Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne hapla
(root knot nematode)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne hapla
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root knot nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.
Copyright©R.A. Motsinger/Nemapix Vol. 1
Hot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.
Field symptomsHot spot" in groundnut field infested with M. hapla.©R.A. Motsinger/Nemapix Vol. 1

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • root knot nematode

International Common Names

  • English: Northern root knot nematode
  • Spanish: nematodo norteno de quiste (Mexico)
  • French: nodosité des racines

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Älchen, Nördliches Wurzelgallen-
  • Japan: kita-nekobu-sentyubyo
  • Netherlands: wortelknobbelaaltje
  • Turkey: kok ur nematodu

EPPO code

  • MELGHA (Meloidogyne hapla)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne hapla

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Meloidogyne hapla was first described from the USA by Chitwood (1949). The type host was Solanum tuberosum and the type locality was Long Island, New York, USA. No synonyms are known, although some of the records attributed to this species refer to other species such as Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

Description

Top of page Measurements (after Whitehead, 1968).

Females (n=20): L = 419-845 (612) µm; width = 311-561 (430) µm; spear (9) = 10-13 (11) µm; width spear base (9) = 2-3 (2) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (8) = 4-6 (5) µm behind spear base; length median bulb (5) = 31-43 (36) µm; width median bulb (6) = 26-37 (31) µm; length median bulb valves (6) = 10-13 (12) µm; width median bulb valves (6) = 9-11 (10) µm.

Males (n=25): L = 791-1432 (1139) µm; a = 33.3-47.0 (41.7); length head (21) = 4.3-7.9 (5.6) µm; spear = 17.3-22.7 (20.0) µm; width spear base = 2.5-5.0 (3.5) µm; dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (8) = 2.5-3.2 (2.9) µm behind spear base; b' (total length divided by distance from anterior end to middle of median bulb) = 12.8-19.2 (15.5); c (24) = 73-283 (118); length median bulb (24) = 15.1-25.9 (19.2) µm; width median bulb (24) = 7.2-12.9 (9.3) µm; length median bulb valves (23) = 3.6-7.2 (5.9) µm; spicules (length of arc) (8) = 21.6-28.1 (25.7) µm; gubernaculum (5) = 7.2-9.4 (8.2) µm.

Infective juveniles (n=20) (J2): L = 312-355 (337) µm; a (18) = 20.1-26.6 (23.9); length tail (15) = 33-48 (43) µm; c (15) = 7.3-10.2 (7.9); c' (15) = 3.7-4.7 (4.4); length body to middle of genital primordium (13) = 177-214 (200) µm; spear (9) = 7.9-10.9 (9.7) µm.

Eggs (unembryonated) (n=20): 71-91 (78) µm 26-40 (31) µm.

Description (after Orton Williams, 1974)

Female: Body pyroid with short neck. Cuticle becoming thicker in posterior half of body, sometimes considerably. Head with two annules behind head-cap. Spear knobs rounded, inconspicuous. Excretory pore 14-20 annules behind head, hemizonid just posterior to pore. Posterior cuticular pattern roughly circular, composed of closely spaced smooth or slightly wavy striae. Dorsal arch low. Lateral fields may be unmarked, may be marked only by slight irregularities in the striae, or dorsal and ventral striae may meet at a slight angle along the fields. Some forking of striae at lateral fields may also occur. In some cases ventral striae may extend laterally on one or both sides to form 'wings' which the dorsal striae meet almost at right angles. Tail with few striae but distinct punctuations forming a stippled area between the anus and tail terminus. Sometimes the stippling may be more diffuse over the inner part of the pattern. Phasmids fairly widely spaced.

Male: Numerous in some populations, absent in others. Head not offset, a truncate cone to hemispherical in outline. Usually only one annule behind head-cap. Spear slender, spear knobs rounded and not offset. Anterior cephalid on second body annule, posterior cephalid just anterior to level of relaxed spear. Hemizonid 45-58 annules behind head, 0-4 annules anterior to excretory pore. Lateral field with four incisures. Tail terminus bluntly rounded; phasmids at about cloacal level. One or two testes. Spicules slightly curved, with small sharp processes projecting from the spicule wall at the junction of head and shaft into the spicule head. Gubernaculum crescentic, proximal end thicker than distal end.

Distribution

Top of page M. hapla is extremely widely distributed, particularly in temperate regions and the cooler, higher altitude areas of the tropics. According to Whitehead (1969), M. hapla only flourishes at high altitudes above 6000 feet in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), despite the abundance of host plants at lower altitudes. In Queensland, Australia, M. hapla was not found as far north as M. javanica (Colbran, 1958). Taylor and Buhrer (1958) reported that in the USA, M. hapla was the commonest root-knot nematode north of 39°N.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2002)
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
EthiopiaPresentMeressa et al. (2014)
KenyaPresentWhitehead (1969); Parlevliet (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002); Karuri et al. (2017)
LibyaPresentDabaj and Jenser (1987); CABI and EPPO (2002)
MalawiPresentSaka (1990); CABI and EPPO (2002)
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
South AfricaPresentVAN DER LINDE (1956); Kleynhans (1991); CABI and EPPO (2002)
TanzaniaPresentWhitehead (1969); Swai et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2002)
UgandaPresentWhitehead (1969); CABI and EPPO (2002)
ZimbabwePresent, LocalizedMARTIN (1961); Shepherd and Coombs (1981); CABI and EPPO (2002)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
ChinaPresentHu XianQi et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-ChongqingPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HenanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ShandongPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ShanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Dong et al. (2015)
IndiaPresentGoyal et al. (1976); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
IranPresentMaafi and Mahdavian (1997); CABI and EPPO (2002); Gharabadiyan et al. (2012)
IsraelPresentMINZ (1956); CABI and EPPO (2002)
JapanPresentMitsui et al. (1976); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ShikokuPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
KazakhstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
MalaysiaPresentMuhammad (1992); CABI and EPPO (2002)
MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
PakistanPresentGul and Saeed (1990); CABI and EPPO (2002)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
South KoreaPresentChoi (1981); CABI and EPPO (2002)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
TaiwanPresentRuelo (1981); CABI and EPPO (2002)
TajikistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
ThailandPresentRatanaprapa and Chunram (1988); CABI and EPPO (2002)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
TurkmenistanPresentArutyunov (1992); CABI and EPPO (2002)
UzbekistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)

Europe

BelarusPresentGladkaya (1983); CABI and EPPO (2002)
BelgiumPresentCoolen and Hendrickx (1972); CABI and EPPO (2002)
BulgariaPresentStoyanov (1980); CABI and EPPO (2002)
CzechiaPresentZouhar et al. (2003)
EstoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentGrujicic and Paunovic (1971)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated a)
FinlandPresentTiilikkala (1991); CABI and EPPO (2002)
FrancePresentBerge et al. (1972); CABI and EPPO (2002)
GermanyPresentSturhan (1976); CABI and EPPO (2002)
GreecePresentPyrowolakis (1975); CABI and EPPO (2002)
HungaryPresentBudai (1979); CABI and EPPO (2002)
ItalyPresentAmbrogioni (1969); CABI and EPPO (2002)
LatviaPresentErenfelde (1984); CABI and EPPO (2002)
LithuaniaPresentEfremenko and Klimakova (1972); CABI and EPPO (2002)
MoldovaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
NetherlandsPresentBrinkman (1975); CABI and EPPO (2002)
North MacedoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
NorwayPresentStoeen (1974); CABI and EPPO (2002)
PolandPresentBerbec (1972); CABI and EPPO (2002)
PortugalPresentSantos et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2002)
RomaniaPresentRomascu et al. (1974); CABI and EPPO (2002)
RussiaPresent, WidespreadPokharel and Kruchina (1991); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
SlovakiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
SloveniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: ?irca and Urek (2005)
SpainPresentPinochet et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2002)
SwitzerlandPresentVallotton (1981); CABI and EPPO (2002)
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
United KingdomPresentSouthey (1974); CABI and EPPO (2002)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadPotter et al. (1972); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-New BrunswickPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-QuebecPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
GuatemalaPresentHernandez et al. (2004)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadChitwood (1949); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ConnecticutPresentLaMondia (2002)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HawaiiPresentHandoo et al. (2005)
-IdahoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MainePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MichiganPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-NevadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-New JerseyPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-New YorkPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-North DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OregonPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Rhode IslandPresentMennan et al. (2006)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-TexasPresentWheeler et al. (2000)
-UtahPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-WisconsinPresentMennan et al. (2006)
-WyomingPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadColbran (1958); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-TasmaniaPresentPethybridge et al. (2008)
New ZealandPresentDale (1973); CABI and EPPO (2002)
Norfolk IslandPresentBridge (1988); CABI and EPPO (2002)
Papua New GuineaPresent, WidespreadBridge (1988); CABI and EPPO (2002)

South America

ArgentinaPresentChaves and Torres (1993); CABI and EPPO (2002)
BrazilPresentLordello and Monteiro (1974); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-BahiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-CearaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-GoiasPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ParaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ParanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-PernambucoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Santa CatarinaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Sao PauloPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2002)
ChilePresentPhilippi et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2002)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
EcuadorPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2002)
ParaguayPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
PeruPresentVargas and Pajuelo (1973); CABI and EPPO (2002)
UruguayPresentRobertson et al. (2006)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page M. hapla represents a severe risk to agricultural areas where it is not currently found, but as the species is virtually cosmopolitan the actual phytosanitary risk is probably low.

Habitat

Top of page The infective second stage juveniles are found in the soil where they hatch from the eggs. The second stage penetrates a suitable root and all subsequent stages are located within the root tissue of the host where they remain as sedentary endoparasites with the exception of the adult vermiform male which may escape from the root into the soil.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page M. hapla is extremely polyphagous, attacking a wide variety of crops and weeds. Goodey et al. (1965) listed over 550 hosts and many more have been added since then. The species has recorded hosts in most of the higher plant families and attacks both herbaceous and woody plants. However, many grasses and cereals appear to be non-hosts. Carter (1985) provided a review of the recorded hosts.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Actinidia chinensis (Chinese gooseberry)ActinidiaceaeMain
Ageratina adenophora (Croftonweed)AsteraceaeOther
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
Anemone (windflower)RanunculaceaeOther
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
BetaChenopodiaceaeOther
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Brassica napus var. napus (rape)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeOther
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Cichorium intybus (chicory)AsteraceaeMain
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeOther
CyclamenPrimulaceaeOther
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeOther
Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus (cut flower crop))GentianaceaeOther
Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeOther
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Linum usitatissimum (flax)Other
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Mentha (mints)LamiaceaeOther
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeMain
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeOther
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeOther
Sinapis alba (white mustard)BrassicaceaeOther
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Pyrethrum)Main
Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeMain
Vicia (vetch)FabaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Typical symptoms of attack include a galling of the root system, the galls being relatively small and subspherical, often with a marked proliferation of small roots at the site of the gall (this is in contrast to the symptoms caused by other common species of Meloidogyne). In potato tubers, brown spots appearing in the tubers after the females commence egg production may identify infection sites. Severe attack by M. hapla results in impaired root function and concomitant stunting of the above ground parts leading to a reduction in yield.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / galls along length
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Biology and Ecology

Top of page M. hapla is an obligate sedentary endoparasite of plant roots and tubers. The second stage infective juvenile penetrates the root and settles down within the cortex. As with all root-knot nematodes, a giant cell system of trophic cells is formed by the plant in response to secretions from the nematode. With each moult the nematode becomes more obese, although males become vermiform at the last moult and then emerge into the soil. The obese female swells enormously and produces numerous eggs (typically about 500) in a protective gelatinous matrix.

Unlike many root knot nematodes, M. hapla can withstand cold, eggs and juveniles surviving field temperatures below 0°C. However, it seems to be less tolerant of high temperatures than Meloidogyne incognita, for example. The optimum temperature for invasion and growth of M. hapla is in the range 20-25°C, a mean temperature of 27°C being inimical to development.

The nematode may be associated with other pathogens, including bacteria (such as Pseudomonas caryophylli) and fungi (such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae).

For further information see Orton Williams (1974).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Arthrobotrys oligospora Predator
Glomus fasciculatum Antagonist
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Pasteuria penetrans is known to parasitize root knot nematodes. The soil-dwelling second stage juveniles may be infected during the soil phase (Den Belder and Jansen, 1994). Arthrobotrys is also known to entrap the juveniles (Oostendorp et al., 1990; Watson et al., 1990).

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page M. hapla is not seedborne in the usual interpretation of the term, although it may be transmitted by infected planting material such as seed potatoes.

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Land vehiclesEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
MailEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page M. hapla attacks nearly all temperate vegetables of economic importance and is well known as being capable of causing considerable reductions in yield, even to the point of total crop loss. In the field, crops including lucerne, groundnut, potato, carrot, sugarbeet, strawberry, pyrethrum and onion may be severely affected. For further quantitative information, see Luc et al. (1990) and Evans et al. (1993).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page M. hapla may be detected within the galled roots and tubers of the host by careful dissection and examination under the stereomicroscope. The infective juveniles may be recovered from soil using standard extraction methodologies as may the adult vermiform males when these occur.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page M. hapla is broadly similar to other members of the genus and normally requires the service of an experienced nematologist to identify to species level with any certainty. A suite of morphological characters, including the form of the perineal pattern of the mature female and the length and form of the second stage juvenile tail facilitate identification. Confusion with Meloidogyne chitwoodi is possible and PCR assays have been developed to assist in the rapid differentiation of the species. The galls formed by this species are usually rather atypical of root-knot nematodes in general in that they are often rather discrete and globular and arranged along the root. This symptom may be confused with galling by Nacobbus aberrans, the false root-knot nematode, and care should be taken to examine the nematodes inside the gall to confirm their identity.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Various methods have been used to cleanse planting material, including hot water treatment (McDonald and Misari, 1976; Zunke, 1981) and a range of nematicidal drenches. Treatment in the field also relies upon the application of nematicides although frequent rotation with cereals or other graminaceous non-host crops may also be efficacious. Glasshouse soils may be fumigated to eradicate the pest. Many crops have potential for development of resistant or tolerant varieties.

For general information on the use of nematicides see Luc et al. (1990) and Evans et al. (1993). Both granular and liquid formulations have been used to control this nematode. More recent papers on this subject include LaMondia (1994), Johnston et al. (1995, 1996), Phipps et al. (1995) and Phipps and Eisenback (1996).
 

References

Top of page

?irca S; Urek G, 2005. Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. in Slovenia. (Ogorcice koreninskih ?i?k Meloidogyne spp. v Sloveniji.) In: Lectures and papers presented at the 7th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection, Zrece, Slovenia, 8-10 March 2005. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Dru?tvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije, 353-355.

Ambrogioni L, 1969. Two cases of mixed infections by nematodes of the genera Heterodera and Meloidogyne. Redia, 51:159-168

Arutyunov AV, 1992. The northern gall nematode Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, 1949 - parasite of wild medicinal plants of Turkmenistan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 2:24-29; 15 ref.

Belder E den; Jansen E, 1994. The influence of temperature, nutrition, light and the growth time of the mycelium on capture and infection of Meloidogyne hapla and Arthrobotrys oligospora. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 17(1):57-66

Berbec E, 1972. Badania nad wystepowaniem i szkodliwoscia matwika polnocnego (Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood) na marchwi. Prace Wydzialu Nauk Przyrodniczych Bydgoskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego Ser. B, 15:3-32.

Berge JB; Dalmasso A; Ritter M, 1972. Studies on Meloidogyne hapla found in France. International Symposium of Nematology (11th), European Society of Nematologists, Reading, UK, 3-8 September, 1972. 2-3.

Bridge J, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific Islands. Journal of Nematology, 20(2):173-183.

Brinkman H, 1975. Nematological observations in 1973 and 1974. Gewasbescherming, 6(4):57-64

Budai C, 1979. Spread of, and damage caused by the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood in the red pepper growing area of Szeged. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 14(3/4):543-548

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Meloidogyne hapla. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 853. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carter CC, 1985. Literature search: Host range of Meloidogyne hapla. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 2:16-24.

Chaves E; Torres M, 1993. Parasitic nematodes of potatoes in the south east of Buenos Aires. Boletin Tecnico, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria, Balcarce, 115.

Chitwood BG, 1949. 'Root-knot nematodes'. Part 1. A revision of the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 16:90-114.

Choi YE, 1981. The root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., in Korea. Proceedings of the 3rd Research Planning Conference on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., Region VI, 20-24 July 1981, Jakarta, Indonesia. Raleigh, NC USA: North Carolina State University, 20-30

Colbran RC, 1958. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 2. Queensland host records of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species). Queensland Journal Agricultural Science, 15:101-136.

Coolen WA; Hendrickx GJ, 1972. Monograph on the nematological situation in Belgian rose culture. Publikatie nr. W 10, Rijksstation voor Nematologie en Entomologie, Merelbeke, 29 pp.

Dabaj KH; Jenser G, 1987. List of plants infected by root-knot nematodes in Libya. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 4(3):28-33

Dale PS, 1973. Elimination of root-knot nematodes from roses by chemical bare-root dips. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 1(2):121-122

Dong Y; Wang Y; Yao RY; Xie GH; Deng RK; Yu SF, 2015. First report of Meloidogyne hapla infecting Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) in China. Plant Disease, 99(11):1654. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Efremenko VP; Klimakova ET, 1972. Northern root-knot nematode in the Lithuanian SSR and development of control measures against it. Nematodnye bolezni sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur i mery bor'by s nimi. Tezisy soveshchaniya Moskva, dekabr' 1972. VASHNIL. Moscow USSR, 133-134

Erenfelde EY, 1984. The northern root-knot nematode in the Latvian SSR. Byulleten Vsesoyuznogo Naucho Issledovatel'skogo, Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 57:24-26.

Evans K; Trudgill DL; Webster JM, 1993. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Gharabadiyan F; Jamali S; Yazdi AA; Hadizadeh MH; Eskandari A, 2012. Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 52(2):230-234. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=428087616X360N23

Gladkaya RM, 1983. The biology of gall nematodes in greenhouses in Belorussia. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR Sergya Sel'skagaspadarchykh Navuk, 3:69-71.

Goodey JB; Franklin MT; Hooper DJ, 1965. T. Goodey's The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued under their Hosts. 3rd. ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Goyal JP; Sharma HC; Pathak VN, 1976. Control of root-knot of egg plant by Tagetes plantation and use of nematicides. Udyanika, 2:36-38

Grujicic G; Paunovic M, 1971. A contribution to the study of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood). Zastita Bilja, 22:112-113, 147-152.

Gul A; Saeed M, 1990. A survey of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 6(5):495-502; 17 ref.

Handoo ZA; Skantar AM; Carta LK; Schmitt DP, 2005. Morphological and molecular evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla population damaging coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Nematology, 37(2):136-145.

Hernandez A; Fargette M; Sarah JL, 2004. Characterization of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from coffee plantations in Central America and Brazil. Nematology, 6(2):193-204. http://www.brill.nl

Hu XianQi; Yang YanLi; Yu ShengFu, 1997. Discovery of root-knot nematodes disease on Panax notoginseng in Yunnan. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 27(4):360.

Johnson AW; Dowler CC; Glaze NC; Handoo ZA, 1996. Role of nematodes, nematicides, and crop rotation on the productivity and quality of potato, sweet potato, peanut, and grain sorghum. Journal of Nematology, 28(3):389-399; 43 ref.

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Karuri HW; Olago D; Neilson R; Mararo E; Villinger J, 2017. A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields. Crop Protection, 92:114-121. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

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LaMondia JA, 2002. Seasonal populations of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla in strawberry roots. Journal of Nematology, 34(4):409-413.

Lordello LGE; Monteiro AR, 1974. Notes on a nematode harmful to coffee. In: Lordello LGE, ed. Trabalhos apresentados a reuniao de nematologia, Piracicaba, Brasil, 6-7 February, 1974. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, publicacao No. 1. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo Brazil, 13-15

Luc M; Sikora RA; Bridge J; eds, 1990. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Maafi ZT; Mahdavian S, 1997. Species and physiological races of root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on kiwifruit and the effect of M. incognita on kiwifruit seedlings. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 65(1):1-3; [^italic~English abstract, full Farsi version on pages 1-11.^roman~]; 22 ref.

Martin GC, 1961. Plants attacked by root-knot nematodes in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Supplementray List No. 2. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal, 58:66-68.

McDonald D; Misari SM, 1976. Disease and pests of groundnuts and their importance in crop exchange. African Journal of Plant Protection, 1(1):75-82

Mennan S; Chen SY; Melakeberhan H, 2006. Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla populations by Hirsutella minnesotensis. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 16(1/2):181-193.

Meressa BH; Heuer H; Dehne HW; Hallmann J, 2014. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla parasitizing roses in Ethiopia. Plant Disease, 98(9):1286. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Minz G, 1956. The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter, 40(9):798-801.

Mitsui Y; Yoshida T; Okamoto K; Ishii R, 1976. Relationship between nematode-trapping fungi and Meloidogyne hapla in the peanut field. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 6:47-55

Muhammad K, 1992. Parasitic nematodes recorded in Malaysia. Quarterly Newsletter, Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 35:3-4.

Narbpv ZN, 1976. Study of the distribution of root gall nematodes in the Bukhara and Khorezm regions and in Karakalpakiya. Uzbekskii Biologicheskii Zhurnal, No. 1:60-62

Oostendorp M; Dickson DW; Mitchell DJ, 1990. Host range and ecology of isolates of Pasteuria spp. from the southeastern United States. Journal of Nematology, 22(4):525-531

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Parlevliet JE, 1971. Root-knot nematodes, their influence on the yield components of pyrethrum and their control. Acta Horticulturae, 21:201-205

Pethybridge SJ; Hay FS; Esker PD; Gent DH; Wilson CR; Groom T; Nutter FW Jr, 2008. Diseases of pyrethrum in Tasmania: challenges and prospects for management. Plant Disease, 92(9):1260-1271. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Philippi I; Latorre BA; PTrez GF; Castillo L, 1996. Identification of the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on kiwifruit by isoenzyme analysis in Chile. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 31(2):96-101; 34 ref.

Phipps PM; Eisenback JD, 1996. Target and non-target effects of nematicide treatments in peanuts, 1995. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 51:188.

Phipps PM; Herbert DA; Eisenback JD, 1995. Impact of nematode and early season insect control on disease management in peanuts, 1994. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 50:201.

Pinochet J; Verdejo S; Marull J, 1989. Evaluacion de siete patrones de Prunus a tres especies de Meloidogyne en Espana. Nematropica, 19:125-134.

Pokharel NP; Kruchina SN, 1991. Effects of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 and Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, 1949 on the macro-nutrient content of Trifolium pratense L. Archive fu^umlaut~r Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 27(1):41-44; 13 ref.

Potter JW; Olthof THA; Sheidow NW, 1972. Survival of Meloidogyne hapla on roots of rhubarb, Rheum rhaponticum, in a tobacco greenhouse. Plant Disease Reporter, 56:417-419.

Pyrowolakis E, 1975. Studies on the distribution of the genus Meloidogyne on the island of Crete. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 82(11/12):750-755

Ratanaprapa D; Chunram C, 1988. Root-knot nematodes on potato. Quarterly Newsletter, Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, FAO, Thailand, 31:16.

Robertson L; López-Pérez JA; Bello A; Díez-Rojo MA; Escuer M; Piedra-Buena A; Ros C; Martínez C, 2006. Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla populations from Spain and Uruguay parasitizing pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Crop Protection, 25(5):440-445.

Romascu E; Ivan M; Lemeni V; Romascu G, 1974. Morphological and bio-ecological considerations on the species of nematodes belonging to the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887, identified in Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari Pentru Protectia Plantelor, 12:267-281

Ruelo JS, 1981. Host range studies of Meloidogyne hapla in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 65(6):500-501

Saka VW, 1990. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) for resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Field Crops Research, 23(1):39-44; 10 ref.

Santos MSNde A; Abrantes IMde O; Fernandes MFM, 1987. Identification of Portuguese populations of Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) by differential host plant tests-III. Ciência Biológica, Ecology and Systematics [Identificacão de populações Portuguesas de Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) pelas reacções induzidas em plantas diferenciadoras-III.], 7(1/2):37-43.

Shepherd JA; Coombs RF, 1981. The effect of four Meloidogyne species (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) on breeding lines of Nicotiana resistant to Meloidogyne javanica. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research, 19(1):123-125

Southey JF, 1974. New or unusual host-plant records for plant-parasitic nematodes, 1971-1973. Plant Pathology, 23(1):45-46

Stoeen M, 1974. Nematodes on roses in Norway. Nordisk Jordbrugsforskning, 56(4):418-419

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Gladkaya R M, 1983. The biology of gall nematodes in greenhouses in Belorussia. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR Sergya Sel'skagaspadarchykh Navuk. 69-71.

Goyal J P, Sharma H C, Pathak V N, 1976. Control of root-knot of egg plant by Tagetes plantation and use of nematicides. Udyanika. 36-38.

Grujicic G, Paunovic M, 1971. A contribution to the study of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood). (Prilog proucavanju korenove nematode (Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood).). Zastita Bilja. 22 (112/113), 147-152.

Gul A, Saeed M, 1990. A survey of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 6 (5), 495-502.

Handoo Z A, Skantar A M, Carta L K, Schmitt D P, 2005. Morphological and molecular evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla population damaging coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Nematology. 37 (2), 136-145.

Hernandez A, Fargette M, Sarah J L, 2004. Characterization of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from coffee plantations in Central America and Brazil. Nematology. 6 (2), 193-204. http://www.brill.nl DOI:10.1163/1568541041217933

Hu XianQi, Yang YanLi, Yu ShengFu, 1997. Discovery of root-knot nematodes disease on Panax notoginseng in Yunnan. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 27 (4), 360.

Karuri H W, Olago D, Neilson R, Mararo E, Villinger J, 2017. A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields. Crop Protection. 114-121. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194 DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2016.10.020

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LaMondia J A, 2002. Seasonal populations of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla in strawberry roots. Journal of Nematology. 34 (4), 409-413.

Lordello L G E, Monteiro A R, 1974. Notes on a nematode harmful to coffee. (Informacao preliminar sobre um nematoide nocivo ao cafeeiro.). In: Trabalhos apresentados a reuniao de nematologia, Piracicaba, Brasil, 6-7 February, 1974. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, publicacao No. 1. [ed. by Lordello LGE]. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia. 13-15.

Maafi Z T, Mahdavian S, 1997. Species and physiological races of root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on kiwifruit and the effect of M. incognita on kiwifruit seedlings. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 65 (1), 1-3.

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Meressa B H, Heuer H, Dehne H W, Hallmann J, 2014. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla parasitizing roses in Ethiopia. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1286. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0383-PDN

MINZ G, 1956. The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter. 40 (9), 798-801.

Mitsui Y, Yoshida T, Okamoto K, Ishii R, 1976. Relationship between nematode-trapping fungi and Meloidogyne hapla in the peanut field. Japanese Journal of Nematology. 47-55.

Muhammad K, 1992. Parasitic nematodes recorded in Malaysia. In: Quarterly Newsletter, Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 35 3-4.

Parlevliet J E, 1971. Root-knot nematodes, their influence on the yield components of pyrethrum and their control. Acta Horticulturae. 201-205.

Pethybridge S J, Hay F S, Esker P D, Gent D H, Wilson C R, Groom T, Nutter F W Jr, 2008. Diseases of pyrethrum in Tasmania: challenges and prospects for management. Plant Disease. 92 (9), 1260-1271. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-9-1260

Philippi I, Latorre B A, Pérez G F, Castillo L, 1996. Identification of the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on kiwifruit by isoenzyme analysis in Chile. (Identificación de los nematodos del nudo (Meloidogyne spp.) del kiwi por análisis de isoenzimas, en Chile.). Fitopatología. 31 (2), 96-101.

Pinochet J, Verdejo S, Marull J, 1989. Evaluation of seven Prunus rootstocks to three species of Meloidogyne in Spain. (Evaluacion de siete patrones de Prunus a tres especies de Meloidogyne en España.). Nematropica. 19 (2), 125-134.

Pokharel N P, Kruchina S N, 1991. Effects of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 and Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, 1949 on the macro-nutrient content of Trifolium pratense L. Archive für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz. 27 (1), 41-44.

Potter J W, Olthof T H A, Sheidow N W, 1972. Survival of Meloidogyne hapla on roots of rhubarb, Rheum rhaponticum, in a tobacco greenhouse. Plant Disease Reporter. 56 (5), 417-419.

Pyrowolakis E, 1975. Studies on the distribution of the genus Meloidogyne on the island of Crete. (Studien uber die Verbreitung der Gattung Meloidogyne auf der Insel Kreta.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 82 (11/12), 750-755.

Ratanaprapa D, Chunram C, 1988. Root-knot nematodes on potato. In: Quarterly Newsletter, Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 31 Thailand: FAO. 16.

Robertson L, López-Pérez J A, Bello A, Díez-Rojo M A, Escuer M, Piedra-Buena A, Ros C, Martínez C, 2006. Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla populations from Spain and Uruguay parasitizing pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Crop Protection. 25 (5), 440-445. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2005.07.008

Romascu E, Ivan M, Lemeni V, Romascu G, 1974. Morphological and bio-ecological considerations on the species of nematodes belonging to the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887, identified in Romania. (Consideratii morfologice si bio-ecologice asupra speciilor de nematozi ai genului Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887 identificate in Romania.). Analele Institutului de Cercetari Pentru Protectia Plantelor. 267-281.

Ruelo J S, 1981. Host range studies of Meloidogyne hapla in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 65 (6), 500-501. DOI:10.1094/PD-65-500

Saka V W, 1990. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) for resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Field Crops Research. 23 (1), 39-44. DOI:10.1016/0378-4290(90)90095-S

Santos M S N de A, Abrantes I M de O, Fernandes M F M, 1987. Identification of Portuguese populations of Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) by differential host plant tests-III. Ciência Biológica, Ecology and Systematics. 7 (1/2), 37-43.

Shepherd J A, Coombs R F, 1981. The effect of four Meloidogyne species (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) on breeding lines of Nicotiana resistant to Meloidogyne javanica. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research. 19 (1), 123-125.

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