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Meloidogyne hapla
(root knot nematode)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne hapla
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root knot nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.
Copyright©R.A. Motsinger/Nemapix Vol. 1
Hot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.
Field symptomsHot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.©R.A. Motsinger/Nemapix Vol. 1

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • root knot nematode

International Common Names

  • English: Northern root knot nematode
  • Spanish: nematodo norteno de quiste (Mexico)
  • French: nodosité des racines

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Älchen, Nördliches Wurzelgallen-
  • Japan: kita-nekobu-sentyubyo
  • Netherlands: wortelknobbelaaltje
  • Turkey: kok ur nematodu

EPPO code

  • MELGHA (Meloidogyne hapla)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne hapla

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Meloidogyne hapla was first described from the USA by Chitwood (1949). The type host was Solanum tuberosum and the type locality was Long Island, New York, USA. No synonyms are known, although some of the records attributed to this species refer to other species such as Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

Description

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Measurements (after Whitehead, 1968).

Females (n=20): L = 419-845 (612) µm; width = 311-561 (430) µm; spear (9) = 10-13 (11) µm; width spear base (9) = 2-3 (2) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (8) = 4-6 (5) µm behind spear base; length median bulb (5) = 31-43 (36) µm; width median bulb (6) = 26-37 (31) µm; length median bulb valves (6) = 10-13 (12) µm; width median bulb valves (6) = 9-11 (10) µm.

Males (n=25): L = 791-1432 (1139) µm; a = 33.3-47.0 (41.7); length head (21) = 4.3-7.9 (5.6) µm; spear = 17.3-22.7 (20.0) µm; width spear base = 2.5-5.0 (3.5) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (8) = 2.5-3.2 (2.9) µm behind spear base; b' (total length divided by distance from anterior end to middle of median bulb) = 12.8-19.2 (15.5); c (24) = 73-283 (118); length median bulb (24) = 15.1-25.9 (19.2) µm; width median bulb (24) = 7.2-12.9 (9.3) µm; length median bulb valves (23) = 3.6-7.2 (5.9) µm; spicules (length of arc) (8) = 21.6-28.1 (25.7) µm; gubernaculum (5) = 7.2-9.4 (8.2) µm.

Infective juveniles (n=20) (J2): L = 312-355 (337) µm; a (18) = 20.1-26.6 (23.9); length tail (15) = 33-48 (43) µm; c (15) = 7.3-10.2 (7.9); c' (15) = 3.7-4.7 (4.4); length body to middle of genital primordium (13) = 177-214 (200) µm; spear (9) = 7.9-10.9 (9.7) µm.

Eggs (unembryonated) (n=20): 71-91 (78) µm 26-40 (31) µm.

Description (after Orton Williams, 1974)

Female: Body pyroid with short neck. Cuticle becoming thicker in posterior half of body, sometimes considerably. Head with two annules behind head-cap. Spear knobs rounded, inconspicuous. Excretory pore 14-20 annules behind head, hemizonid just posterior to pore. Posterior cuticular pattern roughly circular, composed of closely spaced smooth or slightly wavy striae. Dorsal arch low. Lateral fields may be unmarked, may be marked only by slight irregularities in the striae, or dorsal and ventral striae may meet at a slight angle along the fields. Some forking of striae at lateral fields may also occur. In some cases ventral striae may extend laterally on one or both sides to form 'wings' which the dorsal striae meet almost at right angles. Tail with few striae but distinct punctuations forming a stippled area between the anus and tail terminus. Sometimes the stippling may be more diffuse over the inner part of the pattern. Phasmids fairly widely spaced.

Male: Numerous in some populations, absent in others. Head not offset, a truncate cone to hemispherical in outline. Usually only one annule behind head-cap. Spear slender, spear knobs rounded and not offset. Anterior cephalid on second body annule, posterior cephalid just anterior to level of relaxed spear. Hemizonid 45-58 annules behind head, 0-4 annules anterior to excretory pore. Lateral field with four incisures. Tail terminus bluntly rounded; phasmids at about cloacal level. One or two testes. Spicules slightly curved, with small sharp processes projecting from the spicule wall at the junction of head and shaft into the spicule head. Gubernaculum crescentic, proximal end thicker than distal end.

Distribution

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M. hapla is extremely widely distributed, particularly in temperate regions and the cooler, higher altitude areas of the tropics. According to Whitehead (1969), M. hapla only flourishes at high altitudes above 6000 feet in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), despite the abundance of host plants at lower altitudes. In Queensland, Australia, M. hapla was not found as far north as M. javanica (Colbran, 1958). Taylor and Buhrer (1958) reported that in the USA, M. hapla was the commonest root-knot nematode north of 39°N.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Few occurrences
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Localized

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
ChinaPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MongoliaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CzechiaPresent
EstoniaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Central RussiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresentOriginal citation: ?irca and Urek (2005)
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-EnglandPresent

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
-New BrunswickPresent, Localized
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresent
GuatemalaPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MainePresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-GoiasPresent, Localized
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent, Localized
-Sao PauloPresent, Localized
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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M. hapla represents a severe risk to agricultural areas where it is not currently found, but as the species is virtually cosmopolitan the actual phytosanitary risk is probably low.

Habitat

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The infective second stage juveniles are found in the soil where they hatch from the eggs. The second stage penetrates a suitable root and all subsequent stages are located within the root tissue of the host where they remain as sedentary endoparasites with the exception of the adult vermiform male which may escape from the root into the soil.

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. hapla is extremely polyphagous, attacking a wide variety of crops and weeds. Goodey et al. (1965) listed over 550 hosts and many more have been added since then. The species has recorded hosts in most of the higher plant families and attacks both herbaceous and woody plants. However, many grasses and cereals appear to be non-hosts. Carter (1985) provided a review of the recorded hosts.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Actinidia chinensis (Chinese gooseberry)ActinidiaceaeMain
    Ageratina adenophora (Croftonweed)AsteraceaeOther
      Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
        Anemone (windflower)RanunculaceaeOther
          Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
            BetaChenopodiaceaeOther
              Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain
                Brassica napus var. napus (rape)BrassicaceaeOther
                  Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
                    Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeOther
                      Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
                        Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
                          Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                            Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                              Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                                Cichorium intybus (chicory)AsteraceaeMain
                                  Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                                    Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
                                      Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                        CyclamenPrimulaceaeOther
                                          Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
                                            Daucus carota subsp. sativusUnknown
                                            Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeOther
                                              Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                                Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus (cut flower crop))GentianaceaeOther
                                                  Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeOther
                                                    Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                    Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
                                                      Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                                        Linum usitatissimum (flax)Other
                                                          Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
                                                            Mentha (mints)LamiaceaeOther
                                                              Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
                                                                  Paeonia lactiflora (Chinese peony)PaeoniaceaeUnknown
                                                                  Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeMain
                                                                    Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
                                                                      Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                        Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain
                                                                          Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                            Sinapis alba (white mustard)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                              Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                  Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                  Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Pyrethrum)Main
                                                                                    Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                      Vicia (vetch)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                        Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther

                                                                                          Growth Stages

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                                                                                          Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                          Symptoms

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                                                                                          Typical symptoms of attack include a galling of the root system, the galls being relatively small and subspherical, often with a marked proliferation of small roots at the site of the gall (this is in contrast to the symptoms caused by other common species of Meloidogyne). In potato tubers, brown spots appearing in the tubers after the females commence egg production may identify infection sites. Severe attack by M. hapla results in impaired root function and concomitant stunting of the above ground parts leading to a reduction in yield.

                                                                                          List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                          SignLife StagesType
                                                                                          Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                          Roots / galls along length
                                                                                          Roots / reduced root system
                                                                                          Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                          Whole plant / early senescence

                                                                                          Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                          M. hapla is an obligate sedentary endoparasite of plant roots and tubers. The second stage infective juvenile penetrates the root and settles down within the cortex. As with all root-knot nematodes, a giant cell system of trophic cells is formed by the plant in response to secretions from the nematode. With each moult the nematode becomes more obese, although males become vermiform at the last moult and then emerge into the soil. The obese female swells enormously and produces numerous eggs (typically about 500) in a protective gelatinous matrix.

                                                                                          Unlike many root knot nematodes, M. hapla can withstand cold, eggs and juveniles surviving field temperatures below 0°C. However, it seems to be less tolerant of high temperatures than Meloidogyne incognita, for example. The optimum temperature for invasion and growth of M. hapla is in the range 20-25°C, a mean temperature of 27°C being inimical to development.

                                                                                          The nematode may be associated with other pathogens, including bacteria (such as Pseudomonas caryophylli) and fungi (such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae).

                                                                                          For further information see Orton Williams (1974).

                                                                                          Natural enemies

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                                                                                          Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                          Arthrobotrys oligospora Predator
                                                                                          Glomus fasciculatum Antagonist
                                                                                          Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
                                                                                          Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen

                                                                                          Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                          Pasteuria penetrans is known to parasitize root knot nematodes. The soil-dwelling second stage juveniles may be infected during the soil phase (Den Belder and Jansen, 1994). Arthrobotrys is also known to entrap the juveniles (Oostendorp et al., 1990; Watson et al., 1990).

                                                                                          Seedborne Aspects

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                                                                                          M. hapla is not seedborne in the usual interpretation of the term, although it may be transmitted by infected planting material such as seed potatoes.

                                                                                          Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                          Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
                                                                                          Containers and packaging - woodEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
                                                                                          Land vehiclesEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
                                                                                          MailEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
                                                                                          Soil, sand and gravelEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes

                                                                                          Plant Trade

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                                                                                          Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                          Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                          Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                          Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                          Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                          Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                          Bark
                                                                                          Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                          Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                          Leaves
                                                                                          Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                          True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                          Wood

                                                                                          Impact

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                                                                                          M. hapla attacks nearly all temperate vegetables of economic importance and is well known as being capable of causing considerable reductions in yield, even to the point of total crop loss. In the field, crops including lucerne, groundnut, potato, carrot, sugarbeet, strawberry, pyrethrum and onion may be severely affected. For further quantitative information, see Luc et al. (1990) and Evans et al. (1993).

                                                                                          Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                          M. hapla may be detected within the galled roots and tubers of the host by careful dissection and examination under the stereomicroscope. The infective juveniles may be recovered from soil using standard extraction methodologies as may the adult vermiform males when these occur.

                                                                                          Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                          M. hapla is broadly similar to other members of the genus and normally requires the service of an experienced nematologist to identify to species level with any certainty. A suite of morphological characters, including the form of the perineal pattern of the mature female and the length and form of the second stage juvenile tail facilitate identification. Confusion with Meloidogyne chitwoodi is possible and PCR assays have been developed to assist in the rapid differentiation of the species. The galls formed by this species are usually rather atypical of root-knot nematodes in general in that they are often rather discrete and globular and arranged along the root. This symptom may be confused with galling by Nacobbus aberrans, the false root-knot nematode, and care should be taken to examine the nematodes inside the gall to confirm their identity.

                                                                                          Prevention and Control

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                                                                                          Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                          Various methods have been used to cleanse planting material, including hot water treatment (McDonald and Misari, 1976; Zunke, 1981) and a range of nematicidal drenches. Treatment in the field also relies upon the application of nematicides although frequent rotation with cereals or other graminaceous non-host crops may also be efficacious. Glasshouse soils may be fumigated to eradicate the pest. Many crops have potential for development of resistant or tolerant varieties.

                                                                                          For general information on the use of nematicides see Luc et al. (1990) and Evans et al. (1993). Both granular and liquid formulations have been used to control this nematode. More recent papers on this subject include LaMondia (1994), Johnston et al. (1995, 1996), Phipps et al. (1995) and Phipps and Eisenback (1996).
                                                                                           

                                                                                          References

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                                                                                          ?irca S; Urek G, 2005. Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. in Slovenia. (Ogorcice koreninskih ?i?k Meloidogyne spp. v Sloveniji.) In: Lectures and papers presented at the 7th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection, Zrece, Slovenia, 8-10 March 2005. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Dru?tvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije, 353-355.

                                                                                          Ambrogioni L, 1969. Two cases of mixed infections by nematodes of the genera Heterodera and Meloidogyne. Redia, 51:159-168

                                                                                          Arutyunov AV, 1992. The northern gall nematode Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, 1949 - parasite of wild medicinal plants of Turkmenistan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 2:24-29; 15 ref.

                                                                                          Belder E den; Jansen E, 1994. The influence of temperature, nutrition, light and the growth time of the mycelium on capture and infection of Meloidogyne hapla and Arthrobotrys oligospora. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 17(1):57-66

                                                                                          Berbec E, 1972. Badania nad wystepowaniem i szkodliwoscia matwika polnocnego (Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood) na marchwi. Prace Wydzialu Nauk Przyrodniczych Bydgoskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego Ser. B, 15:3-32.

                                                                                          Berge JB; Dalmasso A; Ritter M, 1972. Studies on Meloidogyne hapla found in France. International Symposium of Nematology (11th), European Society of Nematologists, Reading, UK, 3-8 September, 1972. 2-3.

                                                                                          Bridge J, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific Islands. Journal of Nematology, 20(2):173-183.

                                                                                          Brinkman H, 1975. Nematological observations in 1973 and 1974. Gewasbescherming, 6(4):57-64

                                                                                          Budai C, 1979. Spread of, and damage caused by the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood in the red pepper growing area of Szeged. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 14(3/4):543-548

                                                                                          CABI/EPPO, 2002. Meloidogyne hapla. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 853. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                                                          Carter CC, 1985. Literature search: Host range of Meloidogyne hapla. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 2:16-24.

                                                                                          Chaves E; Torres M, 1993. Parasitic nematodes of potatoes in the south east of Buenos Aires. Boletin Tecnico, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria, Balcarce, 115.

                                                                                          Chitwood BG, 1949. 'Root-knot nematodes'. Part 1. A revision of the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 16:90-114.

                                                                                          Choi YE, 1981. The root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., in Korea. Proceedings of the 3rd Research Planning Conference on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., Region VI, 20-24 July 1981, Jakarta, Indonesia. Raleigh, NC USA: North Carolina State University, 20-30

                                                                                          Colbran RC, 1958. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 2. Queensland host records of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species). Queensland Journal Agricultural Science, 15:101-136.

                                                                                          Coolen WA; Hendrickx GJ, 1972. Monograph on the nematological situation in Belgian rose culture. Publikatie nr. W 10, Rijksstation voor Nematologie en Entomologie, Merelbeke, 29 pp.

                                                                                          Dabaj KH; Jenser G, 1987. List of plants infected by root-knot nematodes in Libya. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 4(3):28-33

                                                                                          Dale PS, 1973. Elimination of root-knot nematodes from roses by chemical bare-root dips. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 1(2):121-122

                                                                                          Dong Y; Wang Y; Yao RY; Xie GH; Deng RK; Yu SF, 2015. First report of Meloidogyne hapla infecting Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) in China. Plant Disease, 99(11):1654. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                          Efremenko VP; Klimakova ET, 1972. Northern root-knot nematode in the Lithuanian SSR and development of control measures against it. Nematodnye bolezni sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur i mery bor'by s nimi. Tezisy soveshchaniya Moskva, dekabr' 1972. VASHNIL. Moscow USSR, 133-134

                                                                                          Erenfelde EY, 1984. The northern root-knot nematode in the Latvian SSR. Byulleten Vsesoyuznogo Naucho Issledovatel'skogo, Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 57:24-26.

                                                                                          Evans K; Trudgill DL; Webster JM, 1993. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                                                          Gharabadiyan F; Jamali S; Yazdi AA; Hadizadeh MH; Eskandari A, 2012. Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 52(2):230-234. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=428087616X360N23

                                                                                          Gladkaya RM, 1983. The biology of gall nematodes in greenhouses in Belorussia. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR Sergya Sel'skagaspadarchykh Navuk, 3:69-71.

                                                                                          Goodey JB; Franklin MT; Hooper DJ, 1965. T. Goodey's The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued under their Hosts. 3rd. ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                                                          Goyal JP; Sharma HC; Pathak VN, 1976. Control of root-knot of egg plant by Tagetes plantation and use of nematicides. Udyanika, 2:36-38

                                                                                          Grujicic G; Paunovic M, 1971. A contribution to the study of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood). Zastita Bilja, 22:112-113, 147-152.

                                                                                          Gugino, B. K., Abawi, G. S., Ludwig, J. W., 2006. Damage and management of Meloidogyne hapla using oxamyl on carrot in New York. Journal of Nematology, 38(4), 483-490. http://palmm.fcla.edu/nematode/index.htm

                                                                                          Gul A; Saeed M, 1990. A survey of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 6(5):495-502; 17 ref.

                                                                                          Handoo ZA; Skantar AM; Carta LK; Schmitt DP, 2005. Morphological and molecular evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla population damaging coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Nematology, 37(2):136-145.

                                                                                          Hernandez A; Fargette M; Sarah JL, 2004. Characterization of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from coffee plantations in Central America and Brazil. Nematology, 6(2):193-204. http://www.brill.nl

                                                                                          Hu XianQi; Yang YanLi; Yu ShengFu, 1997. Discovery of root-knot nematodes disease on Panax notoginseng in Yunnan. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 27(4):360.

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