- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988
- MELGMY (Meloidogyne mayaguensis)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Family: Meloidogynidae
- Genus: Meloidogyne
- Species: Meloidogyne mayaguensis
DescriptionTop of page Females: Body pear-shaped, lacking tail protuberance. Head not annulated. Stylet 14-17 µm long; conus about half its total length; knobs round to reniform, 3.9-5.2 (4.3) µm across. Excretory pore usually opposite median oesophageal bulb, 3-5 stylet lengths from anterior end.
Perineal pattern: Rounded to dorso-ventrally oval with fine but widely spaced striae, somewhat similar to that of M. incognita and M. arenaria in having rounded dorsal arch, fine striae and lateral lines being absent (cf. double lateral lines in M. javanica) or represented by occasional breaks or a short line on one side of pattern at junction of dorsal and ventral arches. There is a prominent tail tip area (larger in size than that of M. javanica; absent in M. incognita and M. arenaria) which is circular and usually free of striae. Anal fold present. Phasmids small pore-like, one vulva slit length (21-30 µm) apart. Lateral striations on either side of vulva slit present. Egg masses small, with 150-200 eggs in each. Eggs 88-111 (98)×38-50 (44) µm.
Males: Body vermiform, 1.17-1.74 (1.5) mm long, slender (a =31-50 (40)). Head elevated, rectangular, continuous, not annulated. Stylet 21-25 (23) µm long; shaft with irregular thickness and lumen diameter; knobs rounded, distinctly separate, 4.3-5.6 (5) µm across, set off from shaft. Spicules and gubernaculum 24-31 (28) µm and 6-9 (7) µm long, respectively. Tail short; phasmids preanal, near mid-spicule level.
Second-stage juveniles: Body vermiform, 0.39-0.53 (0.45) mm long. Lateral field with 4 incisures. Stylet 11-12 µm long; conus about half its total length; knobs small, rounded with posteriorly sloping anterior surfaces. Dorsal oesophageal gland orifice 3.3-4.3 µm behind stylet. Oesophagus typical of the genus with elongate glands extending on ventral side of intestine. Excretory pore 80-98 (88) µm from anterior end of body. Rectum inflated. Tail elongate-conoid to a bluntly pointed tip, 49-63 (54) µm long or 4.3-5.7 (5) times as long as anal body width; hyaline terminal part distinctly set off. Phasmids punctiform, slightly behind anal level.
(This information is derived from Rammah and Hirschmann, 1988)
DistributionTop of page M. mayaguensis was described originally from aubergine in Puerto Rico where tomato, tobacco, Capsicum and watermelon are good hosts (Rammah, 1989; Rammah and Hirschmann, 1988). In Senegal, it is widespread and occurs along with other Meloidogyne species on tomato (Duponnois et al., 1995). In Nelspruit, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, commercial guava and Bidens pilosa are preferred hosts (Willers, 1997b).
M. mayaguensis parasitizes coffee in Cuba (Decker and Rodriguez Fuentes, 1989) and occurs sympatrically with Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. javanica (Rodriguez et al., 1995). The species also occurs in several states in Brazil (Carneiro et al., 2001; Torres et al., 2004, 2005) on coffee and guava and a single isolation was recorded from soil around trees, palms, shrubs and herbaceous species in a preserved area of Atlantic forest in Brazil (Lima et al., 2005).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Tomato, aubergine, tobacco, pepper (Capsicum annuum) and watermelon are good hosts for Meloidogyne mayaguensis (Rammah and Hirschmann, 1988). Guava and Bidens pilosa are also good hosts and may occur side by side thus serving as alternative hosts (Willers, 1997b). Coffee is severely parasitized in Cuba (Decker and Rodriguez Fuentes, 1989) and M. mayaguensis is also recorded from coffee in Brazil (Carneiro et al., 2004). On coffee in Cuba M. mayaguensis occurs sympatrically with Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. javanica (Rodriguez et al., 1995). It is widespread on tomato in Senegal (Duponnois et al., 1995). It occurs on guava in north-eastern Brazil (Carneiro et al., 2001, Torres et al., 2004, 2005). Guimaraes et al. (2003) presented data on M. mayaguensis parasitism on various plant species in Brazil. They found that common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpea, tomato and Crotalaria juncea were susceptible whereas groundnut, maize and C. spectabilis were resistant. In tomato, the Mi gene for root-knot resistance was not effective against M. mayaguensis. The groundnut roots showed high numbers of adult females, although no eggs were observed. Maranhao et al. (2003) indicated that some genotypes of Psidium guineense varied from slightly to highly susceptible to M. mayaguensis, although showing some resistance to other root-knot nematodes, whereas others showed moderate resistance.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Bidens pilosa (blackjack)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Cucumis sativus (cucumber)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Lactuca sativa (lettuce)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Malpighia glabra (acerola)||Malpighiaceae||Habitat/association|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)||Scrophulariaceae||Other|
|Psidium guajava (guava)||Myrtaceae||Main|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum melongena (aubergine)||Solanaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page M. mayaguensis induces severe root galling in heavily attacked plants or trees. Attacked guava trees show general decline symptoms, noticed as yellowing of leaves and defoliation, and may die in 3 years. Declining trees occur in patches bordered by relatively healthy trees.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / galls along length|
|Roots / galls at junction with stem|
|Roots / galls at tip|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Roots / swollen roots|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page M. mayaguensis n.sp. reproduces by mitotic parthenogensis and has a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 44-45. The enzyme patterns are unique among Meloidogyne species and it can also be distinguished by molecular-based methodologies.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page M. mayaguensis parasitizes coffee in Cuba and occurs sympatrically with, and is more damaging than, Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. javanica (Rodriguez et al., 1995). Severe root galling was observed on commercial guava in Nelspruit, South Africa. The attacked trees declined severely or died within 3 years (Willers, 1997b). Bidens pilosa, growing between guava trees, were heavily infested providing a source of infection (Willers, 1997b). M. mayaguensis was also reported causing galling to guava in Brazil (Carneiro et al., 2001). Carneiro et al. (2001) reported M. mayaguensis causing severe damage to commercial guava orchards in Pernambuco and Bahia states. Infested trees had a drastic reduction in growth, reduced leaf size and a decline in yield quantity and quality. Severely infested root systems were poorly developed and were distorted by multiple galls of various sizes. The authors speculated that the nematode had probably been spread from infected nurseries.
M. mayaguensis is more capable of breaking resistance than other common tropical species. Following the use of resistant cultivars, the resistance-breaking lines, with the pVI esterase phenotype using RFLP, were shown to belong to the species M. mayaguensis. These were not lines selected from other existing species of Meloidogyne such as M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. javanica and M. hapla (Fargette et al., 1996). Resistance studies have been done by Maranhao et al. (2003) and Rubio-Cabetas et al. (1999) who reported that the Ma gene from Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera) conferred resistance to M. mayaguensis.
Detection and InspectionTop of page The root galls have to be collected and the nematode identified particularly by the morphometrics of second-stage juveniles and the perineal patterns of females.
Attacked guava trees show general decline symptoms and may die in 3 years; declining trees occur in patches bordered by trees in a relatively better condition (Willers, 1997b).
Much emphasis has been placed on developing biochemical and molecular diagnostic protocols in order to reliably distinguish M. mayaguensis from other root-knot nematodes (Carneiro et al., 2000; Blok et al., 2002; Brito et al., 2004; Randig et al., 2004; Fargette et al., 2005; Molinari et al., 2005; Skantar and Carta, 2005).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page This is a typical species of Meloidogyne with host response similar to M. incognita race 2 but quite different in morphological characters. It resembles (see Hewlett and Tarjan (1983) and Jepson (1987) for details of related species) M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria and M. enterolobii from which it can be differentiated by its typical perineal pattern supported by morphological and morphometric characters, particularly of head and stylet of female and male and body length, stylet, rectum and tail of second-stage juvenile. M. mayaguensis can also be distinguished from other root-knot species by esterase pattern and molecular methodologies.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Moreira and Henriques Neto (2001) studied the control of M. mayaguensis on guava seedlings in Brazil. They used various nematicides but did not demonstrate a reduction in the development of the nematode population.
In Senegal, the two local strains (ORS 18692 S7 and ORS 18692 S5) of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora trapped 98% of groups of 7-day-old M. mayaguensis juveniles within 48 h; optimal growth occurred at 25-30°C and at pH 5.6, but salinity inhibited development. When the fungus was incorporated into compost blocks before sowing and transplanting tomato seedlings, it reduced M. mayaguensis populations and stimulated seedling growth in pot experiments during the cool season (28°C) and in field trials during the hot season (35°C). Both strains were efficient in reducing M. mayaguensis and other species of Meloidogyne populations (Duponnois et al., 1995). Duponnois et al. (2001) investigated the effects of organic amendments on the interactions between A. oligospora and M. mayaguensis parasitizing tomato plants.
ReferencesTop of page
Almeida EJde; Soares PLM; Silva ARda; Santos JMdos, 2008. New records on Meloidogyne mayaguensis in Brazil and comparative study with M. incognita. (Novos registros sobre Meloidogyne mayaguensis no Brasil e estudo morfológico comparativo com M. incognita.) Nematologia Brasileira, 32(3):236-241.
Blok VC; Wishart J; Fargette M; Berthier K; Phillips MS, 2002. Mitochondrial DNA differences distinguishing Meloidogyne mayaguensis from the major species of tropical root-knot nematodes. Nematology, 4(7):773-781; 31 ref.
Brito J; Powers TO; Mullin PG; Inserra RN; Dickson DW, 2004. Morphological and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne mayaguensis isolates from Florida. Journal of Nematology, 36(3): 232-240.
Carneiro RMDG; Tigano MS; Randig O; Almeida MRA; Sarah JL, 2004. Identification and genetic diversity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) on coffee from Brazil, Central America and Hawaii. Nematology, 6(2): 287-298.
Charchar JM; Fonseca MEN; Boiteux LS; Lima Neto AF, 2009. Occurrence of Meloidogyne mayaguensis on guava in Tocantins State, Brazil. (Ocorrência de Meloidogyne mayaguensis em goiabeira no estado do Tocantins.) Nematologia Brasileira, 33(2):182-186.
Decker H; Rodriguez Fuentes M-E, 1989. The occurrence of root gall nematodes Meloidogyne mayaguensis on Coffea arabica in Cuba. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Wilhelm-Pieck-Universita^umlaut~t Rostock, Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe, 38(3):32-34; 6 ref.
Duponnois R; Chotte JL; Sall S; Cadet P, 2001. The effects of organic amendments on the interactions between a nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasitizing tomato plants. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 34(1):1-6; 39 ref.
Duponnois R; Mateille T; Gueye M, 1995. Biological characteristics and effects of two strains of Arthrobotrys oligospora from Senegal on Meloidogyne species parasitizing tomato plants. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 5(4):517-525; 20 ref.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fargette M; Lollier V; Phillips M; Blok V; Frutos R, 2005. AFLP analysis of the genetic diversity of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax, major agricultural pests. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 328(5):455-462. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/16310691
Fargette M; Phillips MS; Blok VC; Waugh R; Trudgill DL, 1996. An RFLP study of relationships between species, populations and resistance-breaking lines of tropical species of Meloidogyne. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 19(2):193-200; 24 ref.
Gomes CB; Couto MEO; Carneiro RMDG, 2008. Occurrence of Meloidogyne mayaguensis on guava and tabacco in South of Brazil. (Registro de ocorrência de Meloidogyne mayaguensis em goiabeira e fumo no Sul do Brasil.) Nematologia Brasileira, 32(3):244-247.
Guimaraes LMP; Moura RM de; Pedrosa EMR, 2003. Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasitism on different plant species. Nematologia Brasileira, 27(2): 139-145.
Lima IM; Souza RM; Silva CP; Carneiro RMDG, 2005. Meloidogyne spp. from preserved areas of Atlantic forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 29(1): 31-38.
Maranhao SRVL; Moura RM de; Pedrosa EMR, 2003. Reaction of Psidium guineense genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis. Nematologia Brasileira, 27(2): 173-178.
Molinari; S; Lamberti F; Crozzoli R; Sharma SB; Sanchez-Portales L, 2005. Isozyme patterns of exotic Meloidogyne spp. populations. Nematologia Mediterranea, 33(1): 61-65.
Moreira WA; Henriques Neto D, 2001. Attack by gall nematode (Meloidogyne mayaguensis) to seedlings of guava obtained from cuttings and grafting. Comunicado Te^acute~cnico da Embrapa Semi-A^acute~rido, No.107:4 pp.
Rammah A, 1989. Morphological and taxonomic studies of certain populations of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. javanica. [Abstract]. Thesis, North Carolina State University, USA. Dissertation Abstracts International, B (Sciences and Engineering) 49, 244.
Rammah A; Hirschmann H, 1988. Meloidogyne mayaguensis n.sp. (Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode from Puerto Rico. Journal of Nematology, 20:58-69.
Randig O; Carneiro RMDG; Castagnone-Sereno P, 2004. Identification of Brazilian coffee-damaging species of Meloidogyne using SCAR-coffee markers in multiplex PCR. Nematologia Brasileira, 28(1): 1-10.
Rodriguez MG; Rodriguez I; Sanchez L, 1995. Species of the genera Meloidogyne which parasitize coffee in Cuba. Geographical distribution and symptomatology. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal, 10:123-128.
Rubio-Cabetas MJ; Minot JC; Voisin R; Esmenjaud D; Salesses G; Bonnet A, 1999. Resistance response of the Ma genes from 'Myrobalan' plum to Meloidogyne hapla and M. mayaguensis. HortScience, 34(7):1266-1268; 24 ref.
Silva GS; Pereira AL; Araújo JRG; Carneiro RMDG, 2008. Occurrence of Meloidogyne mayaguensis on Psidium guajava in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. (Ocorrência de Meloidogyne mayaguensis em Psidium guajava no estado do Maranhão.) Nematologia Brasileira, 32(3):242-243.
Skantar AM; Carta LK, 2005. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) of total genomic DNA from Meloidogyne spp. and comparison to crude DNA extracts in PCR of ITS1, 28S D2-D3 rDNA and Hsp90. Nematology, 7(2): 285-293.
Torres GR de C; Covello VN; Sales R; Pedrosa EMR; Moura RM, 2004. Meloidogyne mayaguensis on Psidium guajava in Rio Grande do Norte. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(5): 570.
Torres GR de C; Sales R; Nerivania V; Rehn C; Pedrosa EMR; Moura RM de, 2005. Occurrence of Meloidogyne mayaguensis on guava in the state of Ceara. Nematologia Brasileira, 29(1): 105-107.
Willers P, 1997. First record of Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann, 1988: Heteroderidae on commercial crops in the Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Inligtingsbulletin - Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse, No. 294:19-20; 2 ref.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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