Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Melanaphis sacchari
(yellow sugarcane aphid)



Melanaphis sacchari (yellow sugarcane aphid)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Melanaphis sacchari
  • Preferred Common Name
  • yellow sugarcane aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Infestation of the sugarcane aphid, M. sacchari.
TitleInfestation by M. sacchari
CaptionInfestation of the sugarcane aphid, M. sacchari.
Infestation of the sugarcane aphid, M. sacchari.
Infestation by M. sacchariInfestation of the sugarcane aphid, M. sacchari. ICRISAT


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow sugarcane aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis pheidolei Theobald, 1916
  • Aphis sacchari Zehntner
  • Aphis sorghella Schouteden, 1906
  • Aphis sorghi Theobald, 1904
  • Longiunguis sacchari (Zehntner)
  • Melanaphis sorghi (Theobald)
  • Rhopalosiphum sacchari (Zehntner)
  • Sipha sacchari (Zehntner)
  • Uraphis sorghi (Theobald)

International Common Names

  • English: cane aphid; dura asyl fly; green sugarcane aphid; grey aphid; sorghum aphid; sorghum aphid; sugar cane aphid; sugarcane aphid
  • Spanish: afido del sorgo; afido verde de la caña de azúcar; pulgón verde de la caña
  • French: puceron du sorgho
  • Portuguese: pulgao da cana

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattlaus, Gelbe Hirse-; Blattlaus, Gruene Zuckerrohr-; Blattlaus, Weisse Hirse-
  • Iran: schatte neyschekar
  • Japan: Kansyo-aburamusi

EPPO code

  • APHISH (Aphis sacchari)
  • RHOPSA (Rhopalosiphum sacchari)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Melanaphis
  •                                         Species: Melanaphis sacchari

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentCIE, 1981
BhutanWidespreadAgarwala, 1983
ChinaWidespreadCMI, 1981; Zhang and Zhong, 1983; APPPC, 1987
-AnhuiWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-GuangdongWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-HebeiWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-HeilongjiangWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-HenanWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-HubeiWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-JiangsuWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-JilinWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-LiaoningWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-Nei MengguWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-ShaanxiWidespreadNiu, 1987
-ShandongWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-ShanxiWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-YunnanWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
-ZhejiangWidespreadZhang and Zhong, 1983
IndiaWidespreadCIE, 1981; Zhang and Zhong, 1983
-Andhra PradeshPresentCIE, 1981
-Arunachal PradeshPresentKondaiah and Nayudu, 1984
-BiharPresentAhmad and Singh, 1997
-GujaratPresentCIE, 1981
-Indian PunjabPresentCIE, 1981
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhagat, 1981
-KarnatakaPresentCIE, 1981
-Madhya PradeshPresentCIE, 1981
-MaharashtraPresentCIE, 1981
-OdishaRestricted distributionPatnaik et al., 1977; CIE, 1981
-SikkimPresentAgarwala et al., 1983
-Tamil NaduPresentDavid and Sandhu, 1976; CIE, 1981
-Uttar PradeshPresentShuja Uddin, 1970; Rizvi, 1976; CIE, 1981
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1981; Agarwala et al., 1983
IndonesiaWidespreadCIE, 1981; Zhang and Zhong, 1983; APPPC, 1987
-JavaPresentBODENHEIMER and SWIRSKI, 1957; CIE, 1981
-SumatraPresentCIE, 1981
IranPresentCIE, 1981
IraqPresentCIE, 1981
IsraelPresentCIE, 1981
JapanWidespreadCIE, 1981; Zhang and Zhong, 1983
-KyushuPresentCIE, 1981
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCIE, 1981
-ShikokuPresentCIE, 1981
Korea, DPRWidespreadPaik, 1966; Zhang and Zhong, 1983
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadPaik, 1966; Zhang and Zhong, 1983; APPPC, 1987
LaosPresentBlackman & Eastop, 2000
MalaysiaWidespreadBlackman & Eastop, 1981; CIE, 1981
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCIE, 1981
-SarawakPresentCIE, 1981
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse, 1993
NepalPresentCIE, 1981
PakistanPresentCIE, 1981; Hamid, 1987
PhilippinesWidespreadBlack & Eastop, 1981; CIE, 1981
Saudi ArabiaPresentCIE, 1981
SingaporePresentWaterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1981
TaiwanWidespreadCIE, 1981; Zhang and Zhong, 1983
ThailandWidespreadBlackman & Eastop, 1981; CIE, 1981; APPPC, 1987
VietnamPresentCIE, 1981
YemenPresentCIE, 1981


AngolaPresentCIE, 1981
BeninPresentCIE, 1981
BotswanaWidespreadCIE, 1981; Sithole et al., 1987
BurundiPresentMillar, 1994
CameroonPresentCIE, 1981
Central African RepublicPresentMillar, 1994
ChadPresentCIE, 1981
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCIE, 1981
Côte d'IvoirePresentCIE, 1981
EgyptPresentCIE, 1981
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1981
GambiaPresentCIE, 1981
KenyaPresentCIE, 1981
LesothoPresentCIE, 1981; Sithole et al., 1987
MadagascarPresentCIE, 1981
MalawiPresentCIE, 1981
MaliPresentCIE, 1981
MauritiusPresentCIE, 1981
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1981
NamibiaPresentCIE, 1981
NigeriaPresentCIE, 1981
RéunionPresentCIE, 1981
SenegalPresentCIE, 1981
Sierra LeonePresentCIE, 1981
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1981
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1981; Rensburg and Malan, 1982
SudanPresentBODENHEIMER and SWIRSKI, 1957; CIE, 1981
SwazilandPresentSithole et al., 1987
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1981
TogoPresentCIE, 1981
UgandaPresentCIE, 1981
ZambiaPresentMillar, 1994
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1981; Sithole et al., 1987

North America

MexicoPresentRodríguez-del-Bosque and Terán, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaWidespreadLockhart et al., 1992
-HawaiiPresentBlackman & Eastop, 2000; Zimmerman, 1948
-LouisianaPresentWhite et al., 2001

Central America and Caribbean

GrenadaPresentCIE, 1981
GuadeloupePresentDaugrois et al., 1999
HaitiPresentCIE, 1981
JamaicaPresentCIE, 1981
MartiniquePresentDaugrois et al., 1999
Puerto RicoPresentCIE, 1981
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCPPC; CIE, 1981
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCIE, 1981

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionDelfino, 1984
BrazilPresentCPPC; Bastos, 1978; CIE, 1981
ColombiaPresentCPPC; CIE, 1981
EcuadorPresentCIE, 1981
GuyanaPresentCPPC; CIE, 1981
PeruPresentCIE, 1981
SurinamePresentCPPC; CIE, 1981
UruguayRestricted distributionDelfino, 1984
VenezuelaRestricted distributionCPPC; CIE, 1981; Sanchez and Cermeli, 1987


SpainWidespreadSeco et al., 1992


AustraliaPresentBlackman & Eastop, 1981; Denmark, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2016
-Australian Northern TerritoryAbsent, invalid recordDenmark, 1988
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2016
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2016
-South AustraliaAbsent, invalid recordDenmark, 1988
-TasmaniaAbsent, invalid recordDenmark, 1988
-VictoriaAbsent, invalid recordDenmark, 1988
-Western AustraliaAbsent, invalid recordDenmark, 1988
Papua New GuineaPresentCIE, 1981

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / necrotic areas

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphelinus desantisi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Brumoides lineatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ceraeochrysa cubana Predator Cortez-Mondaca et al., 2016
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa orestes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coelophora inaequalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii sugarcane
Coelophora saucia Predator Adults/Nymphs
Diomus notescens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia sophia Parasite
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hyperaspis reppensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon aegyptius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon scutellaris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Leiocyrtus aphidivorus Parasite
Lysiphlebia mirzai Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus delhiensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus mirzai Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs Hawaii sugarcane
Micromus timidus Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii sugarcane
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius sauteri Predator
Paragus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Platyomus lividigaster Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pseudaspidimerus trinotatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnodes lividigaster Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii sugarcane
Scymnus babai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria macrogaster Predator Adults/Nymphs


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Agarwala BK, 1983. Notes on some aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) affecting economically important plants in Bhutan. Indian Agriculturist, 27(3):261-262.

Agarwala BK, Dutta S, Raychaudhuri DN, 1983. An account of syrphid (Diptera: Syrphidae) predators of aphids available in Darjeeling District of West Bengal and Sikkim. Pranikee, 4:238-244.

Agarwala BK, Raychaudhuri DN, 1981. New records of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Bhutan. Entomon, 6(3):225-227

Ahmad ME, Singh R, 1997. Records of aphids and their food plants, parasitoids and hyperparasitoids from North Bihar. Journal of Advanced Zoology, 18(1):54-61.

Alexander KC, Rao MMadhusudhan, 1977. Secondary spread of mosaic disease of sugarcane and the effectiveness of insecticide spraying. Science and Culture, 43(3):122-123

Alfiler ARR, Calilung VJ, 1978. The life-history and voracity of the syrphid predator, Ischiodon escutellaris (F.) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Philippine Entomologist, 4(1/2):105-117

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Banziger H, 1976. Keys for the identification of aphids (Homoptera). I. Winged aphids of species economically important in Thailand. Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, No.36:[2+]41 pp.

Bastos JAM, 1978. Contribution to knowledge of the aphids (Aphididae) of the State of Ceara, Brazil. Fitossanidade, 2(3):89-90

Bhagat RC, 1981. New records of the aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) from Kashmir (India). Science and Culture, 47(4):134-136

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, Brown PA, 1990. The biology and taxonomy of the aphids transmitting barley yellow dwarf virus. In: Burnett PA, ed. World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf, 197-214.

Bodenheimer FS, Swirski E, 1957. Weizmann Sci. Pr. Israel. Jerusalem, 5 + ] 378 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2016. Melanaphis sacchari. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 420 (1st revision).

Chang CP, Fang MN, 1984. Studies on the resistance of sorghum varieties to the sorghum aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). Chinese Journal of Entomology, 4(1):97-105

Chang NT, 1981. Resistance of some grain sorghum cultivars to sorghum aphid injury. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 23(1):35-41

CIE, 1981. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No 420. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Cortez-Mondaca E, López-Buitimea M, López-Arroyo JI, Orduño-Cota FJ, Herrera-Rodríguez G, 2016. Chrysopidae species associated with the sugarcane aphid in northern Sinaloa, Mexico. (Especies de Chrysopidae asociadas al pulgón del sorgo en el norte de Sinaloa, México.) Southwestern Entomologist, 41(2):541-545.

Daugrois JH, Jean-Baptiste I, Lockhart BEL, Irey MS, Chatenet M, Rott P, 1999. First report of sugarcane yellow leaf virus in the French West Indies. Plant Disease, 83(6):588; 2 ref.

David SK, 1977. Host-selection and speciation in some South Indian aphids. In: Ananthakrishnan TN, ed. Insects and Host-specificity. Delhi, India: Macmillan.

David SK, Sandhu GS, 1976. New oviparous morph of Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) on sorghum. Entomologist's Record, 88(1):28-29

Delfino MA, 1984. Discovery of the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner, 1897) in Argentina and Uruguay. Revista de Investigacion CIRPON, 2(1/2):57-64

Denmark HA, 1988. Sugarcane aphids in Florida (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomology Circular No.302. Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services.

Eastop VF, 1966. A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea. Australian Journal of Zoology,14:399-592.

Fang MN, 1990. Population fluctuation and timing for control of sorghum aphid on variety Taichung 5. Bulletin of Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station, No. 28:59-71

Flattery KE, 1982. An assessment of pest damage of grain sorghum in Botswana. Experimental Agriculture, 18(3):319-328

Ghuguskar HT, Chaudhari RV, Sorte NV, 1999. Evaluation of sorghum hybrids for tolerance to aphids Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) in field conditions. PKV Research Journal, 23(1):55-56; 2 ref.

Hagio T, 1999. Studies on breeding of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor M.) using biotechnological and conventional methods. Bulletin of the National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, No. 13:23-96; 153 ref.

Hagio T, Umehara M, Ono S, 1985. Varietal reaction of sorghum to sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner) in the seedling stage. Sorghum Newsletter, 28:51-52

Hall DG, 1987. The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, in Florida sugarcane. J. Amer. Soc. Sugar Cane Technology, 7:26-29.

Hamid S, 1983. Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan. Survey of populations. Agronomie, 3(7):665-673

Hamid S, 1987. Aphid control potential of Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer). Proceedings of the 5th Pakistan Congress of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, January 8-11, 1986 Karachi, Pakistan; Zoological Society of Pakistan, 153-158

Hamid S, 1987. Fecundity potential of graminaceous aphids in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 19(2):103-107.

Hayat M, 1972. The species of Aphelinus Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from India. Entomophaga, 17(1):49-58.

He FG, Liu J, Zhang GX, Yan FY, 1991. A study on the biochemical basis of resistance in sorghum to Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 34(1):38-42; 6 ref.

He FG, Liu LJ, Zhang GX, 1987. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Scymnus babai Sassji. Insect Knowledge, 24(1):10-13

Jia ZY, 1959. A few questions on controlling sorghum aphid. Insect Knowledge, 6(2):64-65.

Kondaiah E, Nayudu MV, 1984. Sugarcane mosaic virus strain H a new record from India. Current Science, 53(5):273-275

Lim GT, Pan YC, 1978. A survey of the natural enemies of the sugarcane aphids in Perak, Malaysia. ISSCT Entomology Newsletter, No. 4:9-10

Liu J, He FG, Qu GM, Zhang GX, 1990. The effect of resistant sorghum on the fecundity and mortality of the sorghum aphid. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 17(4):343-347

Lockhart BEL, Autrey LJC, Comstock JC, 1992. Partial purification and serology of sugarcane mild mosaic virus, a mealybug-transmitted closterolike virus. Phytopathology, 82(6):691-695

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Setokuchi O, 1973. Ecology of Longiunguis sacchari (Zehentner) (Aphididae) infesting sorghums. I. Nymphal period and fecundity of apterous viviparous female. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 19:95-97

Setokuchi O, 1974. Ecology of Longiunguis sacchari (Zehentner) (Aphididae) infesting sorghums. II. Observations on oviposition. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 20:26-27

Setokuchi O, 1975. Ecology of Longiunguis sacchari (Zehentner) (Aphididae) infesting sorghums. III. Occurrence in fields. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 21:8-10

Setokuchi O, 1975. The hibernation of Longiunguis sacchari (Zehntner) on sorghums. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 19(4):296-297

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Setokuchi O, 1979. Damage to forage sorghum by Longiunguis sacchari (Zehntner) (Aphididae). Proceedings of the Association of Plant Protection of Kyushu, 25:66-70

Setokuchi O, 1988. Studies on the ecology of aphids on sugarcane I. Infestation of Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 32(2):215-218

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Shujauddin, 1982. Effect of nymphal instars of Longiunguis sacchari (Zehnt.) on the size, colour and fecundity of Lysiphlebia mirzai Shujauddin. Journal of Entomological Research, 6(1):109-110

Sithole SZ, Milliano WAJ de, Kaula G, Motalaote B, Mtisi E, Kunene S, Lepheana FTM, 1987. The insect pest situation in sorghum at research stations in SADCC countries during the 1985/86 cropping season. Proceedings of the Third Regional Workshop on Sorghum and Millets for Southern Africa, Lusaka, Zambia, 6-10 October 1986 Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; SADCC/ICRISAT Sorghum and Millet Improvement Programme, 375-381

Srivastava KP, Parmar BS, 1985. Evaluation of neem oil emulsifiable concentrate against sorghum aphids. Neem Newsletter, 2(1):7

Teetes GL, Manthe CS, Peterson GC, Leuschner K, Pendleton BB, 1995. Sorghum resistant to the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Hompotera: Aphididae), in Botswana and Zimbabwe. Insect Science and its Applications, 16(1):63-71.

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