Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Meloidogyne exigua
(coffee root-knot nematode)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne exigua (coffee root-knot nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne exigua
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coffee root-knot nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Meloidogyne exigua root galls on coffee; from Nicaragua.
TitleRoot galls
CaptionMeloidogyne exigua root galls on coffee; from Nicaragua.
Copyright©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience
Meloidogyne exigua root galls on coffee; from Nicaragua.
Root gallsMeloidogyne exigua root galls on coffee; from Nicaragua.©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1892

Preferred Common Name

  • coffee root-knot nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Heterodera exigua (Goeldi, 1892) Marcinowski, 1909

International Common Names

  • English: Brazilian pyroid coffee nematode; root-knot nematode
  • French: nématode galligène du caféier

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: nematoide do cafeeiro

EPPO code

  • MELGEX (Meloidogyne exigua)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne exigua

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-FujianAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
IndiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)SRINIVASAN and D'SOUZA (1965); Anon (1966); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentKepenekcİ et al. (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)

Europe

GreeceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2015)

North America

Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadSALAS and ECHANDI (1961); Morera and López (1988); Flores and López (1989); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
Dominican RepublicPresent, WidespreadSCHIEBER and GRULLON (1969); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresent, WidespreadGutiérrez and Jiménez (1970); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentSCOTTO LA MASSÈSE (1969); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadSCHIEBER and SOSA (1960); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadSCOTTO LA MASSÈSE (1969); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NicaraguaPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentBarnes and Gowen (1969); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)

South America

BoliviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadLORDELLO and ZAMITH (1958); Lordello (1971); De Souza (1978); Huang et al. (1984); Gotoh (1985); Guillén (1985); Almeida et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-BahiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-CearaPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-Mato GrossoPresentSilva et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentBarbosa et al. (2004); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadLORDELLO (1972); Gomez (1980); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
French GuianaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresent, WidespreadGÓMEZ TOVAR (1972); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SurinamePresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentFlores and Yopez (1969); Guillén (1985); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / galls along length
Roots / galls at tip
Roots / swollen roots
Stems / galls

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Land vehiclesEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelEggs and juveniles in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Almeida VF de; Campos VP, 1991. Crop rotation and survival of Meloidogyne exigua in eradicated and infested coffee areas. Nematologia Brasileira, 15(1):30-42.

Almeida VF de; Campos VP, 1991a. Reproduction of Meloidogyne exigua in antagonistic plants and field crops. Nematologia Brasileira, 15(1):24-29.

Almeida VF de; Campos VP, 1993. Survival of Meloidogyne exigua in soil and coffee roots in field. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 18(2):147-150.

Almeida VF de; Campos VP; Lima RD de; De Almeida VF; De Lima RD, 1987. Population fluctuations of Meloidogyne exigua in coffee rhizophere. Nematologia Brasileira, 11:159-175.

Anon., 1966. Report of the Research Department of the Indian Coffee Board (18th), 1964-1965. Bangalore, 61-72.

Anon., 1987. New IAC cultivars. [Coffee]. Brazil, Instituto Agronomico, Campinas. Agronomico, 39(2):106-107.

Anzueto F; Bertrand B; Pena M; Marban Mendoza N; Villain L; Ibarra EL, 1996. Development of a Rootstock Variety Resistant to the Major Central American Nematodes. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA).

Anzueto F; Betrand B; Dufour M, 1995. Nemaya. Development of a rootstock variety resistant to the main nematodes of Central America. Boleti^acute~n de Promecafe^acute~, No. 66/67:13-15.

Arango Bernal LG; Baeza Aragon CA; Leguizamon Caicedo JE, 1983. Tests of resistance to species of Meloidogyne in seedlings of Coffea species. Paris, France: ASIC, 563-568, 646-647.

Arevalo Ruiz C; Liceras Zarate L; Urrello G R, 1977. The response of nine coffee varieties to attack by the root knot nematode. Nematropica, 7(2):3

Barbosa DHSG; Vieira HD; Souza RM; Silva CP, 2004. Survey of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in coffee plantations in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 28(1):43-47.

Barnes RF; Gowen SR, 1969. Root-knot nematodes in Trinidad. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops, No. 40. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 155-161.

Bertrand B; Aguilar G; Bompard E; Rafinon A; Anthony F, 1997. Agronomic performance and resistance to the main pests of Sarchimor and Catimor lines in Costa Rica. Plantations, Recherche, De^acute~veloppement, 4(5):312-321; 22 ref.

Boneti JIS; Ferraz S; Braga JM; Oliveira LM, 1982. The influence of Meloidogyne exigua an absorption of micronutrients and vigour of coffee seedlings. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 7(2):197-207

Bpza-Aragon CA, 1978. Bacillus penetrans as a parasite of Meloidogyne exigua in Coffea arabica. Cenicafe, 29(3):94-97

Bpza-Aragon CA; Leguizamon-C JE, 1977. Evaluation of nematicides for the control of Meloidogyne exigua in seedlings of the coffee cultivar Caturra. Cenicafe, 28(3):108-116

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Meloidogyne exigua. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 825. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI/EPPO, 2015. Meloidogyne exigua. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 825 (Edition 2).

Cain SC, 1974. Meloidogyne exigua. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 4, No. 49:4 pp

Calafiori MH; Filho RZ; Fruchi E; Schmidt HAP; Junqueira FMde A; Zambon S; Franco JF, 1988. Different applications of soil granular insecticide and fertilizer dosages on coffee plantation with nematode. Ecossistema, 13:125-130; 5 ref.

Campos HD; Campos VP, 1997. Effect of timing and forms of application of Arthrobotrys conoides, Arthrobotrys musiformis, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium in the soil for the control of Meloidogyne exigua of coffee. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 22(3):361-365; 18 ref.

Campos VP; Lima RD de; Almeida VF de, 1987. Plant parasitic nematodes of large scale cultivations, identified in several localities in Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. Nematologia Brasileira, 11:226-232.

Campos VP; Melles CCA, 1987. Occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne species in coffee plantations of Campos das Vertentes and in the south of Minas. Nematologia Brasileira, 11:233-241.

Chitwood BG, 1949. 'Root-knot nematodes'. Part 1. A revision of the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 16:90-114.

Chitwood BG; Berger CA, 1960. Preliminary report on nemic parasites of coffee in Guatemala, with suggested ad interim control measures. Plant Disease Reporter, 44(11):841-847.

Curi SM, 1973. New observations on coffee tree nematodes. Biologico, 39(8):206-207.

Curi SM; Silveira SGPda, 1974. Preliminary trials on the chemical control of the coffee nematode, Meloidogyne exigua. Biologico, Brazil., 40(12):337-345

Curi SM; Silveira SGPda, 1978. Geographical distribution, symptoms and significance of coffee nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. exigua in the State of Sao Paulo. Biologico, 44(10):243-251

De Souza P, 1978. A disease complex of coffee involving Meloidogyne exigua and Rhizoctonia solani. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39B(2):467-468

Dias WP; Liberato JR; Fonseca AFAda, 1996. Survey of plant parasitic nematodes associated with coffee crop in the Espfrito Santo State, Brazil. Revista Ceres, 43(250):808-812; 16 ref.

Dos Santos JM; Ferraz S; De Oliveira LM, 1981. Effect of Meloidogyne exigua on the absorption and translocation of nutrients in coffee plants. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(3):333-340

Dos Santos JM; Ferraz S; De Oliveira LM, 1981. Effect of nitrogen fertilizers on gall formation in the roots of coffee infested with Meloidogyne exigua and on the hatching of larvae. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(3):457-463

Dos Santos JM; Ferraz S; De Oliveira LM, 1981. Effect of potassium chloride levels on gall formation and reproduction of Meloidogyne exigua in coffee transplants. Turrialba, 34(4):319-321

Eisenback JD; Hirschmann H, 1979. Morphological comparison of second-stage juveniles of several Meloidogyne species (root-knot nematodes) by scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, 1979, III. SEM, Inc. Illinois USA, 223-229

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Esser RP; Perry VG, 1974. A diagnostic compendium of the genus Meloidogyne (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Journal of Nematology, 6(4):139

Fazuoli LC; Lordello RRA, 1978. Resistance of Hibrido do Timor coffee trees to Meloidogyne exigua. Ciencia e Cultura, 30(7, Suppl.):3

Fazuoli LC; Monaco LC; Carvalho A; Reis AJ, 1977. The resistance of coffee to nematodes. I. Screening tests of progenies and hybrids for Meloidogyne exigua. Bragantia, 36(29):297-307

Ferreira Dias Rodrigues I; Crozzoli PR, 1995. Effect of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne exigua, on the growth of coffee in nurseries. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(2):325-328; 11 ref.

Figueroa A, 1978. Effects of furadan 5G on Caturra coffee productivity. Nematropica, 8(2):26-33

Filipjev IN, 1934. The classification of the free-living nematodes and their relation to parasitic nematodes. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, 89:1-63.

Flores JM; Yepez TG, 1969. Meloidogyne in coffee in Venezuela. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops. Technical Communication, No. 40. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 251-256.

Flores L; L=pez R, 1989. Morphological characterization of the root-knot nematode of coffee Meloidogyne exigua (Nemata: Heteroderidae) I. Females and eggs. Turrialba, 39(3):352-360; 18 ref.

Flores L; L=pez R, 1989. Morphological characterization of the root-knot nematode of coffee Meloidogyne exigua (Nemata: Heteroderidae) II. Males. Turrialba, 39(3):361-368; 6 ref.

Flores L; L=pez R, 1989. Morphological characterization of the root-knot nematode of coffee, Meloidogyne exigua (Nemata: Heteroderidae). III. Second stage juveniles. Turrialba, 39(3):369-376; 15 ref.

Goeldi EA, 1892. Relatoria sobre a molestia do cafeeiro na provincia do Rio de Janeiro. Archos. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 8(1887):1-121.

Gomez J, 1980. Preliminary results on the distribution of phytonematodes in the coffee areas of the departments of Caldas, Risaralda and Quindio in Colombia. Nematropica, 10(2):67

Gomez Tovar J, 1972. Preliminary study of the coffee root knot nematode (Meloidogyne exigua) and its control. Nematropica, 2(1):18-19.

Gotoh A, 1985. Nematodes noxious to coffee cultivation in the State of Parana. Informe da Pesquisa Instituto Agronomico do Parana IX, No. 58.

Guillen LA, 1985. Principal pests of coffee in the north-east region. FONAIAP Divulga, 2(18-22):20

Gutiérrez ZG; Jiménez QMF, 1970. Some observations of grafting of coffee practised in Guatemala and El Salvador as a means of controlling nematodes. Revista Cafet, 98:35-47.

Hewlett TE; Tarjan AC, 1983. Synopsis of the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. Nematropica, 13(1):79-102

Huang SP; Souza PE de; Campos VP, 1984. Seasonal variation of a Meloidogyne exigua population in a coffee plantation. Journal of Nematology, 16(1):115-117

Jepson SB, 1987. Identification of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Kepenekci I; Evlice E; Öztürk G, 2014. Taxonomic characteristics of Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi which is a new root-knot nematodes for Turkey and other root-knot nematode species. (Ülkemiz için yeni bir kök-ur nematodu türü, Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi 'nin taksonomik özellikleri ve diger kök-ur nematodu türleri.) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 54(1):1-9. http://www.bitkikorumabulteni.gov.tr/index.php/bitki/article/view/1470/1396

Kermarrec A; Scotto la Massese C, 1972. New data on the composition and dynamics of the nematode fauna in soils of the French Antilles. Annales de Zoologie Ecologie Animale, 4(4):513-527.

L=pez HT, 1992. A study of the current state of tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae (Cav.) Sendt) diseases in Colombia. Acta Horticulturae, No. 310:207-214; 18 ref.

L=pez R; Salazar L, 1989. Scanning electron micrographs of different populations of root-knot nematode of coffee, Meloidogyne exigua (Nemata: Heteroderidae). Turrialba, 39(3):299-304; 19 ref.

L=pez R; Vflchez H, 1991. Two new hosts of the coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne exigua, in Costa Rica. Agronomi^acute~a Costarricense, 15(1/2):163-166; 11 ref.

Leguizamon CJ; Baeza A CA, 1972. The action of the experimental nematicide, Dpx 1410, in the control of the coffee root knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua. Cenicafe, 23(4):98-103.

Lima RD' A de; Ferraz S, 1985. Biology of Meloidogyne exigua (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae). I. Embryogenic development and the effect of temperature on embryogenesis. Revista Ceres, 32(183):339-348.

Lima RD' A de; Ferraz S, 1985a. Biology of Meloidogyne exigua (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae). II. Post-infection development on the coffee cultivar Mundo Novo. Revista Ceres, 32(183):349-361.

Lima RD' A de; Ferraz S, 1985b. Morphometric character analysis among different populations of Meloidogyne exigua (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae). Revista Ceres, 32(183):362-372.

Lima RD'A de; Campos VP; Huang SP; Melles CCA, 1985. Reproduction and parasitism of Meloidogyne exigua on weeds of coffee plantations. Nematologia Brasileira, 9(1):63-72

Lopez Chaves R, 1985. Differential plant responses, morphometrics and electrophoretic patterns of some Meloidogyne spp. from Costa Rica and Florida, USA, and the description of Meloidogyne salasi n.sp. Dissertation Abstracts International B, Sciences and Engineering, 45(9):2761.

Lopez CR, 1985. Observations on the morphology of Meloidogyne exigua with the scanning electron microscopy. Nematropica, 15(1):27-36.

Lordello LGE, 1964. Anais Esc. sup. Luiz Queiroz, 21:182-218.

Lordello LGE, 1971. Bahia: Nematodes attacking coffee. Revista de Agriculura, Piracicaba, 46(4):175.

Lordello LGE, 1972. Nematode pests of coffee. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 268-284.

Lordello LGE; Fazuoli LC; Aranha C; Lordello RRA, 1975. Some host plants of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Anais da Escole Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", 32:527-530

Lordello LGE; Zamith APL, 1958. On the morphology of coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 25:133-137.

Marcinowski K, 1909. Parasitisch und semiparasitisch an Pflanzen lebende Nematoden. Arb. K. Biol. Anstalt Lanu-u. Forstwritsch, Berlin, 7: 1-192.

Mendes BV; Ferraz S; Shimoya C, 1976. Histopathology of coffee roots parasitized by Meloidogyne exigua. 1. Formation of giant cells. Summa Phytopathologica, 2(2):97-102

Mendes BV; Ferraz S; Shimoya C, 1977. Histopathological observations of coffee roots parasitized by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887. Trabalhos apresentados a II reuniao de nematologia, Piracicaba, Brazil, 14-16 Setembro 1976, Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia et da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Publicacao No. 2. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo Brazil, 207-229

Moraes MV de, 1977. Systemics for Nematode Control in Coffee Nurseries. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, 245-248.

Morera N; L=pez R, 1988. Development and reproduction of three populations of Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, in coffee, cv. Catuai. Turrialba, 38(1):1-5; 19 ref.

Morera N; Lopez R, 1987. Evaluation of the virulence of three Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, populations in coffee and of the resistance of 6 coffee cultivars to one of these populations. Boletin de PROMECAFE, 35:9-15.

Morps MV de; Lordello LGE; Piccinin OA; Lordello RRA, 1972. Host plants for the coffee root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua. Ciencia e Cultura, 24(7):658-660

Morps MV de; Lordello LGE; Reis AJ; Thomaziello RA; Lordello RRA; Goncalves W, 1977. Trial with crop rotation for improvement as coffee plantations of soils infested by Meloidogyne exigua. Trabalhos apresentados a II reuniao de nematologia. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia. Piracicaba Brazil, 257-265

Morps MVde, 1977. A preliminary test to determine the nematicidal power of meal cakes. Trabalhos apresentados a II reuniao de nematologia, Piracicaba, Brazil, 14-16 Setembro 1976, Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia et da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP. Publicacao No. 2. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo Brazil, 193-196

Netto KA; Alvarenga G, 1973. Test of the resistance of Piatin (F2 from H387) to the nematode Meloidogyne exigua, Goeldi. 1'Congresso Brasileiro sobre Pragas e Doencas do Cafeeiro, Julho 1973,Vitoria., Brazil, 4-6.

Paramonov AA, 1967. A critical review of the suborder Tylenchina (Filipjev, 1934) (Nematoda: Secernetea). Akad. Nauk SSSR, Trudy gel'mint. Lab., 18:78-101.

Pereira LV; Ferraz S; De Oliveira LM, 1979. Efficacy of some carbamate nematicides on coffee seedlings infested by Meloidogyne exigua. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 4:473-476

Pereira LV; Ferraz S; Oliveira LM de; Vilela EF, 1980. Effect of insecticides and fungicides, applied as a foliar spray, on Meloidogyne exigua in coffee seedlings. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 5:1-5

Pereira LV; Ferraz S; Oliveira LMde, 1980. Translocation of nematicides and insecticides in coffee roots and its effect on Meloidogyne exigua. Revista Ceres, 27(151):249-255

Ponte JJ da; Sena-Silva M do S, 1972. Meloidogyne exigua attacking coffee trees in the state of Ceara. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Serie Agronomia, 7:93-94

Salas LA; Echandi E, 1961. Coffee, 3(8):6-9.

Santos JM dos; Ferraz S, 1981. The effect of common superphosphate and potassium chloride on hatching of Meloidogyne exigua under laboratory conditions. Revista Ceres, 28(156):160-164

Schieber E, 1968. Nematode problems of coffee. In: Smart GC Jr., ed. Tropical Nematology. Gainsville, USA: University of Florida, 81-92.

Schieber E; Grullon L, 1969. The problem of nematodes attacking coffee (Coffea arabica) in the Dominican Republic. Turrialba, 19(4):513-517.

Schieber E; Sosa ON, 1960. Nematodes on coffee in Guatemala. Plant Disease Reporter, 44:722-723.

Scotto la Massese C, 1969. The principal plant nematodes of crops in the French West Indies. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops. Technical Communication No. 40. London, UK: CAB International, 164-183.

Silva RA; Oliveira CMG; Inomoto MM, 2008. Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. (Fauna de fitonematóides em áreas preservadas e cultivadas da floresta amazônica no Estado de Mato Grosso.) Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(3):204-211. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762008000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Skarbilovich TS, 1959. On the structure of the nematodes of the order Tylenchida Thorne, 1949. Acta Parasitologica Polonica, 15:117-132.

Souza P de; Powell NT, 1980. A disease complex of coffee involving Meloidogyne exigua and Rhizoctonia solani. 15th International Nematology Symposium of the European Society of Nematologists, Bari, Italy, 24-30 August, 1980. Bari, Italy: European Society of Nematologists, 34-35

Srinivasan CS; D'Souza GI, 1965. A note on the occurrence of Brazilian pyroid coffee nematode, Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, in South India. Indian Coffee, 29(6):13.

Tronconi NM; Ferraz S; Santos JMdos; Regazzi AJ, 1986. Evaluation of the effect of coffee bean straw casings mixed with soil on the development of Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, in coffee seedlings. (Avaliaçao de efeito da palha de cafe/ac/, misturada ao solo, no desenvolvimento de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, em mudas de cafeeiro.) Nematologia Brasileira, 10(1):85-102.

Tronconi NM; Ferraz S; Santos JMdos; Regazzi AJ, 1986. Influence of temperature on the pathogenicity and reproduction of Meloidogyne exigua in coffee seedlings. (Influencia da temperatura na patogenicidade e reproduçao de Meloidogyne exigua em mudas de cafeeiro.) Nematologia Brasileira, 10(1):69-83.

Vernalha MM; Zappia O; Mansur R; Rodrigues S, 1967. On the occurrence of nematodes of coffee in Parana State. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia, 13:33-37

Vovlas N; Lamberti F; Sharma RD; Lordello RRA, 1987. Morphology and histopathology of species of Meloidogyne on selected crops in Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 11:300-308.

Wouts WM, 1972. A revision of the family Heteroderidae (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea). 1. The family Heteroderidae and its subfamilies. Nematologica, 18(4):439-446

Zhang SS; Xu MY, 1994. Identification of citrus root knot nematode in Fujian province and its control. China Citrus, 23(1):9-11.

Distribution References

Almeida V F de, Campos V P, Lima R D de, 1987. Population fluctuations of Meloidogyne exigua in coffee rhizophere. (Flutuaçáo populacional de Meloidogyne exigua na rizosfera do cafeeiro.). Nematologia Brasileira. 159-175.

Anon, 1966. Report of the Research Department of the Indian Coffee Board (18th), 1964-1965., Bangalore, Inddia: 61-72.

Barbosa D H S G, Vieira H D, Souza R M, Silva C P, 2004. Survey of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in coffee plantations in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira. 28 (1), 43-47.

Barnes R F, Gowen S R, 1969. Root-knot nematodes in Trinidad. In : Peachey, J. E. [Editor], Nematodes of tropical crops. In: Technical Communications. Commonwealth Bureau of Helminthology, 155-161 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2015. Meloidogyne exigua. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 825 (Edition 2).

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

De Souza P, 1978. A disease complex of coffee involving Meloidogyne exigua and Rhizoctonia solani. Dissertation Abstracts International. 39B (2), 467-468.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Flores J M, Yopez T G, 1969. Meloidogyne in coffee in Venezuela. In: Peachey, J. E. [Editor], Nematodes of tropical crops. In: Tech. Commun, Commomu. Bur. Helminth. 251-256 pp.

Flores L, López R, 1989. Morphological characterization of the root-knot nematode of coffee Meloidogyne exigua (Nemata: Heteroderidae) II. Males. (Caracterización morfológica del nematodo nodulador del cafeto Meloidogyne exigua (Nemata: Heteroderidae). II Machos.). Turrialba. 39 (3), 361-368.

Gomez J, 1980. Preliminary results on the distribution of phytonematodes in the coffee areas of the departments of Caldas, Risaralda and Quindio in Colombia. (Resultados preliminares sobre distribucion de fitonematodes en la zona cafetera de los departamentos de Caldas, Risaralda y Quindio en Colombia. [XII Ann. Meet. OTAN, Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe, 17-21 Aug. 1980.). In: Nematropica, 10 (2) 67.

GÓMEZ TOVAR J, 1972. Preliminary study of the coffee root knot nematode (Meloidogyne exigua) and its control. Nematropica. 2 (1), 4-5; 18-19.

Gotoh A, 1985. Nematodes noxious to coffee cultivation in the state of Parana. (Nematóides nocivos á cafeicultura no estado do Paraná.). In: Informe da Pesquisa - Instituto Agronómico do Paraná, IX (No. 58) 10 pp.

Guillén L A, 1985. Principal pests of coffee in the north-east region. (Principales plagas del café en la región nor-oriental.). FONAIAP Divulga. 2 (18-22), 20.

Gutiérrez ZG, Jiménez QMF, 1970. Some observations of grafting of coffee practised in Guatemala and El Salvador as a means of controlling nematodes. In: Revista Cafet, 98 35-47.

Huang S P, Souza P E de, Campos V P, 1984. Seasonal variation of a Meloidogyne exigua population in a coffee plantation. Journal of Nematology. 16 (1), 115-117.

Kepenekcİ İ, Evlİce E, Öztürk G, 2014. Taxonomic characteristics of Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi which is a new root-knot nematodes for Turkey and other root-knot nematode species. (Ülkemiz için yeni bir kök-ur nematodu türü, Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi 'nın taksonomik özellikleri ve diğer kök-ur nematodu türleri.). Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 54 (1), 1-9. http://www.bitkikorumabulteni.gov.tr/index.php/bitki/article/view/1470/1396

LORDELLO L G E, 1972. Economic nematology. [ed. by Webster J M]. London, UK: Academic Press. 268-284 pp.

LORDELLO L G E, ZAMITH A P L, 1958. On the morphology of the coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington. 25 (2), 133-137.

Lordello LGE, 1971. Bahia: Nematodes attacking coffee. In: Revista de Agriculura, Piracicaba, 46 (4) 175.

Morera N, López R, 1988. Development and reproduction of three populations of Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, in coffee, cv. Catuai. Turrialba. 38 (1), 1-5.

SALAS L A, ECHANDI E, 1961. Parasitic nematodes in coffee plantations of Costa Rica. Coffee. 6-9.

SCHIEBER E, GRULLON L, 1969. The problem of nematodes attacking arabica coffee in the Dominican Republic. (El problema de nemátodos que atacan al cafe (Coffea arabica) en la Republica Dominicana.). Turrialba. 513-17.

SCHIEBER E, SOSA O N, 1960. Nematodes on coffee in Guatemala. Plant Disease Reporter. 44 (9), 722-723.

SCOTTO LA MASSÈSE C, 1969. The principal plant nematodes of crops in the French West Indies. In: Nematodes of tropical crops, [ed. by Peachey J E]. 164-183.

Silva R A, Oliveira C M G, Inomoto M M, 2008. Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. (Fauna de fitonematóides em áreas preservadas e cultivadas da floresta amazônica no Estado de Mato Grosso.). Tropical Plant Pathology. 33 (3), 204-211. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762008000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

SRINIVASAN C S, D'SOUZA G I, 1965. A note on the occurrence of the Brazilian pyroid coffee nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, in South India. Indian Coffee. 29 (6), 13.

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