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Datasheet

Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne incognita
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root-knot nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleFemale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
FemaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females.
(reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females.
(reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • root-knot nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Meloidogyne acrita Chitwood, 1949
  • Meloidogyne incognita acrita Chitwood, 1949
  • Meloidogyne wartellei Golden & Birchfield, 1978
  • Oxyuris incognita Kofoid & White, 1919

International Common Names

  • English: root-knot eelworm; southern root-knot nematode
  • Spanish: anguillula de las raices; nemátodo agallador; nemátodo de la raiz; nemátodo de las agallas; nemátodo de los nódulos de las raíces; nemátodo nódulador; nemátodo sureno de quiste (Mexico)
  • French: anguillule a noeud de la patate; anguillule des racines; nématode à galles; nématode cécidogène; nématode des galles des racines; nématode des racines
  • Portuguese: nematóide das galhas

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: rodgalle-nematode
  • Germany: knoellchen-aelchen; knoellchen-nematode; suedliches wurzelgallen-aelchen
  • Italy: anguillula delle radici; anguillula gallicola delle radici
  • Japan: satumaimo-nekobu-sentyu
  • Turkey: kok ur nematodu

EPPO code

  • MELGIN (Meloidogyne incognita)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne incognita

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Most Meloidogyne species are difficult to identify with certainty due to their inherent variability. Material of both the adult females and the infective juveniles should be examined before coming to a conclusion. Male characters can also be useful in some instances.

Description

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Description (after Orton Williams, 1973)

Female
Endoparasitic, body spherical with projecting neck. Head with 2 or occasionally 3 annules behind head-cap. Cuticle thickening abruptly at base of relaxed stylet. Stylet knobs rounded or drawn out laterally. Excretory pore at level of or posterior to stylet knobs, 10-20 annules behind head. Posterior cuticular pattern displays bewildering variation. Typical pattern 'incognita type'; with striae closely spaced, very wavy to zig-zag especially dorsally and laterally. Dorsal arch high, rounded. Lateral field not clear, sometimes marked by breaks in striae, broken ends often forked, pattern merging into body striae. 'Acrita type'; with striae smoother, more widely spaced (or with coarse widely spaced striae separated by fine closely spaced striae visible for short distances). Dorsal arch variable, may be flattened at top or trapezoid. Striae often forked along a 'lateral line'. Limits of pattern more or less well-defined. Aberrant patterns occur.

Male
Head not offset, a high truncate cone shape, clearly annulated. Head-cap with stepped outline in lateral view; annule number behind head-cap very variable, usually 1-3 on sublateral head sectors and 1-5 on lateral head sectors. Conus of stylet longer than shaft, stylet knobs prominent, usually of greater width than length, with flat, concave or 'toothed'; anterior margins. Excretory pore at level of posterior end of isthmus with hemizonid usually 0-5 annules anterior. Lateral field with 4 incisures, outer bands areolated, inner band rarely cross-striated except at posterior end. Testes 1 or 2. Tail bluntly rounded, terminus unstriated. Phasmids at cloaca level or just anterior. Spicules slightly curved, gubernaculum crescentic.

Juvenile
Head not offset, truncate cone shape in lateral view, sub-hemispherical in dorso-ventral view. Head-cap wide followed by 2 clear annules on sublateral head sectors (lateral view), 3 annules on lateral head sectors (dorsal or ventral view). Stylet knobs prominent, rounded. Hemizonid 3 annules long just anterior to excretory pore. Lateral field with 4 incisures, outer bands cross striated. Rectum inflated. Tail tapering to subacute terminus, striae coarsening posteriorly.

Measurements (After Whitehead, 1968)

20 females: L = 500-723 (609) µm; width = 331-520 (415) µm; stylet (10) = 13-16 (14) µm; width stylet base (10) = 3-5 (4) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (8) = 2-4 (3) µm behind stylet base; length median bulb (10) = 37-63 (46) µm; width median bulb (10) = 31-49 (39) µm; length median bulb valves (10) = 13-16 (14) µm; width median bulb valves (10) = 11-13 (12) µm.

14 males: L = 1108-1953 (1583) µm; a = 31.4-55.4 (46.3); length head (13) = 6.8-8.6 (7.9) µm; stylet (13) = 23.0-32.7 (25.0) µm; width stylet base (13) = 4.7-6.8 (5.8) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (4) = 1.4-2.5 (2.1) µm behind stylet base; b' (12) = 13.8-20.5 (17.4); c (13) = 97-255 (146); length median bulb (12) = 14.4-25.2 (20.0) µm; width median bulb (12) = 8.6-15.8 (11.2) µm; length median bulb valves (12) = 5.8-9.0 (7.2) µm; spicules (length of arc) (12) = 28.8-40.3 (35.2) µm; gubernaculum (7) = 9.4-13.7 (11.2) µm.

25 juveniles: L = 337-403 (371) µm; a = 24.9-31.5 (28.3); b (21) = 2.02-3.14 (2.36); b' (24) = 6.4-8.4 (7.1); length tail = 38-55 (46) µm; d = 4.0-5.6 (4.9); c = 6.9-10.6 (8.1); length body to middle of genital primordium = 212-247 (230) µm; stylet = 9.6-11.7 (10.5) µm; length median bulb (24) = 10.1-12.9 (11.3) µm; width median bulb (24) = 5.8-8.3 (7.3) µm; length median bulb valves (22) = 3.6-6.47 (5.2) µm.

Distribution

Top of page M. incognita has also been recorded from the following areas of protected agriculture; for example, around temperate research stations and other areas of intensive horticulture. In some cases the nematodes have been able to overwinter due to mild winters and could be expanding their geographical range.

Armenia (Pogosyan and Karapetyan, 1976), Heilongjiang and Ningxia in China (Yang et al., 1991), Hokkaido in Japan (Yamada and Takakura, 1975), Belarus (Gladkaya, 1981), Estonia (Pallum, 1972), Latvia (Rasina, 1970), Lithuania (Rudzyavichene et al., 1975), Macedonia (Krnjaic, 1977), Moldavia (Batyr and Kozhokaru, 1985), Poland (Brzeski et al., 1978), Romania (Romascu et al., 1974), European part of Russia (Kozhokaru, 1972; Gushchin and Efremenko, 1975; Mar'enko, 1989), Siberia (Shiabova, 1977), Ukraine (Timchenko, 1981) and United Kingdom (IIP, 1991).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
BangladeshWidespreadShepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Brunei DarussalamPresentReddy, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ChinaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
-AnhuiPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-FujianPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GuangdongPresentWu and Xue, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GuangxiPresentWu and Xue, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GuizhouPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HainanPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HenanPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HubeiPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HunanPresentWu and Xue, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-JiangsuPresentShen et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-JiangxiPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Nei MengguPresentZhang et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-QinghaiPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ShaanxiPresentLi et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ShandongPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-SichuanPresentChen et al., 1991; Yang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-YunnanPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ZhejiangPresentWu and Xue, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
IndiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsWidespreadSalam, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Andhra PradeshPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-AssamPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-BiharPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ChandigarhWidespreadMathur and Khera, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ChhattisgarhPresentSahu et al., 2011
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-GujaratPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HaryanaPresentHaryana, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Himachal PradeshRestricted distributionPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Indian PunjabPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Harish et al., 2015
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhat and Kaul, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Singh and Gupta, 2011
-KarnatakaPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-KeralaWidespreadRaveendran and Nadakal, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Madhya PradeshWidespreadTiwari and Dave, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MaharashtraPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ManipurPresentMishra, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MeghalayaPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-OdishaPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-RajasthanPresentMathur et al., 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-SikkimPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Tamil NaduPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TripuraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Uttar PradeshPresentPrasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Anamika, and Sobita, 2010
-UttarakhandPresentRathour et al., 2006
-West BengalWidespreadSen & Das Gupta, 1976; Prasad and, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-JavaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
-SumatraWidespreadBridge, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IranPresentAbivardi & Sharafeh, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Bahmani et al., 2013
IraqPresentKatcho, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IsraelWidespreadTarjan, 1953; Orion et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HonshuWidespreadSaigusa and Matsumoto, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-KyushuPresentAraki and Nakasono, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentFukudome, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ShikokuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
JordanPresentHashim, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Korea, Republic ofPresentShepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
LebanonWidespreadSaad and Tanveer, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-SabahPresentLiu, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-SarawakPresentSarawak, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MongoliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MyanmarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
NepalWidespreadBhardwaj and Hogger, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
OmanPresentWaller and Bridge, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PakistanPresentMaqbool, 1986; Qureshi et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Hussain et al., 2015
PhilippinesPresentTimm, 1965; Madamba, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Saudi ArabiaWidespreadEissa and Hyder, 1981; Eissa, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SingaporePresentAVA, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Sri LankaWidespreadSivapalan, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SyriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
TaiwanPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TajikistanPresentDzhuraeva, 1976; Teben'kova, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ThailandPresentChunram, 1972; Shepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Ruanpanun and Khun-in, 2015
TurkeyPresentBora, 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TurkmenistanWidespreadArtyunov, 1985; Shagalina and Shagalin, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UzbekistanWidespreadMavlyanov, 1972; Khurramov, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
VietnamWidespreadFam Tkhan' Bin', 1990; Shepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
YemenWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002

Africa

AlgeriaPresentScotto, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2002
AngolaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
Burkina FasoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
CameroonPresentPrice, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Congo Democratic RepublicWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Côte d'IvoirePresentLuc & Guiran, 1960; Fortuner, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
EgyptWidespreadIbrahim et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Ibrahim and Handoo, 2016
EthiopiaPresentSharma and McDonald, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GambiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
GhanaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
KenyaPresentKanyagia, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Karuri et al., 2017
LiberiaWidespreadLamberti et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
LibyaWidespreadKhan and Dabaj, 1980; Dabaj and Jenser, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MadagascarWidespreadKeetch and Buckley, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MalawiWidespreadKeetch and Buckley, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MauritaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MauritiusWidespreadLamberti et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MoroccoWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
MozambiquePresentOever and Mangane, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NigerWidespreadSikora et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NigeriaWidespreadAdesiyan and Odihirin, 1978; Babatola, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002
RéunionWidespreadKeetch and Buckley, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SenegalWidespreadTaylor, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SeychellesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
SomaliaRestricted distributionKarshe, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
South AfricaWidespreadVan der Linde 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Spain
-Canary IslandsRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
SudanRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
TanzaniaWidespreadAhmed, 1975; Taylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TunisiaRestricted distributionMoens, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UgandaWidespreadBridge et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ZambiaWidespreadKeetch and Buckley, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ZimbabweWidespreadMartin and Armstrong, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002

North America

BermudaWidespreadWang and Hughes, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-OntarioPresentJohnson and Potter, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-QuebecAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2002
MexicoWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Martínez et al., 2014
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-AlabamaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ArizonaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ArkansasWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-CaliforniaWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ConnecticutWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-FloridaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GeorgiaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HawaiiWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-IllinoisRestricted distributionWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-IndianaRestricted distributionWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-KansasWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-KentuckyWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-LouisianaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MarylandWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MississippiWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MissouriPresentWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New MexicoWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New YorkWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-North CarolinaWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-OklahomaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-OregonWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-South CarolinaWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TennesseeWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TexasWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-UtahPresentCampbell and Griffin, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-VirginiaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-WashingtonWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-West VirginiaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentWalker et al., 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BarbadosWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
BelizePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Costa RicaWidespreadLopez, 1985; Sosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
CubaWidespreadCuadra et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Rivas and Gandarilla, 2012
DominicaPresentHunt, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Dominican RepublicWidespreadRoman and Grullon, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002
El SalvadorWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GuadeloupeWidespreadKermarrec, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GuatemalaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
HaitiWidespreadCrill et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2002
HondurasWidespreadPinochet, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
JamaicaWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MartiniquePresentSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MontserratWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
NicaraguaWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PanamaWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Puerto RicoWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Hunt, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadHunt, 1977; Sosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadBala, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadDoucet and Pinochet, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BoliviaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
BrazilWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
-BahiaWidespreadFreire and Ponte, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-CearaWidespreadPonte, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Espirito SantoWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
-GoiasWidespreadLordello et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MaranhaoWidespreadSilva, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Mato Grosso do SulWidespreadLordello and Marini, 1974; Tihohod and Ferraz, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Minas GeraisWidespreadFreire and Ferraz, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ParaWidespreadFreire, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ParaibaWidespreadLopes and Lordello, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ParanaWidespreadLordello and Lordello, 1972; Santos and Silva, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-PernambucoWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Rio de JaneiroWidespreadGoes et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Rio Grande do NortePresentPonte et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Rio Grande do SulWidespreadLordello and Marini, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Santa CatarinaWidespreadKalvelage and Brose, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Sao PauloWidespreadCuri and Silveira, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ChileWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
EcuadorWidespreadVelastegui and Fiallos, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
French GuianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
GuyanaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
ParaguayWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
PeruPresentVargas and Pajuelo, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Murga-Gutierrez et al., 2012
SurinameWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UruguayPresentAlvarez, 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2002
VenezuelaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002

Europe

AlbaniaRestricted distributionShepherd and Barker, 1990
BelarusRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
BelgiumRestricted distributionBelgium Government ARC, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
BulgariaRestricted distributionStoyanov, 1980; Shepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
CyprusRestricted distributionPhilis, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Czech RepublicPresentTesarová et al., 2003
EstoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
FranceWidespreadGautier, 1975; Shepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GermanyRestricted distributionShepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GreeceRestricted distributionKyrou, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Tzortzakakis et al., 2011
-CretePresentTzortzakakis et al., 2016
HungaryRestricted distributionShepherd and Barker, 1990; Amin and Budai, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IcelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; d'Errico et al., 2014
-SicilyPresentColombo et al., 2008
LatviaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
LithuaniaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
MacedoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MaltaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MontenegroPresentPajovic et al., 2007
NetherlandsPresentNetherlands Plantenziektenkundige Dienst, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PolandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
PortugalWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
-AzoresPresentVovlas et al., 2004
RomaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Northern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
SerbiaPresentBacic et al., 2016Bac?ki Vinogradi, Vojvodina Province
SlovakiaPresentTesarová et al., 2003
SloveniaPresentSirca et al., 2003
SpainWidespreadTobar-Jiminez, 1984; Shepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; López-Robles et al., 2013
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
UKPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-ScotlandPresentTesarová et al., 2003
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Yugoslavia (former)PresentGrujicic, 1974
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2002
AustraliaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Australian Northern TerritoryWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Singh et al., 2012
-New South WalesWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-QueenslandWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-South AustraliaWidespreadStirling, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TasmaniaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-VictoriaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Western AustraliaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
FijiWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
KiribatiWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
New CaledoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
New ZealandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
NiuePresentBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Norfolk IslandPresentBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Papua New GuineaWidespreadPowell, 1974; Bridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SamoaWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Solomon IslandsWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TongaWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TuvaluWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
VanuatuWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Risk of Introduction

Top of page M. incognita is widely endemic in subtropical and tropical regions, thus quarantine regulations would be superfluous and none are known to be in place.

Habitat

Top of page M. incognita is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, in particular in the warmer areas. For example, in California (USA), M. incognita is found more commonly in the hot valleys of the interior (Ferris and Van Gundy, 1979) and in East Africa it is restricted to altitudes below 2000 m above sea level (Whitehead, 1969). M. incognita is found on many soil types. Damage and yield losses caused are generally more severe on coarse-textured sandy soils (Van Gundy, 1985). Meloidogyne spp. are generally intolerant of flooded soil conditions.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page M. incognita is probably the most widely distributed and economically important species of plant parasitic nematode in tropical and subtropical regions. Two-thirds of the root-knot nematode samples obtained from a number of tropical countries were of M. incognita (Sasser, 1979). In India alone, 232 plant genera have been reported as hosts to M. incognita (Krishnappa, 1985) and worldwide the species is a parasite of a wide range of crop plants.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Acacia confusaFabaceaeMain
Achillea (milfoil)AsteraceaeOther
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
AgaveAgavaceaeOther
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)FabaceaeOther
Aloe vera (true aloe)AloaceaeOther
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeHabitat/association
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeOther
Anethum graveolens (dill)ApiaceaeOther
Aptenia cordifoliaAizoaceaeHabitat/association
Araujia sericifera (Arejishi)AsclepiadaceaeWild host
Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeOther
Basella alba (Malabar spinach)BasellaceaeHabitat/association
Bassia scopariaChenopodiaceaeOther
Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut)LecythidaceaeUnknown
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes (kohlrabi)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeOther
Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeOther
Canavalia ensiformis (gotani bean)FabaceaeOther
CannaCannaceaeOther
Canna indica (canna lilly)CannaceaeHabitat/association
Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Cichorium (chicory)AsteraceaeOther
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)FabaceaeOther
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeOther
ColocasiaAraceaeOther
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Cordia myxa (sebesten)BoraginaceaeOther
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)AgavaceaeOther
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)AgavaceaeOther
Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeOther
Cucumis anguria (gerkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cullen corylifolium (black-dot)FabaceaeOther
Curcuma alismatifoliaZingiberaceaeOther
Curcuma longa (turmeric)ZingiberaceaeOther
Cyperus (flatsedge)CyperaceaeOther
Cyperus haspanCyperaceaeOther
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
Dahlia coccineaAsteraceaeOther
Datura metel (Hindu datura)SolanaceaeOther
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Dioscorea cayenensisDioscoreaceaeHabitat/association
Dioscorea rotundataDioscoreaceaeOther
Duranta erecta (Pigeonberry)VerbenaceaeOther
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)AsteraceaeWild host
Eragrostis ciliarisPoaceaeOther
Eryngium foetidumApiaceaeOther
Euphorbia prostrataEuphorbiaceaeOther
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
FicusMoraceaeOther
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeOther
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)AsteraceaeWild host
Gazania (treasure-flower)AsteraceaeOther
GloxiniaHabitat/association
Gomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
Hemerocallis (daylilies)LiliaceaeOther
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeHabitat/association
Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeMain
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Jacquemontia pentanthaConvolvulaceaeOther
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)OleaceaeHabitat/association
Jasminum sambac (arabian jasmine)OleaceaeOther
Juglans (walnuts)JuglandaceaeHabitat/association
Kalanchoe fedtschenkoiCrassulaceaeOther
Lactuca (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeOther
Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeMain
Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover)FabaceaeWild host
Mentha spicata (Spear mint)LamiaceaeOther
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeOther
Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeOther
Oenanthe javanicaApiaceaeOther
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeHabitat/association
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Persicaria posumbuPolygonaceaeOther
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Phyla nodifloraVerbenaceaeOther
Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeOther
Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)FabaceaeOther
Polianthes tuberosa (tuberose)AgavaceaeUnknown
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeOther
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed)PortulacaceaeOther
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)FabaceaeOther
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeOther
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean)FabaceaeOther
Ptychosperma elegansArecaceaeHabitat/association
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
Radermachera sinicaBignoniaceaeOther
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)LamiaceaeMain
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
Samanea saman (rain tree)FabaceaeMain
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)AgavaceaeOther
SolanaceaeSolanaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Tagetes erecta (African marigold)AsteraceaeOther
Tephrosia vogelii (Vogel's tephrosia)FabaceaeOther
Veitchia merrillii (christmas palm)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
Vigna mungo (black gram)FabaceaeOther
Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeOther
Viola pilosaViolaceaeOther
Vitex agnus-castus (lilac chastetree)LamiaceaeOther
Vitex trifoliaLamiaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
Washingtonia robusta (mexican washington-palm)ArecaceaeOther
Xanthosoma (cocoyam)AraceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Field symptoms are typically of stunted, poorly growing plants with yellowing leaves. Infected root systems show characteristic knots or galls, the severity of which varies with the degree of nematode infection and species and variety of plant parasitized (see Dropkin, 1989).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Roots / galls along length
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / swollen roots
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The life cycles of Meloidogyne spp. are well studied and in their essentials differ little between the major species (De Guiran and Ritter, 1979). At 21°C M. incognita took 37 days to complete its life cycle on Antirrhinum majus, a similar time to that reported on soyabeans (temperatures not published) (Ibrahim and El-Saedy, 1987). Juveniles penetrate root tips, occasionally invading roots in the zone of root elongation. Invaded nematodes initiate the development of giant cells in the meristematic, cortical and xylem tissues of the root and galling of roots occurs. Third- and fourth-stage juveniles and young females occur after about 6-8 and 15 days, respectively. Adult females were observed after 20 days and egg laying commenced after 25 days (Ibrahim and El-Saedy, 1987).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alternaria humicola Pathogen
Arachnula impatiens Pathogen
Arthrobotrys amerospora Predator
Arthrobotrys cladodes Predator
Arthrobotrys conoides Predator
Arthrobotrys dactyloides Predator
Arthrobotrys fusiformis Predator
Arthrobotrys irregularis Predator
Arthrobotrys lacdodes Predator
Arthrobotrys musiformis Predator
Arthrobotrys oligospora Predator cucumbers
Arthrobotrys vermicola Predator
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Athelia rolfsii Pathogen Larvae
Aureobasidium pullulans Antagonist
Azotobacter chroococcum Pathogen India
Bacillus cereus Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen tomatoes
Cochliobolus lunatus Pathogen
Cylindrocarpon olidum Pathogen
Dactylaria brochophaga Predator
Dactylella lysipaga Predator
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris Pathogen
Haematonectria haematococca Pathogen
Harposporium anguillulae Parasite
Harposporium oxysporium Parasite
Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Micrococcus luteus Pathogen
Monacrosporium cionopagum Predator
Monacrosporium ellipsosporum Predator
Monacrosporium endermata Predator
Monacrosporium fusiformis Predator
Monacrosporium lysifaga Predator
Monacrosporium megalalosporum Predator
Mononchoides fortidens Predator
Mononchoides longicaudatus Predator
Mononchus aquaticus Parasite
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite Eggs India; Puerto Rico
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Ecuador
Serratia marcescens Pathogen
Streptomyces saraceticus Pathogen
Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen
Vampyrella vorax Pathogen
Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs UK

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the biological control of root-knot nematodes in general and M. incognita in particular (Kerry, 1987). Most research has concentrated on the endoparasitic microorganism Pasteuria penetrans and the egg-parasitic fungus Paecilomyces lilanicus. Experimental work has been encouraging, for example P. penetrans in the control of M. incognita on tomatoes (Sayre, 1980) and P. lilanicus in the control of M. incognita on potatoes (Jatala, 1985). The development of P. lilanicus has reached the stage of multi-local field trials (Jatala, 1985). However, there are considerable problems in the preparation and incorporation of inocula of putative biocontrol agents and the practical application of such technology remains to be developed (Kerry, 1987).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - wood Yes
Land vehiclesEggs and galls in soil. Yes
MailEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelEggs and galls in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page Introduction

The root knot nematode species, M. incognita, is the most widespread and probably the most serious plant parasitic nematode pest of tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world (Sasser, 1979). It occurs as a pest on a very wide range of crops. Most estimates of yield loss come from the use of nematicides and it should be noted that these can possibly cause other beneficial growth effects.

Cotton

The most accurate and detailed estimates of cotton yield losses due to nematodes have been undertaken in states of the USA where nematicides are regularly used. In Arkansas, where M. incognita is by far the most important nematode of cotton, yield losses after the application of nematicides are estimated at 1.5% annually; in South Carolina, M. incognita with other nematodes account for an estimated 5% loss annually (Kirkpatrick, 1988, 1989). In Texas over a 16-year period of field experiments, the average cotton yield increase was 26% when fields infested with M. incognita were fumigated with nematicides. In six Texan counties, where over 47% of field soils were infested with M. incognita, it was calculated that the total annual yield loss was 10.2% or 85,600 cotton bales (Orr and Robinson, 1984). Disease complexes involving M. incognita and vascular Fusarium wilt on cotton are well recognized. Where the two organisms occur together, increasing the nematode population has a greater effect on wilt incidence and cotton yield loss than an increase in the Fusarium population (Starr et al., 1989; Hillocks and Bridge, 1992; Hillocks, 1997).

Tobacco

Root knot nematodes, mainly M. incognita and M. javanica, are always pests of economic importance in tobacco culture, wherever the climate favours them (Barker et al., 1981; Shepherd and Barker, 1990). In North America, losses to tobacco from root knot nematodes, mainly M. incognita, have been estimated to range from 1% to 14% annually in areas where control measures are the norm (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). Root knot nematodes, probably M. incognita, have been estimated to cause 50 to 60% yield losses in parts of Turkey and losses of 25% from field infestation and 50% if the infestation started in the seedbed in India (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). The percentage loss in tobacco yield is estimated to be 8 to 9% for each ten-fold increase in the initial population of M. incognita (Barker et al., 1981). In Cuba, in the region where the highest quality tobacco for cigars is produced, the losses due to M. incognita are estimated at 27.5% of the crop potential of flue-cured tobacco (Garcia and Perez, 1987; Fernandez and Ortega, 1998).

Food Legumes

M. incognita is a major economic pest of food legumes in the tropics and subtropics (Sikora and Greco, 1990). Moderate soil populations of 1000 nematodes per plant in pathogenicity pot experiments can reduce pod yields of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by 27% and very high soil populations of 10,000 per plant reduce pod yields by 87%. In M. incognita-infested field plots treated with nematicides, yield of chickpea can increase by 15 to 33% (Reddy, 1976). Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is very badly damaged by Meloidogyne species in the tropics. Significant bean yield increases of 45 to 60% have been achieved in Kenya by reducing mixed soil populations of M. incognita and M. javanica with the application of nematicides (Ngundo and Taylor, 1974). Similarly in Peru and Colombia, in fields infested with mixed populations of Meloidogyne species, mainly M. incognita, common bean seed yield can be reduced by 26 to 63% depending on the bean cultivar grown and other factors (Mullin et al., 1991). M. incognita is a serious pest of Phaseolus vulgaris in the USA where there is a reduction of 66% in crop value in fields where the nematodes are not controlled. The reduced crop value is a result of a combination of reduced plant stands and a 27% lower average pod production by surviving plants (Smittle and Johnson, 1982). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is another very susceptible host crop of M. incognita. In Nigerian soils where M. incognita is the predominant nematode parasite, application of nematicides can increase cowpea yields by 95 to 222% (Babatola and Omotade, 1991). Soyabean (Glycine max) is another legume severely damaged by root knot nematodes and in Brazil yield can be reduced by over 55% in the presence of M. incognita (Antonio, 1988). In India, nematicide application to farmers' fields infested with a mixture of M. incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis increased yield of soyabean by 19% (Prasad, 1999).

Vegetables

M. incognita is a major pest of vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics. Many crops grown as vegetables are susceptible to the nematode particularly tomato, aubergine, okra, cucumber, melon, carrot, gourds, lettuce and peppers. Estimates of vegetable crop losses due Meloidogyne species, mainly M. incognita and M. javanica, have ranged from 17 to 20% for aubergine (Solanum melongena), 18 to 33% for melon and 24 to 38% for tomato (Sasser, 1979). In India, yield losses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato and aubergine field crops are estimated at 91%, 42 to 54% and 18%, respectively (Bhatti and Jain, 1977; Subramaniyan et al., 1990). Other trials in India using nematicides showed that in fields naturally infested with mixed populations of M. incognita and M. javanica the avoidable yield losses in peas, okra, tomato and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) crops is 46% to 56% (Sharma and Baheti, 1992).

Yams

The primary damage to yams (Dioscorea species) by M. incognita is in the reduction in quality and marketability of the tubers due to the extensive surface galling caused by the root knot nematodes (Jatala and Bridge, 1990). It is estimated that there is a reduction of 39 to 52% in the price of galled tubers compared with healthy ones (Nwauzor and Fawole, 1982). However, there are instances were the nematode is known to actually reduce yields, for example in Nigeria significant yield reduction can occur in D. alata due to M. incognita (Adesiyan and Odihirin, 1978). In Martinique, M. incognita is reported to have completely destroyed a crop of the yam D. trifida (Kermarrec, 1974). In India, pot experiments have demonstrated that even low nematode populations of 100 M. incognita juveniles per plant can cause a highly significant reduction in yam (D. rotundata) tuber weights of 27% and larger nematode populations over 55% yield loss (Mohandas and Ramakrishnan, 1997).

Potatoes

Losses of potatoes due to Meloidogyne species, mainly M. incognita, are estimated at 25% or more (Mai et al., 1981).

Spices

M. incognita is an important pest of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in many countries particularly in Brazil and India where infestation levels of over 90% have been reported (Koshy and Bridge, 1990). As few as 10 juveniles per plant can reduce black pepper growth by 16% under potted conditions (Koshy et al., 1979). Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) suffers yield losses of 32 to 47% in the presence of M. incognita in India (Ali, 1986). In Australia, M. incognita and M. javanica are pests of ginger and severe infestation of rhizomes can reduce yields by 57% (Pegg et al., 1974). In pot experiments, a reduction of 74% in ginger rhizome weight has been recorded with initial M. incognita soil populations of 10,000 nematodes (Sukumaran and Sundararaju, 1986).

Coffee

M. incognita is found in many coffee-growing areas in the world but it is in Brazil where its effects have been the most catastrophic. In Brazil, the nematode has caused the complete destruction of coffee plantations and resulted in major agricultural changes as farmers were forced to adopt alternative crops (Campos et al., 1990).

Diagnosis

Top of page General identification of root-knot nematode infestation can be conducted by competent nematologists with basic equipment. Identification of species within the genus Meloidogyne requires the services of specialized taxonomists. In addition to classical taxonomic techniques, biochemical methods are also being developed (Esbenshade and Triantaphyllou, 1985). The situation regarding M. incognita is complicated by the existence of morphologically indistinguishable races differentiated by their ability to reproduce on a range of test host plants (Hartman and Sasser, 1985).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Above-ground symptoms are non-specific (see Symptoms): examination of roots can reveal the presence of swollen roots and galls. Closer examination, for example with a hand lens, can show the presence of egg masses on the root surface.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Meloidogyne incognita is similar to other species of Meloidogyne. Confusion within this group is common as the characters used tend to be variable.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Methods for the control of M. incognita vary with the production system used and the value of the crop. Chemical control may be used on high-value crops, and a wide range of chemicals are available (Johnson, 1985a; Hague and Gowen, 1987). Strategies of cultural control are less well developed and crop rotations are difficult to design because of the wide host range of M. incognita. Groundnuts or maize, which are both poor or non-hosts to M. incognita, have been evaluated for use in cropping systems designed to manage this nematode (Raymundo, 1985). Systems of integrating cropping sequences and chemical control have been evaluated in the USA (Johnson, 1985b). Resistance to M. incognita exists in a number of commercial crop varieties, principally vegetables (Lehman and Cochran, 1991). These have generally been developed in the USA, but have been evaluated in other parts of the world (for example, see Krishnappa, 1985).

References

Top of page

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