoliaPresentKirejtshuk, 1992; Audisio, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
TurkeyPresentJelínek, 1967; Kismir, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Africa

AlgeriaPresentEaston, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MoroccoWidespreadEaston, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIsraelson et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2001
TunisiaWidespreadEaston, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2001

North America

CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-AlbertaPresentBousquet, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-British ColumbiaPresentEaston, 1955; Bousquet, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ManitobaPresentEaston, 1955; Bousquet, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SaskatchewanPresentEaston, 1955; Bousquet, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MexicoRestricted distributionConnell, 1970; Audisio, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-ArizonaWidespreadEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-CaliforniaWidespreadEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ColoradoWidespreadEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IdahoPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-KansasPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MontanaPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-NebraskaPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-NevadaPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New MexicoPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OregonPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-UtahWidespreadEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WashingtonPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WyomingPresentEaston, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Europe

AlbaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
AustriaPresentLucht, 1987; Berger, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
BelarusPresentLipa and Hokkanen, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
BelgiumPresentLucht, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
BulgariaPresentPopov, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2001
CroatiaPresentCiglar and Schmidt, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001
CyprusPresentGeorghiou, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Czech RepublicWidespreadLaska, 1992; Jelínek, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadLucht, 1987; Jelínek, 1993
DenmarkWidespreadSilfverberg, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
EstoniaWidespreadSilfverberg, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Kevvai et al., 2005
FinlandWidespreadSilfverberg, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
FranceWidespreadLucht, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-CorsicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
GermanyWidespreadLucht, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
GibraltarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
HungaryWidespreadAudisio, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001
IrelandWidespreadKirk-Spriggs, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
ItalyWidespreadAudisio, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
LatviaPresentSilfverberg, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
LithuaniaPresentSilfverberg, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MacedoniaPresentJelínek, 1965; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MoldovaPresentTimus and Croitoru, 2008
NetherlandsPresentLucht, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
NorwayPresentSilfverberg, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PolandWidespreadLucht, 1987; Burdajewicz and Nowacka, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-AzoresRestricted distributionIsraelson, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2001
RomaniaPresentPerju et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-Central RussiaPresentIssi et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Russian Far EastPresentKirejtshuk, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SiberiaPresentKirejtshuk, 1992
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
SerbiaPresentVukovic et al., 2007
SlovakiaWidespreadJelínek, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SpainWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
-Balearic IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
SwedenWidespreadNilsson, 1987; Nilsson, 1988; Silfverberg, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SwitzerlandPresentLucht, 1987; Buchi, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2001
UKWidespreadFowler, 1889; Kirk-Spriggs, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Channel IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-England and WalesWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
UkrainePresentKapustyan and Moiseenko, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Yugoslavia (former)PresentJelínek, 1965; Maceljski et al., 1980
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2001

Risk of Introduction

Top of page As larvae are short-lived, and pupate in the soil, phytosanitary risks for larvae are negligible. However, adults are long-lived and the only overwintering stage. They are readily attracted to a wide range of flowers and may be exported accidentally. Hoebeke and Wheeler (1996) noted that from 1967-77, specimens of M. aeneus had been intercepted at major ports in the USA on at least 11 occasions from produce from the UK (England), Germany, Denmark, Norway, France, the Netherlands and Poland.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The major hosts for M. aeneus in Europe are various Brassica and Sinapis species. It is as a pest of rape that the species is best known. Host plant quality affects egg size (Ekbom and Popov, 2004). However, at times of the year when its breeding hosts are not in flower, it will feed from the flowers of an enormous range of plant species, especially in early spring and late summer, and has been reported as a pest of strawberry (Cross and Easterbrook, 1998).

In North America, wild hosts include Cleome and Isomeris species.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage

Symptoms

Top of page The most obvious sign of attack is the presence of shiny black beetles crawling around the flowers of the host plant. Holes in the buds indicate where adults have fed on or laid their eggs in the buds. Severe damage to buds can cause the buds to drop leaving podless stalks (Williams and Free, 1978). Feeding in the flowers is restricted to the pollen-bearing stamens and few visible symptoms are apparent.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The biology and ecology of M. aeneus is reviewed by Alford et al. (2003). The species is univoltine. Adults emerge in spring after overwintering in woodland and other sheltered uncultivated sites. They fly actively when temperatures exceed 12-15°C, often feeding on the pollen of any available flowers before locating their breeding hosts (mainly Brassica and Sinapis species in Europe) (Free and Williams, 1978; Williams and Free, 1978). Eggs are laid in buds at least 3 mm long. Oviposition rates and egg load dynamics have been studied by Ekbom and Ferdinand (2003). The larvae feed on pollen in flowers (Cook et al., 2002, 2004) taking 9-13 days to complete two larval instars (Osborne, 1965). The full-grown larva then drops to the ground, burying itself in the soil and forming an earthen cell in which to pupate. The new adults emerge later, and feed on pollen from any available flowers before once more seeking overwintering sites. The spatial distribution of M. aeneus on crops is usually complex and irregular (Free and Williams, 1979; Ferguson et al., 2003).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aneuclis incidens Parasite Larvae
Anncaliia meligethii Pathogen Adults
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Brachyserphus parvulus Parasite Larvae
Cerchysiella planiscutellum Parasite Larvae
Diospilus capito Parasite Larvae
Diospilus oleraceus Parasite Larvae
Eubazus sigalphoides Parasite Larvae
Haplosporidium meligethi Pathogen Adults
Leiophron laeviventris Parasite Larvae
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Larvae
Nosema meligethi Pathogen Adults
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Phradis interstitialis Parasite Larvae
Phradis morionellus Parasite Larvae
Steinernema feltiae Pathogen Larvae
Tersilochus Parasite Eggs/Larvae
Tersilochus heterocerus Parasite Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Lists of natural enemies were given by Osborne (1960), Audisio (1993) and Kirk-Spriggs (1996).The role of natural enemies for control of M. aeneus in oilseed rape is reviewed in Alford (2003) with a chapter on parasitoids by Nilsson (2003), on predators by Büchs and Alford (2003), and on pathogens by Hokkanen et al. (2003).

The Hymenopteran endoparasitoids attacking M. aeneus belong to the families Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Proctotrupidae and Encyrtidae; a key to those associated with oilseed rape pests including M. aeneus has been published by Vidal (2003). Parasitism rates are generally less than 30%. Parasitism rates and non-cropped area have been found to be positively correlated in different agricultural landscapes (Thies et al., 2003).

Osborne (1960) described the eggs, larvae and biology of some parasitoids found in the UK. He also noted unidentified Protozoa and Nematoda inside the body of adult M. aeneus, and Acari attached externally.

Predation of adult and pupal M. aeneus in Europe by ground beetles (Carabidae, Pterostichini), staphylinid beetles and spiders (Aranei) can be a significant mortality factor (Basedow, 1973; Büchs and Alford, 2003).

Protozoan parasites/pathogens in adult M. aeneus have been described by Lipa and Hokkanen (1991) and Issi et al. (1993).

All the natural enemies listed are indigenous and there do not appear to be any examples of exotic species being deliberately introduced for biological control. However, there is considerable current interest in conservation biological control by integrating naturally-occurring key natural enemies of M. aeneus into integrated pest management strategies for oilseed rape. The natural incidence of pathogens in rape fields is usually low; augmentation of pathogens, particularly of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae is being investigated (Williams, 2004) and the former has been successfully disseminated by the honey bee to the flowering canopy of oilseed rape to infect adult M. aeneus (Butt et al., 1998).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page M. aeneus is widespread and abundant throughout Europe where it is a major pest of Brassica crops, particularly oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) (Alford et al., 2003). Although it feeds from the flowers of many different plant species, it breeds only on cruciferous species and spreads rapidly to new rape-growing areas. The feeding activities of large numbers of new generation M. aeneus emerging in mid-summer can be of nuisance value to gardeners and ornamental plant growers. They can reach pest status on some flowering crops such as strawberries (Cross and Easterbrook, 1998) and runner beans at this time.

Adult feeding damage to buds can cause them to abort, thus reducing yields of seeds (Williams and Free, 1978; Nilsson, 1987, 1988). However, because of plant compensation, yields are affected only above 60% pod loss (Williams and Free, 1979). Larvae also feed on pollen (Cook et al., 2004) and nectar. Winter rape is affected less than spring rape because it usually starts to flower before the beetles are active, but the latter is much more heavily attacked. In Denmark, Hansen (2004) has reported that 80% yield reduction can occur. He has calculated that the economic damage threshold of 5% of yield can be exceeded by 0.1-3 M. aeneus per plant, depending on rainfall.

Flower visiting insects, including M. aeneus, are probably important pollinating agents (Williams, 1985).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Methods of sampling, trapping and rearing M. aeneus are reviewed by Williams et al. (2003). The presence of M. aeneus on a crop can most readily be determined by inspecting the flowers or by tapping inflorescences over a tray or sheet. Yellow water traps (some baited with plant volatiles) and sweep-netting are also often used for monitoring.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page In the western Palaearctic, Meligethes viridescens is a very similar, metallic species, which can be easily separated from M. aeneus by having a small projecting tooth on the lower edge of the middle femur. It also has a brighter colour, paler legs on average and finer dorsal punctures. Other similar species occur in the eastern Palaearctic (Kirejtshuk, 1992) and in North America (Easton, 1955).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

Hokkanen et al. (1986) described the use of trap crops to help protect cauliflowers and spring rape in southern Finland. Some trials showed that almost complete protection was possible, but this depended on being able to produce a trap crop in flower before the main crop, which could be difficult to time accurately. For cauliflower protection, the most attractive trap crops were Chinese cabbage, broccoli and rape. The trap crops were sprayed with insecticide, usually deltamethrin, when the pollen beetle numbers reached such a level that emigration onto the main crop was likely. During peak activity, spraying about twice a week was necessary. Crop losses were reduced from the 20-40% observed without a trap to 3-15% with the traps. For spring sown rape, earlier flowering varieties or winter rape was used as a trap in experimental plots. If the trap flowered at the right time before the main crop, savings of 50-95% in pesticide use were possible. There is currently renewed interest in the potential for exploiting pest preferences for host plant and growth stage to develop trap crop strategies which concentrate the pest onto early flowering rape and away from the damage-susceptible growth stage of oilseed rape (e.g. Nerad and Vasak, 2000; Frearson et al., 2005; Cook et al., 2006).

Research aimed at breeding cultivars of oilseed rape resistant to M. aeneus, by investigating pest responses to the glucosinolate content of different cultivars or other host plants have so far not shown a clear relationship between pest incidence and glucosinolate profile (e.g. Milford et al., 1989; Hopkins et al., 1998).

Chemical Control

The OEPP (2005) describe the conduct of trials for the efficacy evaluation of insecticides against M. aeneus on rape. Pyrethroid insecticides have been preferred for control of M. aeneus in recent years to reduce the effect on nontarget organisms. However, the recent and widespread development of resistance to pyrethroids in M. aeneus in mainland Europe (e.g. Hansen, 2003) has made more urgent the need for control strategies that minimise insecticide use on oilseed rape and optimise biological control (Williams, 2004; Frearson et al., 2005; Cook et al., 2006). Phenological studies show that pyrethroid applications during flowering threaten parasitoid populations that are important to biological control (Ferguson et al., 2003).

A PC-based decision support system (ProPlant) has been developed in Germany for the crop covering six pests, including M. aeneus (Johnen and Meier, 2000). It takes into account pest numbers on the crop as well as weather-based forecasts of flight conditions, egg-laying periods and larval development to determine the need and timing of insecticide applications.

Integrated Pest Management

There is considerable current interest in conservation biological control by integrating key natural enemies of M. aeneus into integrated pest management strategies for oilseed rape (Williams, 2004). Ploughing is known to kill overwintering parasitoids of M. aeneus (Nilsson, 1985); minimal tillage techniques that improve their survival are being reinvestigated (Wahmhoff et al., 1999; Williams, 2004). Phenological models for parasitoids are being developed for integration into the PC-based decision support system (ProPlant) developed in Germany for pests of oilseed rape including M. aeneus (Johnen and Meier, 2000). The natural incidence of pathogens in rape fields is usually low; augmentation of pathogens, particularly of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae is being investigated (Williams, 2004), and the former has been successfully disseminated by the honey bee to the flowering canopy of oilseed rape to infect adult M. aeneus (Butt et al., 1998). There are also reports that the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has been used with some success against M. aeneus (Prishchepa and Mikulskaya, 1998; Hokkanen et al., 2003).

References

Top of page

Alford D Nilsson C; Ulber B, 2003. Insect pests of oilseed rape crops. Chapter 2 In: Alford DV, ed. Biocontrol of Oilseed Rape Pests. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, 9-41.

Alford DV, 2003. Biocontrol of Oilseed Rape Pests. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Alford DV; Nilsson C; Ulber B, 2003. Insect pests of oilseed rape crops. In: Alford DV, ed. Biocontrol of oilseed rape pests. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, 355 pp.

Audisio P, 1980. Fénybogarak - Nitidulidae. Fauna Hungariae 140, VIII Kötet, Coleoptera III. Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiado.

Audisio P, 1993. Coleoptera Nitidulidae-Kateretidae Fauna d'Italia Vol. XXXII. Bologna, Italy: Edizioni Calderini.

Basedow T, 1973. The influence of predatory arthropods of the soil surface on the abundance of phytophagous insects in agriculture. Pedobiologia, 13:410-422

Berger HK, 1991. Oilseed rape in Austria - pest problems. Bulletin SROP, 14(6):14-20

Bousquet Y (ed.), 1991. Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Publication - Agriculture Canada (English ed.), No. 1861/E:vi + 430 pp.

Buchi R, 1989. Models for the distribution of the rape blossom beetle, Meligethes pneus F., on rape and turnip rape plants. Journal of Applied Entomology, 108(4):363-371

Burdajewicz S; Nowacka W, 1994. Chrzaszcze (Coleoptera) odlowione w uprawach nasiennych roslin ogrodniczuch. Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu, Ogrodnictwo, 22:11-17.

Butt TM; Carreck NL; Ibrahim L; Williams IH, 1998. Honey-bee-mediated infection of pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus Fab.) by the insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 8(4):533-538; 22 ref.

Büchs W; Alford D, 2003. Predators of oilseed rape pests. Chapter 12 , In: Alford D V, ed, Biocontrol of Oilseed Rape Insect Pests. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, 181-200.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Meligethes aeneus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 619. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ciglar I; Schmidt L, 1983. Insect fauna of the apple orchard 'Borinci' - Vinkovci, Croatia, Yugoslavia. Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica, 19(1/2):83-90

Connell WA, 1970. Comments about Easton's revision of the Nearctic Meligethes (Nitidulidae). Coleopterists' Bulletin, 24:33-34.

Cook S; Bartlet E; Murray DA; Williams IH, 2002. The role of pollen odour in the attraction of pollen beetles to oilseed rape flowers. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 104: 43-50.

Cook SM; Murray DA; Williams IH, 2004. Do pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus) need pollen? The effect of pollen on oviposition, survival and development of a flower-feeding herbivore. Ecological Entomology, 29(2): 164-173.

Cook SM; Smart LE; Martin JL; Murray DA; Watts NP; Williams IH, 2006. Exploitation of host plant preferences in crop protection strategies for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, in press.

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