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Datasheet

Meloidogyne incognita
(root-knot nematode)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, full body image.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, spicule.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
TitleMale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
Copyright©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.
MaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); male, perineal pattern.©Pest & Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleFemale
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
FemaleMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); female. (Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females.
(reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females.
(reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
TitleCuticular patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Copyright©CAB International
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)
Cuticular patternsMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); posterior cuticular patterns of females. (reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No.18. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.)©CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • root-knot nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Meloidogyne acrita (Chitwood, 1949) Esser, Perry and Taylor, 1976
  • Meloidogyne incognita acrita Chitwood, 1949
  • Meloidogyne wartellei Golden & Birchfield, 1978
  • Oxyuris incognita Kofoid & White, 1919

International Common Names

  • English: root-knot eelworm; southern root-knot nematode
  • Spanish: anguillula de las raices; nemátodo agallador; nemátodo de la raiz; nemátodo de las agallas; nemátodo de los nódulos de las raíces; nemátodo nódulador; nemátodo sureno de quiste (Mexico)
  • French: anguillule a noeud de la patate; anguillule des racines; nématode à galles; nématode cécidogène; nématode des galles des racines; nématode des racines
  • Portuguese: nematóide das galhas

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: rodgalle-nematode
  • Germany: knoellchen-aelchen; knoellchen-nematode; suedliches wurzelgallen-aelchen
  • Hungary: gyökércsomós fonálférgek
  • Italy: anguillula delle radici; anguillula gallicola delle radici
  • Japan: satumaimo-nekobu-sentyu
  • South Africa: Wortelknop aalwurm
  • Sudan: nematoda bengkak akar
  • Turkey: kok ur nematodu

EPPO code

  • MELGIN (Meloidogyne incognita)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne incognita

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Meloidogyne species may be difficult to identify with certainty due to their inherent variability. Adult females and infective juveniles should be examined before making an identification. Male characters are also useful if they are available for examination, because some populations may not produce males, but they may be stimulated to produce males by putting the host plant under stress (Snyder et al., 2006). 

Description

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Female

Endoparasitic, body pear-shaped, pearly white. Stylet knobs usually rounded, sometimes drawn out laterally. Distance of the dorsal esophageal gland to the base of the stylet is short, 2-3 µm. Excretory pore at level of or posterior to stylet knobs, 10-20 annules posterior to the anterior end. Posterior perineal pattern variable. Typical pattern 'incognita type'; with striae closely spaced, very wavy to zig-zag especially dorsally and laterally. Dorsal arch high, squarish. Lateral field not clear, sometimes marked by breaks in striae, broken ends often forked, pattern merging into body striae. Alternate 'Acrita type'; with striae smoother, more widely spaced (or with coarse, widely spaced striae separated by fine, closely spaced striae visible for short distances). Dorsal arch variable, may be flattened at top with the overall appearance of a trapezoid. Striae often forked along a 'lateral line'. Limits of pattern more or less well-defined. Aberrant patterns occur.

Male

Vermiform, 1-2 mm in length. Head not offset, distinct head cap on top of a large head annule that may be further divided into 1-3 incomplete, smaller annules appearing stepped in outline in lateral view. Body clearly annulated. Conus of stylet longer than shaft, stylet knobs prominent, usually of greater width than length, with flat, concave anterior margins. Excretory pore at level of posterior end of isthmus with hemizonid usually 0-5 annules anterior. Lateral field with 4 incisures, outer bands areolated, inner band rarely cross-striated except at posterior end. Testes 1 or 2. Tail bluntly rounded, terminus unstriated. Phasmids at cloaca level or just posterior. Spicules slightly curved, gubernaculum crescentic.

Second-Stage Juvenile

Vermiform, less than 0.5 mm in length. Head not offset, truncate cone shape in lateral view, sub-hemispherical in dorso-ventral view. Head-cap wide containing 2-3 annules. Stylet knobs prominent, rounded. Hemizonid 3 annules long just anterior to excretory pore. Lateral field with 4 incisures, outer bands areolated. Rectum inflated. Tail tapering to subacute terminus, annulations coarsening posteriorly.

Measurements (after Whitehead, 1968)


20 females: L = 500-723 (609) µm; width = 331-520 (415) µm; stylet (10) = 13-16 (14) µm; width stylet base (10) = 3-5 (4) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (8) = 2-4 (3) µm behind stylet base; length median bulb (10) = 37-63 (46) µm; width median bulb (10) = 31-49 (39) µm; length median bulb valves (10) = 13-16 (14) µm; width median bulb valves (10) = 11-13 (12) µm.

14 males: L = 1108-1953 (1583) µm; a = 31.4-55.4 (46.3); length head (13) = 6.8-8.6 (7.9) µm; stylet (13) = 23.0-32.7 (25.0) µm; width stylet base (13) = 4.7-6.8 (5.8) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (4) = 1.4-2.5 (2.1) µm behind stylet base; b' (12) = 13.8-20.5 (17.4); c (13) = 97-255 (146); length median bulb (12) = 14.4-25.2 (20.0) µm; width median bulb (12) = 8.6-15.8 (11.2) µm; length median bulb valves (12) = 5.8-9.0 (7.2) µm; spicules (length of arc) (12) = 28.8-40.3 (35.2) µm; gubernaculum (7) = 9.4-13.7 (11.2) µm.

25 second-stage juveniles: L = 337-403 (371) µm; a = 24.9-31.5 (28.3); b (21) = 2.02-3.14 (2.36); b' (24) = 6.4-8.4 (7.1); length tail = 38-55 (46) µm; d = 4.0-5.6 (4.9); c = 6.9-10.6 (8.1); length body to middle of genital primordium = 212-247 (230) µm; stylet = 9.6-11.7 (10.5) µm; length median bulb (24) = 10.1-12.9 (11.3) µm; width median bulb (24) = 5.8-8.3 (7.3) µm; length median bulb valves (22) = 3.6-6.47 (5.2) µm.

Distribution

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M. incognita has also been recorded from the following areas of protected agriculture; for example, around temperate research stations and other areas of intensive horticulture. In some cases the nematodes have been able to overwinter due to mild winters and could be expanding their geographical range.

Armenia (Pogosyan and Karapetyan, 1976), Heilongjiang and Ningxia in China (Yang et al., 1991), Hokkaido in Japan (Yamada and Takakura, 1975), Belarus (Gladkaya, 1981), Estonia (Pallum, 1972), Latvia (Rasina, 1970), Lithuania (Rudzyavichene et al., 1975), Macedonia (Krnjaic, 1977), Moldavia (Batyr and Kozhokaru, 1985), Poland (Brzeski et al., 1978), Romania (Romascu et al., 1974), European part of Russia (Kozhokaru, 1972; Gushchin and Efremenko, 1975; Mar'enko, 1989), Siberia (Shiabova, 1977), Ukraine (Timchenko, 1981) and UK (IIP, 1991).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Nov 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent, Widespread
BeninPresent2011
BotswanaPresent2004
Burkina FasoPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent1964
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Widespread
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent, Widespread
EritreaPresent2013
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent, Widespread
GhanaPresent, Widespread
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LiberiaPresent, Widespread
LibyaPresent, Widespread
MadagascarPresent, Widespread
MalawiPresent, Widespread
MaliPresent2019
MauritaniaPresent
MauritiusPresent, Widespread
MoroccoPresent, Widespread
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent, Widespread
NigeriaPresent, Widespread
RéunionPresent, Widespread
SenegalPresent, Widespread
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent, Localized
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
SudanPresent, Localized
TanzaniaPresent, Widespread
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent, Localized
UgandaPresent, Widespread
ZambiaPresent, Widespread
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

AfghanistanPresent2018
ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent1982
BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent, Widespread
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-QinghaiPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-ChandigarhPresent, Widespread
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent, Localized
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent, Widespread
-Madhya PradeshPresent, Widespread
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent, Widespread
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent, Widespread
-SumatraPresent, Widespread
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent, Widespread
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
LebanonPresent, Widespread
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MongoliaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent, Widespread
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Widespread
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent, Widespread
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent, Widespread
UzbekistanPresent, Widespread
VietnamPresent, Widespread
YemenPresent, Widespread

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, Localized
BelarusPresent, Localized
BelgiumPresentBotanical garden at Ghent University.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent, Localized
CyprusPresent, Localized
CzechiaPresent
EstoniaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent, Localized
GreecePresent, Localized
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent, Localized
IcelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LatviaPresent, Localized
LithuaniaPresent, Localized
MaltaPresent
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent, Widespread
-AzoresPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Central RussiaPresent
-Northern RussiaPresent
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresentBac?ki Vinogradi, Vojvodina Province
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Canary IslandsPresent, Localized
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BarbadosPresent, Widespread
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent, Widespread
CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
Costa RicaPresent, Widespread
CubaPresent, Widespread
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent, Widespread
El SalvadorPresent, Widespread
GuadeloupePresent, Widespread
GuatemalaPresent, Widespread
HaitiPresent, Widespread
HondurasPresent, Widespread
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent, Widespread
MontserratPresent, Widespread
NicaraguaPresent, Widespread
PanamaPresent, Widespread
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, Widespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent, Widespread
-ArizonaPresent, Widespread
-ArkansasPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent, Widespread
-ConnecticutPresent, Widespread
-FloridaPresent, Widespread
-GeorgiaPresent, Widespread
-HawaiiPresent, Widespread
-IllinoisPresent, Localized
-IndianaPresent, Localized
-KansasPresent, Widespread
-KentuckyPresent, Widespread
-LouisianaPresent, Widespread
-MarylandPresent, Widespread
-MississippiPresent, Widespread
-MissouriPresent
-New MexicoPresent, Widespread
-New YorkPresent, Widespread
-North CarolinaPresent, Widespread
-OklahomaPresent, Widespread
-OregonPresent, Widespread
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Widespread
-South CarolinaPresent, Widespread
-TennesseePresent, Widespread
-TexasPresent, Widespread
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent, Widespread
-WashingtonPresent, Widespread
-West VirginiaPresent, Widespread

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent, Widespread
-Northern TerritoryPresent, Widespread
-QueenslandPresent, Widespread
-South AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-TasmaniaPresent, Widespread
-VictoriaPresent, Widespread
-Western AustraliaPresent, Widespread
FijiPresent, Widespread
KiribatiPresent, Widespread
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
NiuePresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent, Widespread
SamoaPresent, Widespread
Solomon IslandsPresent, Widespread
TongaPresent, Widespread
TuvaluPresent, Widespread
VanuatuPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BoliviaPresent, Widespread
BrazilPresent, Widespread
-BahiaPresent, Widespread
-CearaPresent, Widespread
-Espirito SantoPresent, Widespread
-GoiasPresent, Widespread
-MaranhaoPresent, Widespread
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent, Widespread
-Minas GeraisPresent, Widespread
-ParaPresent, Widespread
-ParaibaPresent, Widespread
-ParanaPresent, Widespread
-PernambucoPresent, Widespread
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, Widespread
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, Widespread
-Santa CatarinaPresent, Widespread
-Sao PauloPresent, Widespread
ChilePresent, Widespread
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent, Widespread
ParaguayPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent, Widespread
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent, Widespread

Risk of Introduction

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M. incognita is widely endemic in subtropical and tropical regions, thus quarantine regulations would be superfluous and none are known to be in place.

Habitat

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M. incognita is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, in particular in the warmer areas. For example, in California (USA), M. incognita is found more commonly in the hot valleys of the interior (Ferris and Van Gundy, 1979) and in East Africa it is restricted to altitudes below 2000 m above sea level (Whitehead, 1969). M. incognita is found on many soil types. Damage and yield losses caused are generally more severe on coarse-textured sandy soils (Van Gundy, 1985). Meloidogyne spp. are generally intolerant of flooded soil conditions.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. incognita is probably the most widely distributed and economically important species of plant parasitic nematode in tropical and subtropical regions. Two-thirds of the root-knot nematode samples obtained from a number of tropical countries were of M. incognita (Sasser, 1979). In India alone, 232 plant genera have been reported as hosts to M. incognita (Krishnappa, 1985) and worldwide the species is a parasite of a wide range of crop plants.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Abelmoschus manihot (bele)MalvaceaeUnknown
  • Singh et al. (2012)
Acacia confusaFabaceaeMain
    Achillea millefolium (yarrow)AsteraceaeOther
      Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
        AgaveAgavaceaeOther
          Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)FabaceaeOther
            Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)MalvaceaeOther
              Aloe vera (true aloe)AloaceaeOther
                Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                  Amaranthus blitoides (spreading amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                    Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                      Amaranthus deflexus (Perennial Pigweed)AmaranthaceaeWild host
                        Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)AmaranthaceaeWild host
                          Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
                            Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
                            • Singh et al. (2012)
                            Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeHabitat/association
                              Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeOther
                                Anchusa azurea (Italian alkanet)BoraginaceaeWild host
                                  Anethum graveolens (dill)ApiaceaeOther
                                  Aptenia cordifoliaAizoaceaeHabitat/association
                                    Arabidopsis thalianaBrassicaceaeOther
                                      Araujia sericifera (Arejishi)AsclepiadaceaeWild host
                                        Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
                                          Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeOther
                                            Basella alba (malabar spinach)BasellaceaeHabitat/association
                                              Bassia scopariaChenopodiaceaeOther
                                                Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut)LecythidaceaeUnknown
                                                  Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                                    Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                      Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                                                      • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                      Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes (kohlrabi)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                        Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                          Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeOther
                                                            Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                              CannaCannaceaeOther
                                                                Canna indica (canna lilly)CannaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                  Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeOther
                                                                    Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                    • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                    Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)SapindaceaeWild host
                                                                      Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
                                                                      • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                      Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                                                                        Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                                                                          Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                            Cichorium (chicory)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                              Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                                                              • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                              Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)CapparaceaeWild host
                                                                                Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                  Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                    Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
                                                                                      Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
                                                                                        Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                                          ColocasiaAraceaeOther
                                                                                            Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeUnknown
                                                                                            • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                            Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew)CommelinaceaeWild host
                                                                                              Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
                                                                                                Cordia myxa (sebesten)BoraginaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)AgavaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)AgavaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                      • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                      Cucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                        Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Cucurbita argyrosperma (silver-seed gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                            Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                            • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                            Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                              Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                  Cullen corylifolium (black-dot)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                    Curcuma alismatifoliaZingiberaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Curcuma longa (turmeric)ZingiberaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Cyperus (flatsedge)CyperaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Cyperus haspanCyperaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                            Dahlia coccineaAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                              Datura metel (Hindu datura)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                  Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                    Digitaria horizontalisPoaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                      Digitaria insularis (sourgrass)PoaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                        Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                            Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                              Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)DioscoreaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                Dioscorea esculenta (Asiatic yam)DioscoreaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                Dioscorea rotundataDioscoreaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                  Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)VerbenaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PoaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                      Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                        Eragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                          Eryngium foetidumApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                              Euphorbia prostrataEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                  Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                    FicusMoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Ficus elastica (rubber plant)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                            Gazania (treasure-flower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                              GloxiniaHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      Hemerocallis (daylilies)LiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                        Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                          Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                            Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                              Hibiscus trionum (Venice mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Jacquemontia pentanthaConvolvulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)OleaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Juglans (walnuts)JuglandaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kalanchoe fedtschenkoiCrassulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lactuca (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris (lentil)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot trefoil)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Luffa acutangula (angled luffa)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover)FabaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mentha spicata (Spear mint)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oenanthe javanicaApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ophiopogon japonicusLiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Persicaria posumbuPolygonaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Phyla nodifloraVerbenaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Piper methysticum (kava)PiperaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pittosporum tobira (Japanese pittosporum)PittosporaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)PlantaginaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Polianthes tuberosa (tuberose)AgavaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Polygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed)PolygonaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed)PortulacaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Radermachera sinicaBignoniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rollinia mucosaAnnonaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)LamiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rumex acetosa (sour dock)PolygonaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Samanea saman (rain tree)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)AgavaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Setaria viridis (green foxtail)PoaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sinapis alba (white mustard)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SolanaceaeSolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Solanum americanumSolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Solanum sisymbriifoliumSolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tabebuia serratifoliaBignoniaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tephrosia vogelii (Vogel's tephrosia)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Trachyspermum ammiApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Veitchia merrillii (Christmas palm)ArecaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vernonia cinereaAsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vigna angularis (adzuki bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vigna mungo (black gram)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Viola pilosaViolaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Vitex agnus-castus (lilac chastetree)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vitex trifoliaLamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Washingtonia robusta (mexican washington-palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Xanthosoma (cocoyam)AraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Singh et al. (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Singh et al. (2012)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Growth Stages

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Field symptoms are typically of stunted, poorly growing plants with yellowing leaves. Infected root systems show characteristic knots or galls, the severity of which varies with the degree of nematode infection and species and variety of plant parasitized (see Dropkin, 1989).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Leaves / wilting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Roots / galls along length
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Roots / reduced root system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Roots / swollen roots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whole plant / early senescence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The life cycles of Meloidogyne spp. are well studied and in their essentials differ little between the major species (De Guiran and Ritter, 1979). At 21°C M. incognita took 37 days to complete its life cycle on Antirrhinum majus, a similar time to that reported on soyabeans (temperatures not published) (Ibrahim and El-Saedy, 1987). Juveniles penetrate root tips, occasionally invading roots in the zone of root elongation. Invaded nematodes initiate the development of giant cells in the meristematic, cortical and xylem tissues of the root and galling of roots occurs. Third- and fourth-stage juveniles and young females occur after about 6-8 and 15 days, respectively. Adult females were observed after 20 days and egg laying commenced after 25 days (Ibrahim and El-Saedy, 1987).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Climate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Preferred < 860mm precipitation annually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Air Temperature

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Natural enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Alternaria humicola Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arachnula impatiens Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys amerospora Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys cladodes Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys conoides Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys dactyloides Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys fusiformis Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys irregularis Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys lacdodes Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys musiformis Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys oligospora Predator cucumbers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arthrobotrys vermicola Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aspergillus niger Antagonist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Athelia rolfsii Pathogen Larvae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aureobasidium pullulans Antagonist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Azotobacter chroococcum Pathogen India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bacillus cereus Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen tomatoes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cochliobolus lunatus Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cylindrocarpon olidum Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dactylaria brochophaga Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dactylella lysipaga Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Haematonectria haematococca Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Harposporium anguillulae Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Harposporium oxysporium Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Micrococcus luteus Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monacrosporium cionopagum Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monacrosporium ellipsosporum Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monacrosporium endermata Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monacrosporium fusiformis Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monacrosporium lysifaga Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monacrosporium megalalosporum Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mononchoides fortidens Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mononchoides longicaudatus Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mononchus aquaticus Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite Eggs India; Puerto Rico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Ecuador
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Serratia marcescens Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Streptomyces saraceticus Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vampyrella vorax Pathogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Notes on Natural Enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the biological control of root-knot nematodes in general and M. incognita in particular (Kerry, 1987). Most research has concentrated on the endoparasitic microorganism Pasteuria penetrans and the egg-parasitic fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum (syn. Paecilomyces lilanicus). Experimental work has been encouraging, for example, P. penetrans in the control of M. incognita on tomatoes (Sayre, 1980) and P. lilanicinum in the control of M. incognita on potatoes (Jatala, 1985). The development of P. lilanicinum has reached the stage of multi-local field trials (Jatala, 1985). However, there are considerable problems in the preparation and incorporation of inocula of putative biocontrol agents and the practical application of such technology remains to be developed (Kerry, 1987).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pathway Causes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Botanical gardens and zoosInfrequent Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Breeding and propagationPossible on vegetatively propagated material. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crop productionMovement of soil on machinery. Movement of infected plant material. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Digestion and excretionEggs can pass through the intestine. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Flooding and other natural disastersFlood washes infected soil downstream. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                FoodRoot crops commonly found in the market. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Garden waste disposalRoot and root crops infected. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Military movementsMovement of soil on equipment. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nursery tradeMovement of infected plants. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                People sharing resourcesSharing plants that are infected. Sharing soil that are infested Yes Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and galls in soil. Infested soil on footwear. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Containers and packaging - wood Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Land vehiclesEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MailEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Soil, sand and gravelEggs and galls in soil. Movement of infested soil. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Debris and waste associated with human activitiesMovement of infested soil. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Machinery and equipmentMovement of infested soil Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mulch, straw, baskets and sodMovement of infested sod. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plants or parts of plantsMovement of infected plants. Yes Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plant Trade

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Growing medium accompanying plants eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wood

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wood Packaging

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loose wood packing material
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Processed or treated wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Solid wood packing material with bark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Solid wood packing material without bark

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Impact Summary

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CategoryImpact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Economic/livelihood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Environment (generally)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Introduction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The root knot nematode species, M. incognita, is the most widespread and probably the most serious plant parasitic nematode pest of tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world (Sasser, 1979). It occurs as a pest on a very wide range of crops. Most estimates of yield loss come from the use of nematicides and it should be noted that these can possibly cause other beneficial growth effects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cotton

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The most accurate and detailed estimates of cotton yield losses due to nematodes have been undertaken in states of the USA where nematicides are regularly used. In Arkansas, where M. incognita is by far the most important nematode of cotton, yield losses after the application of nematicides are estimated at 1.5% annually; in South Carolina, M. incognita with other nematodes account for an estimated 5% loss annually (Kirkpatrick, 1988, 1989). In Texas over a 16-year period of field experiments, the average cotton yield increase was 26% when fields infested with M. incognita were fumigated with nematicides. In six Texan counties, where over 47% of field soils were infested with M. incognita, it was calculated that the total annual yield loss was 10.2% or 85,600 cotton bales (Orr and Robinson, 1984). Disease complexes involving M. incognita and vascular Fusarium wilt on cotton are well recognized. Where the two organisms occur together, increasing the nematode population has a greater effect on wilt incidence and cotton yield loss than an increase in the Fusarium population (Starr et al., 1989; Hillocks and Bridge, 1992; Hillocks, 1997).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tobacco

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Root knot nematodes, mainly M. incognita and M. javanica, are always pests of economic importance in tobacco culture, wherever the climate favours them (Barker et al., 1981; Shepherd and Barker, 1990). In North America, losses to tobacco from root knot nematodes, mainly M. incognita, have been estimated to range from 1 to 14% annually in areas where control measures are the norm (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). Root knot nematodes, probably M. incognita, have been estimated to cause 50 to 60% yield losses in parts of Turkey and losses of 25% from field infestation and 50% if the infestation started in the seedbed in India (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). The percentage loss in tobacco yield is estimated to be 8 to 9% for each ten-fold increase in the initial population of M. incognita (Barker et al., 1981). In Cuba, in the region where the highest quality tobacco for cigars is produced, the losses due to M. incognita are estimated at 27.5% of the crop potential of flue-cured tobacco (Garcia and Perez, 1987; Fernandez and Ortega, 1998).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Food Legumes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                M. incognita is a major economic pest of food legumes in the tropics and subtropics (Sikora and Greco, 1990). Moderate soil populations of 1000 nematodes per plant in pathogenicity pot experiments can reduce pod yields of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by 27% and very high soil populations of 10,000 per plant reduce pod yields by 87%. In M. incognita-infested field plots treated with nematicides, yield of chickpea can increase by 15 to 33% (Reddy, 1976). Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is very badly damaged by Meloidogyne species in the tropics. Significant bean yield increases of 45 to 60% have been achieved in Kenya by reducing mixed soil populations of M. incognita and M. javanica with the application of nematicides (Ngundo and Taylor, 1974). Similarly in Peru and Colombia, in fields infested with mixed populations of Meloidogyne species, mainly M. incognita, common bean seed yield can be reduced by 26 to 63% depending on the bean cultivar grown and other factors (Mullin et al., 1991). M. incognita is a serious pest of Phaseolus vulgaris in the USA where there is a reduction of 66% in crop value in fields where the nematodes are not controlled. The reduced crop value is a result of a combination of reduced plant stands and a 27% lower average pod production by surviving plants (Smittle and Johnson, 1982). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is another very susceptible host crop of M. incognita. In Nigerian soils where M. incognita is the predominant nematode parasite, application of nematicides can increase cowpea yields by 95 to 222% (Babatola and Omotade, 1991). Soyabean (Glycine max) is another legume severely damaged by root knot nematodes and in Brazil yield can be reduced by over 55% in the presence of M. incognita (Antonio, 1988). In India, nematicide application to farmers' fields infested with a mixture of M. incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis increased yield of soyabean by 19% (Prasad, 1999).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vegetables

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                M. incognita is a major pest of vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics. Many crops grown as vegetables are susceptible to the nematode particularly tomato, aubergine, okra, cucumber, melon, carrot, gourds, lettuce and peppers. Estimates of vegetable crop losses due Meloidogyne species, mainly M. incognita and M. javanica, have ranged from 17 to 20% for aubergine (Solanum melongena), 18 to 33% for melon and 24 to 38% for tomato (Sasser, 1979). In India, yield losses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato and aubergine field crops are estimated at 91%, 42 to 54% and 18%, respectively (Bhatti and Jain, 1977; Subramaniyan et al., 1990). Other trials in India using nematicides showed that in fields naturally infested with mixed populations of M. incognita and M. javanica the avoidable yield losses in peas, okra, tomato and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) crops is 46% to 56% (Sharma and Baheti, 1992).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yams

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The primary damage to yams (Dioscorea species) by M. incognita is in the reduction in quality and marketability of the tubers due to the extensive surface galling caused by the root knot nematodes (Jatala and Bridge, 1990). It is estimated that there is a reduction of 39 to 52% in the price of galled tubers compared with healthy ones (Nwauzor and Fawole, 1982). However, there are instances were the nematode is known to actually reduce yields, for example in Nigeria significant yield reduction can occur in D. alata due to M. incognita (Adesiyan and Odihirin, 1978). In Martinique, M. incognita is reported to have completely destroyed a crop of the yam D. trifida (Kermarrec, 1974). In India, pot experiments have demonstrated that even low nematode populations of 100 M. incognita juveniles per plant can cause a highly significant reduction in yam (D. rotundata) tuber weights of 27% and larger nematode populations over 55% yield loss (Mohandas and Ramakrishnan, 1997).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Potatoes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Losses of potatoes due to Meloidogyne species, mainly M. incognita and M. chitwoodi, are estimated at 25% or more (Mai et al., 1981).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Spices

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                M. incognita is an important pest of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in many countries particularly in Brazil and India where infestation levels of over 90% have been reported (Koshy and Bridge, 1990). As few as 10 juveniles per plant can reduce black pepper growth by 16% under potted conditions (Koshy et al., 1979). Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) suffers yield losses of 32 to 47% in the presence of M. incognita in India (Ali, 1986). In Australia, M. incognita and M. javanica are pests of ginger and severe infestation of rhizomes can reduce yields by 57% (Pegg et al., 1974). In pot experiments, a reduction of 74% in ginger rhizome weight has been recorded with initial M. incognita soil populations of 10,000 nematodes (Sukumaran and Sundararaju, 1986).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coffee

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                M. incognita is found in many coffee-growing areas in the world but it is in Brazil where its effects have been the most catastrophic. In Brazil, the nematode has caused the complete destruction of coffee plantations and resulted in major agricultural changes as farmers were forced to adopt alternative crops (Campos et al., 1990).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Risk and Impact Factors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Invasiveness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Has a broad native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Abundant in its native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Highly adaptable to different environments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Is a habitat generalist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Tolerant of shade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fast growing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Has high reproductive potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Reproduces asexually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Has high genetic variability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Impact outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Host damage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Increases vulnerability to invasions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Modification of nutrient regime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Monoculture formation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Negatively impacts forestry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Damages animal/plant products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Impact mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Allelopathic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Competition - monopolizing resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Induces hypersensitivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Interaction with other invasive species
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rooting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Difficult/costly to control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Uses List

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                General

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Research model

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Diagnosis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                General identification of root-knot nematode infestation can be conducted by competent nematologists with basic equipment. Identification of species within the genus Meloidogyne requires the services of specialized taxonomists. In addition to classical taxonomic techniques, biochemical methods have been developed (Esbenshade and Triantaphyllou, 1985), and molecular techniques are standard by sequencing the ribosomal DNA 18S-ITS-5.8S, 28S D2/D3 and a mitochondrial DNA fragment flanking cytochrome oxidase gene subunit II (Ye et al., 2019).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The situation regarding M. incognita is complicated by the existence of morphologically indistinguishable races differentiated by their ability to reproduce on resistant tobacco and cotton (Hartman and Sasser, 1985).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Detection and Inspection

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Above-ground symptoms are non-specific (see Symptoms): examination of roots can reveal the presence of swollen roots and galls. However, some hosts such as maize do not form galls. Closer examination, for example with a hand lens, can show the presence of egg masses on the root surface.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The morphology of M. incognita is similar to other species of Meloidogyne and often confused with other species such as M. enterolobii, M. floridensis, M. hispanica, etc. Confusion within this group is common as the characters used tend to be variable; however molecular techniques have made species identification very reliable (Ye et al., 2019).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Methods for the control of M. incognita vary with the production system used and the value of the crop. Chemical control may be used on high-value crops, and a wide range of chemicals are available (Johnson, 1985a; Hague and Gowen, 1987). More recently, seed treatments have become widely utilized to minimize the amount on active ingredient applied or for the application of biological control agents. Often these tactics are reserved for the most important row crops like soyabean, maize and cotton (Monfort et al., 2006). Strategies of cultural control are less well developed and crop rotations are difficult to design because of the wide host range of M. incognita. Groundnuts or maize, which are both poor or non-hosts to M. incognita, have been evaluated for use in cropping systems designed to manage this nematode (Raymundo, 1985). Systems of integrating cropping sequences and chemical control have been evaluated in the USA (Johnson, 1985b). Resistance to M. incognita exists in a number of commercial crop varieties, principally vegetables (Lehman and Cochran, 1991). These have generally been developed in the USA, but have been evaluated in other parts of the world (for example, see Krishnappa, 1985).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                References

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Adesiyan SO, Odihirin RA, 1978. Root knot nematodes as pests of yams (Dioscorea spp.) in southern Nigeria. Nematologica, 24(1):132-134

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Affokpon, A., Coyne, D. L., Cho Cho Htay, Agbèdè, R. D., Lawouin, L., Coosemans, J., 2011. Biocontrol potential of native Trichoderma isolates against root-knot nematodes in West African vegetable production systems. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43(3), 600-608. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.11.029

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ahmed, N., Omara, A. E., 2018. Efficiency of Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol agent in combination with humate and chitosan against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 51(11/12), 673-683. doi: 10.1080/03235408.2018.1514162

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ali SS, 1986. Root-knot nematode problem in cardamom and its management. Proceedings of the Second Group Discussions on the Nematological Problems of Plantation Crops, April 24-25, 1986. Central Coffee Research Station, Balehonnur, Karnataka, India, pp. 10-12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Anamika, Sobita Simon, 2010. New report on occurrence of root-knot disease in Beta vulgaris. Current Nematology, 21(1/2):71-73

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ansari, T., Asif, M., Siddiqui, M. A., 2018. Resistance screening of lentil cultivars against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 11(1), 9-18. doi: 10.2478/hppj-2018-0002

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Antes, V. A., Comerlato, A. P., Schuelter, A. R., Carneiro, R. M. D. G., Furlanetto, C., 2012. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 55(2), 213-219. doi: 10.1590/S1516-89132012000200005

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Antonio H, 1988. Avaliacao das perdas causadas por Meloidogyne incognita raca 4 no cultivar BR-4 de soja. Nematologia Brasileira, 12:29-34

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Artyunov AV, 1985. Allium pskemense - a new plant host of Meloidogyne. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR Biologicheskie Nauk, No.7, 64-65

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Atungwu, J. J., Afolami, S. O., Egunjobi, O. A., Kadri, O. A., 2008. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita on Sesamum indicum and the efficacy of yield-based scheme in resistance designation. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 48(1), 73-80. doi: 10.2478/v10045-008-0008-7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Babatola JD, 1980. Reactions of some rice cultivars to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Nematropica, 10(1):5-9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Babatola JO, Omotade MA, 1991. Chemical control of the nematode pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Crop Protection, 10(2):121-124; 27 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bacic J, Stare BG, Strajnar P, Sirca S, Urek G, 2016. First report of a highly damaged potato crop from Serbia caused by Meloidogyne incognita. Plant Disease, 100(5):1021-1022. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Baidoo, R., Mengistu, T. M., Brito, J. A., McSorley, R., Stamps, R. H., Crow, W. T., 2017. Vertical distribution of Pasteuria penetrans parasitizing Meloidogyne incognita on Pittosporum tobira in Florida. Journal of Nematology, 49(3), 311-315. http://journals.fcla.edu/jon/article/view/105155/100980

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bala, G., Hosein, F., Seecharan, S., 1985. Caribbean Plant Protection Newsletter, (No. 5) . 8.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Barker KR, Todd FA, Shane WW, Nelson LA, 1981. Interrelationships of Meloidogyne species with flue-cured tobacco. Journal of Nematology, 13(1):67-79

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Batyr AK, Kozhokaru GI, 1985. Distribution and species composition of gall nematodes in commercially grown flowers in Moldavia. Ekologiya i prakticheskoe znachenie zoo- i fitoparaziticheskikh organizmov. Kishinev, USSR, Shtiintsa., 3-10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Belgium, Government Agricultural Research Centre, 1974. Activity report 1973. Activity report 1973. Ministry of Agriculture, Belgium. Gent, 203 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bellé, C., Kulczynski, S. M., Kaspary, T. E., Kuhn, P. R., 2017. Weeds as alternative hosts to Meloidogyne incognita. (Plantas daninhas como hospedeiras alternativas para Meloidogyne incognita). Nematropica, 47(1), 26-33. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/105055/100947

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bhardwaj LN, Hogger CH, 1984. Root-knot nematodes of Chitwan District of Nepal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 12(1):155-158

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bhat OK, Kaul V, 1994. Influence of soil temperature on the population behaviour of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in a tomato field. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 2(1):28-29; 6 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bhattacharya C, Dasgupta MK, Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bhatti DS, Jain RK, 1977. Estimation of loss in okra, tomato and brinjal yield due to Meloidogyne incognita. Indian Journal of Nematology, 7(1):37-41

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bridge J, 1978. Plant nematodes associated with cloves and black pepper in Sumatra and Bangka, Indonesia (ODM Technical Report). Ascot, UK: Ministry of Overseas Development Plant Nematology Laboratory, 19 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bridge J, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific Islands. Journal of Nematology, 20(2):173-183

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bridge J, 1992. Nematodes. In: Hillocks RJ, ed. Cotton Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 331-353

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bridge J, Otim-Nape W, Namaganda J, 1991. The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, causing damage to cassava in Uganda. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 1(1):116-117; 7 ref

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Links to Websites

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                WebsiteURLComment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nemaplexhttp://nemaplex.ucdavis.edu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematode, Nebraskahttps://nematode.unl.edu/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Organizations

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tropical America: Organization of Tropical American Nematologists (OTAN), https://ontaweb.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                World: International Federation of Nematological Societies (IFNS), https://www.ifns.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Europe: European Society of Nematologists (ESN), INRA, Rennes, https://www.esn-online.org/about-esn/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                USA: Society of Nematologists (SON), Box 190, Mesilla Park, New Mexico 88047 , https://nematologists.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Contributors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                08/05/20 Review by:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Jonathan D. EIsenback, 103 Price Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA.

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