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Datasheet

Meloidogyne javanica
(sugarcane eelworm)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 April 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne javanica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sugarcane eelworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitleJuvenile
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
JuvenileMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitleJuvenile
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
JuvenileMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleLine art
CaptionReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Copyright©CAB International
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Line artReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.©CAB International
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleLine art
CaptionReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Copyright©CAB International
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Line artReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.©CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • sugarcane eelworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillula javanica (Treub 1885) Lavergne 1901
  • Heterodera javanica Treub 1885
  • Meloidogyne javanica bauruensis Lordello 1956
  • Tylenchus (Heterodera) javanica (Treub 1885) Cobb 1890

International Common Names

  • English: Javanese root knot nematode; root-knot nematode
  • Spanish: nemátodo javanés de quiste; nemátodo nodulador javanés
  • French: anguillule javanaise a noeud des racines; nématode à galles; nématode cécidogène; nématode galligène javanais
  • Portuguese: nematóide das galhas

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Aelchen, Javanisches Wurzelgallen-
  • Japan: Zyawa-nekobu-sentyu
  • Turkey: kok ur nematodu

EPPO code

  • MELGJA (Meloidogyne javanica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne javanica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The systematics of the genus Meloidogyne is complex: reliable specific identification can be difficult even for the expert. (See Sasser and Carter, 1985.)

Description

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Description (after Orton Williams, 1972)

Female
Endoparasitic; body nearly spherical in adult with projecting neck tapering to head; posterior end rounded, or with slightly protruding perineal region. Head with one annule behind head cap, slightly wider than first body annule. Stylet slender, dorsally curved, knobs rounded. Excretory pore located about 3 stylet lengths posterior to head. Posterior cuticular pattern (= perineal pattern) round or oval to pear-shaped, dorsal arch varying from rounded, to moderate height, sometimes flattened dorsally. Striae smooth to wavy, tail tip often marked by an irregular whorl. Typically lateral fields well defined by a double incisure bordering a definite break in the striae clearly dividing pattern into dorsal and ventral sectors. Lateral fields may be visible for some distance from tail but do not extend into the neck region, or may be poorly marked. Phasmids usually distinct.

Male
Head not offset; outline in lateral view characteristic with first annule projecting antero-laterally, well separated by constriction from a wider basal annule which may be subdivided into two annules either completely or partially (giving the appearance of one annule on one side of the body and two on the other). In dorsal or ventral view head outline rounded, amphidial apertures distinct. Stylet knobs rounded, not prominent. Valves of oesophageal bulb large. Oesophageal gland overlaps intestine for some distance ventrally. Excretory pore distinct, duct visible for some way along body. Hemizonid 0-4 annules anterior to pore. One testis or two. Intersexes common, displaying female characters to varying degrees ranging from a slight swelling anterior to cloaca to possession of a well developed vulva. Lateral field usually with 4 incisures ending at terminus or just anterior. Bands between incisures plain or outer ones sometimes areolated to some degree. Torsion of the posterior region of the body occurs to some extent making true lateral views of the tail hard to obtain. Tail shape somewhat variable, digitate in lateral view, bluntly rounded in ventral. Terminus not clearly striated. Phasmids located in lateral field at cloacal level or slightly anterior. Spicules slightly curved, with ventral flange distally, tips pointed. Gubernaculum thin, crescentic.

Juvenile
Head not offset, in lateral view truncate cone shape with 3 annules behind head cap; more rounded in dorsal and ventral view with one annule behind head cap. Stylet knobs rounded, not prominent. Hemizonid usually three annules long immediately anterior to excretory pore. Lateral field with four incisures, outer bands not clearly cross-striated. Rectum inflated; tail tapering to sub-acute or finely rounded terminus, annules coarsening posteriorly.

Measurements (from Orton Williams, 1972)

20 females: L = 541-804 µm (657); width = 311-581 µm (431); stylet = 14-18 (15) µm width stylet base (10) = 2-5 µm (4); dorsal oesophageal gland orifice = 2-5 µm (3) behind stylet base; length median bulb (10) = 38-46 µm (42); width median bulb (10) = 31-44 µm (35); length median bulb valves (10) = 14-19 µm (16); width median bulb valves (10) = 10-13 µm (11).

25 males: L = 757-1297 µm (1131); a = 17.5-42.9 (37.5); length head (24) = 5.8-7.6 µm (6.6); stylet = 20.0-23.0 µm (21.2); width stylet base (24) = 3.6-5.4 µm (4.3); dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (10) = 2.2-4.7 µm (2.9) behind stylet base; b1 = 13.0-18.4 (15.7); c (24) = 50-144 (91); length median bulb = 15.1-23.7 µm (19.7); width median bulb = 9.4-12.9 µm (10.9); spicules (length of arc) (30) = 20.9-31.7 µm (26.7); gubernaculum (14) = 7.2-9.4 µm (8.4).

25 juveniles: L = 387-459 µm (417); a = 27.1-35.9 (30.6); b (16) = 2.10-3.35 (2.42); b1 = 7.1-8.0 (7.5); length tail = 36-56 µm (49); d = 4.5-7.0 (5.5); c = 7.3-11.1 (8.5); length body to middle of genital primordium = 217-282 µm (255); stylet (24) = 9.4-11.4 µm (10.4); length median bulb = 10.8-13.7 µm (12.1); width median bulb = 5.4-7.6 µm (6.6); length median bulb valves (24) = 3.2-5.0 µm (4.3).

Distribution

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M. javanica is widely distributed in warm and tropical climates where it is often the dominant root-knot species. The geographic range includes Africa, Australia, South America, Asia, the USA and greenhouses in Europe. M. javanica is considered particularly common in Central Africa and the savannah regions of West Africa (Egunjobi, 1985; Saka, 1985) and it is considered to predominate in drier areas (less than 500 mm per year rainfall) (Sasser and Carter, 1985).

M. javanica has also been recorded from the following areas of protected agriculture; for example, in soils in and around many temperate research stations and other areas of intensive horticulture. In some cases the nematodes have been able to overwinter because of mild winters and could be expanding their geographic range:

Heilongjiang and Ningxia in China (Yang et al., 1991), Moldavia (Batyr and Kozhokaru, 1985), Poland (Brzeski et al., 1978), European part of Russia (Gushchin and Efremenko, 1975; Batyr and Kozhokaru, 1985; Mar'enko, 1989), Russian Far East (Kondratenko, 1985; Kondratenko and Metlitskii, 1989) and United Kingdom (IIP, 1992).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Localized
AngolaPresent, Widespread
BotswanaPresent
BurundiPresent
ComorosPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent, Widespread
EgyptPresent, Widespread
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresent
GambiaPresent, Widespread
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent, Widespread
LiberiaPresent, Widespread
LibyaPresent, Widespread
MadagascarPresent, Widespread
MalawiPresent, Widespread
MauritaniaPresent
MauritiusPresent, Widespread
MoroccoPresent, Widespread
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent, Widespread
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
SenegalPresent, Widespread
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
SudanPresent, Localized
TanzaniaPresent, Widespread
TunisiaPresent, Localized
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent, Widespread
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent, Widespread
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent, Localized
-JiangxiPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent, Localized
-YunnanPresent, Localized
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent, Localized
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent, Localized
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent, Widespread
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent, Widespread
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent, Localized
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent, Localized
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent, Widespread
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Widespread
-JavaPresent, Widespread
-SulawesiPresent
IranPresent, Widespread
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
JordanPresent, Widespread
KazakhstanPresent
LebanonPresent, Widespread
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent, Widespread
OmanPresent, Localized
PakistanPresent, Widespread
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Localized
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent, Localized
Sri LankaPresent, Widespread
SyriaPresent, Widespread
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
TajikistanPresent, Localized
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent, Localized
TurkmenistanPresent, Widespread
UzbekistanPresent, Localized
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent, Localized
CyprusPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, Localized
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Localized
GreecePresent, Widespread
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent, Localized
IcelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
MaltaPresent
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent, Localized
RussiaPresent
-Central RussiaPresent
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Canary IslandsPresent, Localized
UkrainePresent

North America

Costa RicaPresent, Widespread
CubaPresent, Widespread
El SalvadorPresent, Widespread
GuadeloupePresent, Widespread
GuatemalaPresent, Widespread
HondurasPresent, Widespread
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
MartiniquePresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent, Widespread
PanamaPresent, Widespread
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent, Widespread
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent, Widespread
-FloridaPresent, Widespread
-GeorgiaPresent, Widespread
-HawaiiPresent, Widespread
-LouisianaPresent, Widespread
-MississippiPresent, Widespread
-New MexicoPresent, Widespread
-North CarolinaPresent, Widespread
-South CarolinaPresent, Widespread
-TennesseePresent, Widespread
-TexasPresent, Widespread
-VirginiaPresent, Widespread

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent, Widespread
-Northern TerritoryPresent, Widespread
-QueenslandPresent, Widespread
-South AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-VictoriaPresent, Widespread
-Western AustraliaPresent, Widespread
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent, Widespread
KiribatiPresent, Widespread
NiuePresent, Widespread
Papua New GuineaPresent, Widespread
SamoaPresent, Widespread
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AcrePresent
-AlagoasPresent
-BahiaPresent, Widespread
-CearaPresent, Widespread
-GoiasPresent
-MaranhaoPresent, Widespread
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent, Widespread
-Minas GeraisPresent, Widespread
-ParaPresent, Widespread
-ParaibaPresent, Widespread
-ParanaPresent, Widespread
-PernambucoPresent, Localized
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent, Localized
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, Widespread
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent, Widespread
-SergipePresent, Widespread
ChilePresent, Localized
ColombiaPresent, Widespread
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
ParaguayPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent, Widespread
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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M. javanica is found worldwide and no specific quarantine measures against it are known to be in force.

Habitat

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Meloidogyne is one of the most widely distributed and economically important genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. M. javanica is considered second only to M. incognita in importance, being found widely in sub-tropical and tropical regions (see Sasser and Carter, 1985). Damage and yield losses caused are generally more severe on coarse-textured sandy soils (Van Gundy, 1985). Meloidogyne species are generally intolerant of flooded soil conditions. They are considered more prevalant on upland rice (Plowright and Hunt, 1994) and are not usually a problem on paddy rice (Fortuner and Merny, 1979).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Goodey et al. (1965) list a total of 770 host species or varieties, including many weeds as well as crop plants. In addition to those crops in the list of hosts, there are many others of economic importance, including tea, grapevine, many vegetables, fruit trees, cereals and ornamentals.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeOther
Agathosma betulinaRutaceaeOther
    Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)AsteraceaeWild host
      Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
        Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)PrimulaceaeOther
          Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeOther
            Anthemis (chamomile)AsteraceaeOther
              Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon)ScrophulariaceaeUnknown
              Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeOther
                Arctium lappa (burdock)AsteraceaeOther
                  Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)AsteraceaeOther
                    Basella alba (malabar spinach)BasellaceaeHabitat/association
                      Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)FabaceaeOther
                        Berberis vulgaris (European barberry)BerberidaceaeOther
                        Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                          Borago officinalis (Borage)BoraginaceaeOther
                            Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeOther
                              Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeOther
                                Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
                                  CannaCannaceaeOther
                                    Canna indica (canna lilly)CannaceaeHabitat/association
                                      Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeOther
                                      Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
                                        Carissa macrocarpa (Natal plum)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                          Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
                                            Chamaerops humilis (dwarf fan palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
                                              Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                                                Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                                                  Cichorium (chicory)AsteraceaeOther
                                                    Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                      Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)FabaceaeOther
                                                        Coleus forskohliiLamiaceaeOther
                                                          ColocasiaAraceaeOther
                                                            Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
                                                              Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                Corchorus olitorius (jute)TiliaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                  Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)AgavaceaeOther
                                                                    Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                      Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                                                      Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                        Cullen corylifolium (black-dot)FabaceaeOther
                                                                          Cyperus (flatsedge)CyperaceaeOther
                                                                            Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                            • Ali et al. (2014)
                                                                            Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                                                              DuboisiaSolanaceaeOther
                                                                                Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PoaceaeWild host
                                                                                  Euphorbia prostrataEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                    Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                      Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus (cut flower crop))GentianaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                        Exacum affineGentianaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                          Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                            Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                              Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                                                                                                Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Graptophyllum pictumAcanthaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                    Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                      Heliconia rostrataHeliconiaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                        Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                          Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                            Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)LamiaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                              Humulus lupulus (hop)CannabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)OleaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                    Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Lavandula (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                            Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                              Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                  Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                      Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                        Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                            Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                              Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                  Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                    Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                      Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                        Piper nigrum (black pepper)Piperaceae
                                                                                                                                                          Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                            Plukenetia volubilisEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                              Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                  Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    Raphanus (radish)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Rubia tinctorum (Rose madder)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Ruta graveolens (common rue)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                              Sabal palmetto (Cabbage palmetto)ArecaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  Salvia officinalis (common sage)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Samanea saman (rain tree)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                        Sesbania cannabina (corkwood tree)FabaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                          Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)GesneriaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                            SolanaceaeSolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                              Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                              Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                              Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thymus (thyme)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Trichosanthes dioica (pointed gourd)CucurbitaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Xanthosoma (cocoyam)AraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily)AraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zinnia elegans (zinnia)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ZygophyllumOther

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Growth Stages

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Symptoms of damage by M. javanica are similar to those caused by other Meloidogyne species and include poor growth with stunting and chlorosis of the aerial parts and a reduced and galled root system (see Dropkin, 1989).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Leaves / abnormal forms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Leaves / wilting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Roots / galls along length
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Roots / reduced root system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Roots / swollen roots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Whole plant / early senescence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In most essentials the life cycle of M. javanica is very similar to those of other species of Meloidogyne. Mature females in roots produce eggs into a gelatinous egg sac, which may or may not protrude from the root and which completely envelops the eggs and acts as a barrier to water loss. Reproduction is probably always parthenogenetic. Under stress conditions such as overcrowding, food shortage, high temperature, or unsuitable host plant, a high percentage of males and intersexes is produced (Triantaphyllou, 1973). On hatching, infective second-stage juveniles move towards roots and accumulate at root tips, minor wounds or regions of previous penetration. Within a day of penetration of the host there is a rapid loss of mobility and infectivity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Growth of M. javanica larvae in tomatoes (Bird, 1959) was slow at first, but after about 14 days (the time of the second moult), juveniles had thickened and possessed the spiked tail characteristic of Meloidogyne. The third and fourth moults followed rapidly within the moulted cuticle of the second-stage juvenile. Under Bird's optimum conditions, by the 19th day all specimens were in the final moult or were adults. Egg sac formation began between the 20th and 27th days, followed 2 days later by egg laying. Egg sac growth and rate of egg laying increased rapidly from the 30th to 40th day: the egg sac usually became bigger than the female which produced it. (See also Bird, 1971.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        M. javanica and one or even two other Meloidogyne spp. may sometimes be found in the same host. In mixed inoculations of M. javanica and M. hapla on tomatoes, Kinloch and Allen (1971) found that M. javanica predominated. M. javanica has been shown to interact with other pathogens, causing a disease complex where symptoms are worse than those produced by either pathogen alone. It interacts with the wilt-causing fungus Fusarium oxysporum and its various forms on: cowpeas (Thomason et al., 1959), tobacco (Porter and Powell, 1967) and tomatoes (Oteifa and Ragab, 1958). It also interacts with Thanatephorus cucumeris on soyabeans (Taylor and Wyllie, 1959).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See Bird (1971) for a review of work with special reference to M. javanica. See Taylor (1979) for work on interactions between Meloidogyne and diseases.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Natural enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Iotonchus monhystera Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Monacrosporium cionopagum Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Monacrosporium ellipsosporum Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite Pakistan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Pakistan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pseudomonas chitinolytica Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Steinernema glaseri Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Notes on Natural Enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A considerable amount of work has been devoted to biological control of root-knot nematodes in general (see Kerry, 1987). This includes much work on the use of natural enemies in the biological control of M. javanica.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Use of the microorganism Pasteuria penetrans against M. javanica has been investigated on several crops, including pigeonpeas (Sharma and Sharma, 1989), mung beans (Shazad et al., 1990), aubergines (Zaki and Maqbool, 1990), tomatoes (Maheswari and Mani, 1988; Daudi and Gowen, 1992) and tobacco (Chen et al., 1994).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The nematode-pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus has also been assessed for the control of M. javanica on aubergines and mung beans (Zaki and Maqbool, 1990) and tomatoes (Maheswari and Mani, 1988).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pathway Vectors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Containers and packaging - woodEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Land vehiclesEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MailEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Soil, sand and gravelEggs and galls in soil. Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Plant Trade

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wood

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Difficulties of identification within the genus Meloidogyne (see Hartman and Sasser, 1985) and the frequent occurrence of mixed species populations require that, scientifically, reports of the distribution, biology and pest impact of Meloidogyne at the species level often need to be treated with caution. However, as most crops susceptible to one Meloidogyne species will probably be suceptible to others (eg. to both M. incognita and M. javanica), these difficulties may not be important at the practical level (Netscher and Sikora, 1990).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Meloidogyne spp. can cause yield losses of over 30% in various vegetable crops (Netscher and Sikora, 1990). M. javanica is common on cowpeas in California and Australia, pigeonpeas in Puerto Rico and Brazil (Sikora and Greco, 1990) and is a serious problem on tobacco in South Africa and Zimbabwe (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). M. javanica is a major pest of pineapples in many parts of the world (Caswell, et al., 1990)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Detection and Inspection

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Above-ground symptoms are non-specific: examination of roots can reveal the presence of swollen roots and galls typical of root-knot nematodes in general (see Dropkin, 1989).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Similarities to other Meloidogyne species may lead to difficulties in identification. For authoritative species-level identifications, consult a specialist taxonomist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Prevention and Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Introduction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Methods for the control of Meloidogyne spp. depend largely on crop plant, climate and economic considerations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cultural Methods

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fallows have been evaluated (Martin, 1967). Hot-water treatment of potatoes has been used (Martin, 1972).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crop rotations with various non-host grasses are used to control M. javanica in tobacco (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). Various potential rotation crops, including Tagetes spp., guinea grass and maize have been assessed for the control of M. javanica on mung beans (Vigna radiata) (Toida, et al., 1991). In pot tests, Crotolaria ochroleuca, C. juncea (legumes) Tagetes erecta (African marigold), sesame and groundnuts were identifed as poor hosts for M. javanica (Madulu et al., 1994).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Organic amendments have been assessed to control M. javanica on tomatoes and okra in India (Singh and Sitaramaiah, 1966; 1967) and tested against M. javanica on mung beans (Toida et al., 1994).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Host-Plant Resistance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Root-knot resistance in tomatoes was evaluated against M. javanica in India (Sikora et al., 1973). Various vegetable varieties with resistance to M. javanica, including cowpeas, sweet peppers and tomatoes, have been developed in the USA (Lehman and Cochran, 1991).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chemical Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Where cost justifies their use, nematicides can be applied. Nematicides have been used to control M. javanica in tobacco and pineapple (Shepherd and Barker, 1990; Caswell et al., 1990).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        References

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top of page

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