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Datasheet

Meloidogyne arenaria
(peanut root-knot nematode)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne arenaria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peanut root-knot nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
TitleSymptoms on roots
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
Symptoms on rootsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.
TitleSymptoms on roots
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.
Symptoms on rootsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
TitleDamage to root system
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
Copyright©Ed McGawley
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
Damage to root systemMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.©Ed McGawley
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.
Copyright©Pat Phipps
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.
Symptoms on podsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.©Pat Phipps
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
TitleLight micrographs
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
Light micrographsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
TitleMale and female stylets
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
Male and female styletsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
TitleNematodes invading root tip
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
Nematodes invading root tipMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
TitleFemale with egg mass
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
Female with egg massMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
TitleSEM of female
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
SEM of femaleMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.
TitlePerineal patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.
Perineal patternsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.©J.D. Eisenback

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • peanut root-knot nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillula arenaria Neal, 1889
  • Heterodera arenaria (Neal, 1889) Marcinowski, 1909
  • Meloidogyne arenaria arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949
  • Meloidogyne arenaria thamesi Chitwood in Chitwood et al., 1952
  • Meloidogyne thamesi (Chitwood et al., 1952) Goodey, 1963
  • Tylenchus arenarius (Neal, 1889) Cobb, 1890

International Common Names

  • English: groundnut root knot nematode; root-knot nematode disease
  • Spanish: nematodo nodulador del cacahuete
  • French: nématode galligène de l'arachide; nodosite des racines

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Erdnusswurzelgallen-Aelchen
  • Japan: Nekobu-sentyubyo

EPPO code

  • MELGAR (Meloidogyne arenaria)
  • MELGTH (Meloidogyne thamesi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne arenaria

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The taxonomy of the peanut root-knot nematode was greatly clarified by Chitwood in 1949; however, one morphological variant that he described has caused confusion in the literature because it has been cited as either subspecies M. arenaria thamesi or elevated to species M. thamesi. Because this variant has been extremely difficult to identify and does not correlate with other taxonomic characters, the two rankings are considered as synonyms of M. arenaria (Eisenback and Triantaphyllou, 1991). The morphological variation of this species has been described for seven populations representing the two host races, as well as the two cytological races (Cliff and Hirschmann, 1985).

Two host races of M. arenaria have been recognized: race 1 infects and reproduces on groundnut, whereas populations of race 2 do not (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). It is ironic that many populations of the nematode with the common name peanut root-knot nematode do not infect peanut.

Two cytological races of M. arenaria have been described (Triantaphyllou, 1963, 1979). The most common populations belong to race A and are triploid (3n = 51-56). Race B populations are less common and are diploid (2n = 34-37). There is no correlation between host race and cytological race.

Description

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The body of the female is pearly white and pear-shaped, 500-1000 µm long by 400-600 µm wide. The conical neck of the female is in line with the spherical portion of the body. The stylet is robust, 13-17 (16) µm long and characteristically shaped with large, posteriorly sloped, tear-drop-shaped knobs. The distance of the dorsal oesophageal gland orifice to the base of the stylet is comparatively long (3-7 (5) µm). The overall morphology of females of M. arenaria is similar to other species within the genus.

The perineal pattern may be characteristic for the species, but some populations may contain individual variants that restrict the usefulness of this character. Likewise, other species of Meloidogyne may also have perineal patterns that closely resemble that of M. arenaria. The perineal pattern of M. arenaria may be very similar to that of M. incognita and other Meloidogyne species. Patterns that contain short, lateral incisures resemble that of M. javanica, and patterns that are rounded to hexagonal, often containing wings, are like that of M. hapla. The perineal pattern of M. arenaria has a low and rounded dorsal arch, but in some individuals it may be high and squarish. The striae are coarse and smooth to wavy, and some striae may bend toward the vulva. The most useful character of the perineal pattern is the lines in the lateral areas of the dorsal arch that sharply curve toward the tail terminus and meet the ventral striae at an angle. These striae become forked and the distance between them increases near the lateral areas which are often demarcated, but not delineated by distinct lateral incisures. Very short lateral incisures may be present very near the tail terminus. Some perineal patterns of M. arenaria form one or two 'wings' that extend laterally and are marked by fusion of the striae in the dorsal and ventral arches.

Males of M. arenaria are long (0.9-2.3 mm) and narrow (27-48 µm). Although the shape of the head is a useful morphological character, it is similar to several other less common species. The labial disc and medial lips form a smooth, posteriorly sloping head cap. The head annule is smooth and usually not marked with additional head annulations. Both the head annule and the body annulations are in the same contour. The stylet is long (20-28 µm) and robust with a bluntly pointed tip. The wide, cylindrical shaft gradually merges with the large, rounded, slightly tear-drop-shaped knobs. The dorsal oesophageal gland orifice to the base of the stylet is long to very long (4-8) 6 µm. The overall morphology of males of M. arenaria is similar to other species within the genus.

Second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria are long (398-605 (504) µm) and slender (13-18 (15) µm). The tail is moderately long (44-69 (56) µm), and the poorly defined hyaline tail terminus is moderately long (6-13 (9) µm), with a finely rounded to pointed tip. The stylet of second-stage juveniles is moderately long (10-12 (11) µm), and the dorsal oesophageal gland orifice distance to the stylet base is moderately long (3-5 (4) µm). The morphology of the second-stage juvenile of M. arenaria is similar to many other species of Meloidogyne and requires critical evaluation by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to be differentiated.

Distribution

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M. arenaria is widely distributed around the world in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates where the average temperature in the warmest month is 36°C or lower and the average temperature in the coldest month is at lowest 3°C. The principal limiting factor in the distribution of M. arenaria seems to be an average temperature in the coldest month of 3°C (Taylor et al., 1982). This species seems to be rare or absent in areas with an average annual temperature of less than 15°C and most common in climates with average annual temperatures of 18-27°C (Taylor et al., 1982). This root-knot nematode is most common where the annual precipitation averages 1000-2000 mm (Taylor et al., 1982).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Few occurrences
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent, Widespread
GhanaPresent, Widespread
LiberiaPresent, Few occurrences
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent, Widespread
NigeriaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent, Widespread
IranPresent
IraqPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MaldivesPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Kozhokaru et al., 1979
MongoliaPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent, Widespread
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent, Widespread
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresent, Localized
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresentOriginal citation: d'Errico and Ingenito (2003)
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent, Localized
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent, Localized
RussiaPresent
-Central RussiaPresent
-Eastern SiberiaPresent, Localized
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
MartiniquePresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent, Widespread
-ArkansasPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent, Widespread
-KansasPresent
-LouisianaPresent, Widespread
-MississippiPresent, Widespread
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OklahomaPresent, Widespread
-South CarolinaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent, Widespread

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
NiuePresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TuvaluPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AlagoasPresent
-AmazonasPresent, Widespread
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
-SergipePresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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M. arenaria is a phytosanitary risk, but because it is so widespread it is not specifically quarantined.

Hosts/Species Affected

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The host range of M. arenaria is extremely large and includes members from many plant families including monocotyledons, dicotyledons, and herbaceous and woody plants. This root-knot species parasitizes most of the major food crops (vegetables, fruit trees, brambles and vines) and ornamental plants grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates.

For further details on hosts see Sasser (1952, 1954), Taylor et al. (1982) and Colbran (1958).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
    Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
      Angelica dahuricaApiaceaeOther
      Anubias barteriAraceaeOther
        Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
          Atractylodes macrocephalaAsteraceaeOther
          Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
            Brosimum gaudichaudiiMoraceaeHabitat/association
              Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeUnknown
              Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeMain
                Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                  Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeMain
                    Clerodendrum inermeLamiaceaeHabitat/association
                      Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
                        Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
                        Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
                        Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
                          Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
                            Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
                              Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
                                Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
                                Desmodium tortuosum (Florida beggarweed)FabaceaeWild host
                                  Deutzia gracilis (slender deutzia)HydrangeaceaeWild host
                                    Digitalis purpurea (foxglove)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
                                      Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                        Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                          Eleusine indica (goose grass)PoaceaeWild host
                                            Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PoaceaeWild host
                                              Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
                                              Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
                                                Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
                                                  Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                  Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                    Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
                                                      Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
                                                        Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                                        Lespedeza stipulacea (Korean lespedeza)FabaceaeWild host
                                                          Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)PoaceaeWild host
                                                            Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
                                                              Malva parviflora (pink cheeseweed)MalvaceaeOther
                                                              Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
                                                                Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)LamiaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                  Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                  Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
                                                                    Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeUnknown
                                                                    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                    Olea europaeaOleaceaeUnknown
                                                                    Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
                                                                      Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
                                                                        Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeOther
                                                                          Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeMain
                                                                            Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                              Petroselinum crispum (parsley)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                              Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                              Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                Pimpinella anisum (aniseed)ApiaceaeHabitat/association
                                                                                  Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                    Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                      Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                      Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                        Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                                                          Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
                                                                                            Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeWild host
                                                                                              Rumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PolygonaceaeWild host
                                                                                                Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                  Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                  Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                  Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                                    Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                    Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Trifolium pratense (red clover)FabaceaeWild host
                                                                                                        Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                          Vicia sativa (common vetch)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                          Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                            Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain
                                                                                                            Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily)AraceaeOther
                                                                                                              Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

                                                                                                              Growth Stages

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                                                                                                              Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                              Symptoms

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                                                                                                              Underground symptoms are primarily galls on roots, corms, tubers or peanut pods, abnormal formation and function of root system and giant cells blocking the vascular cylinder.

                                                                                                              Non-specific above-ground symptoms include patchy, stunted growth; discoloration and leaf chlorosis; excessive wilting during dry, hot conditions; stunting of whole plants; reduced yield and quality; and sometimes premature senescence or death.

                                                                                                              Infected plants are often stunted and chlorotic. Small to large galls (2-200 mm in diameter) occur on the roots of infected plants. M. arenaria populations often produce many small bead-like galls that do not form short lateral roots (Eisenback et al., 1981). Small wart-like projections may occur on infected corms, tubers and peanut pods. Symptoms are similar to those produced by most of the other root-knot nematode species.

                                                                                                              Root-knot is generally more severe in sandy soils and under adverse environmental conditions such as drought and high temperatures. M. arenaria can interact with fungi or bacteria to cause more severe symptoms, break resistance to the disease agent, or allow weakly parasitic and non-pathogenic organisms to cause disease.

                                                                                                              List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                              SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                              Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                              Leaves / wilting
                                                                                                              Roots / galls along length
                                                                                                              Roots / reduced root system
                                                                                                              Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                                              Whole plant / early senescence

                                                                                                              Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                                              Life Cycle

                                                                                                              The egg of a root-knot nematode develops into a vermiform first-stage juvenile that undergoes one moult into a second-stage juvenile. The second-stage juvenile hatches from the egg, moves freely in the soil, penetrates the root just behind the root cap, migrates intercellularly in the root and establishes a feeding site within the developing vascular cylinder. As it feeds on the nematode-induced giant cell system, the second-stage juvenile loses its mobility and begins to increase in girth. After it has imbibed a sufficient quantity of sustenance, the flask-shaped second-stage juvenile moults three times without feeding and matures into a saccate adult female. Females of M. arenaria reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis; as soon as they are mature adults they begin producing eggs (Triantaphyllou and Hirschmann, 1960).

                                                                                                              Male second-stage juveniles undergo a metamorphosis during the third moult into elongate vermiform fourth-stage juveniles. The fourth-stage juvenile male remains enclosed in the cuticle of the second and third stages where it moults again to form an adult vermiform male. The male escapes from the cuticles and the root system. It moves freely in the soil, not feeding, only mating with mature adult females. As populations of M. arenaria reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, males serve no reproductive function (Triantaphyllou and Hirschmann, 1960).

                                                                                                              The length of one generation of M. arenaria is greatly affected by temperature. At very high temperatures (>29°C), the life cycle takes approximately 3 weeks, but at very cool temperatures it can be extended to 2-3 months.

                                                                                                              Natural enemies

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                                                                                                              Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                              Anatonchus Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Arthrobotrys tortor Predator Juveniles
                                                                                                              Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
                                                                                                              Aspergillus niger Antagonist
                                                                                                              Butlerius Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen Juveniles
                                                                                                              Clonostachys rosea Antagonist Adults
                                                                                                              Dactylella Predator Juveniles
                                                                                                              Diplogaster Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Discolaimus Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Dorylaimus Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Eggs
                                                                                                              Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist Adults
                                                                                                              Hypoaspis aculeifer Predator Eggs
                                                                                                              Mononchoides Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Mononchus Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
                                                                                                              Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Paecilomyces nostocoides Pathogen
                                                                                                              Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Juveniles
                                                                                                              Pseudopapulaspora kendrickii Pathogen
                                                                                                              Sarocladium strictum Pathogen Eggs
                                                                                                              Seinura Parasite Juveniles
                                                                                                              Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
                                                                                                              Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
                                                                                                              Tripyla Predator Juveniles
                                                                                                              Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                              Verticillium lamellicola Pathogen

                                                                                                              Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                                              The immense reproductive potential of the root-knot nematodes make them difficult to control by biological methods. Of the 500-1500 eggs produced by a single female, only 2% of the offspring need to be successful parasites for the population to increase by a factor of 12 in just three generations (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). Under most growing conditions where M. arenaria occurs, more than three generations are completed during one season.

                                                                                                              Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                                              VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                              Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                              Containers and packaging - woodEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                              Land vehiclesEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                              MailEggs and galls in soil. Yes
                                                                                                              Soil, sand and gravelEggs and galls in soil. Yes

                                                                                                              Plant Trade

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                                                                                                              Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                              Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                              Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                              Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                              Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                              Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                              Bark
                                                                                                              Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                                              Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                                              Leaves
                                                                                                              Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                                              True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                                              Wood

                                                                                                              Impact

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                                                                                                              M. arenaria is an economically important plant pathogen that parasitizes thousands of plant species worldwide. The peanut root-knot nematode is a pest of major food crops and significantly reduces the quantity and quality of food and fibre production.

                                                                                                              The average loss caused by root-knot nematodes is thought to be around 5%; however, in some fields the loss can be complete. In some areas of the world, root-knot nematodes are so common that galls on roots are considered normal. Often the damage caused by these nematodes is overlooked or the blame is placed on other agronomic problems. Stunted, unthrifty growth by infected plants is often attributed to vague agricultural ailments such as tired, poor, worn-out and exhausted land (Sasser and Carter, 1984).

                                                                                                              Diagnosis

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                                                                                                              Morphology of perineal patterns, shape and measurements of the stylet of the female, shape and measurements of the head and stylet of the male, and measurements of the second-stage juveniles are useful characters for species identification. Additional host range tests may be necessary to confirm the identification of the species and determination of the host race. Hosts of M. arenaria in the North Carolina differential host range test (Hartman and Sasser, 1984) include tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC95), pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Rutgers) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris [C. lanatus] cv. Charleston Gray). Host race 1 populations infect and reproduce on groundnut, whereas host race 2 populations do not.

                                                                                                              A DNA probe that is specific for M. arenaria has been developed and may be useful for diagnosis of this species (Baum et al., 1994). Cytological and biochemical characterization provide additional characters for identification of M. arenaria (Triantaphyllou, 1979; Esbenshade and Triantaphyllou, 1989).

                                                                                                              Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                                              Galls formed on the roots of plants are very diagnostic for most species of root-knot nematode. Root-knot infected tubers, corms and groundnut pods can be examined for characteristic surface swellings, but may also be sliced into 1-2 mm sections and stained with hot acid fuchsin (Daykin and Hussey, 1984). Likewise, endoparasitic second-stage juveniles can be stained with acid fuchsin inside whole roots, placed between glass slides and examined with a dissecting microscope.

                                                                                                              Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                                              Many aspects of the morphology of M. arenaria are similar to other species within the Meloidogyne genus.

                                                                                                              Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                              Host-Plant Resistance

                                                                                                              Much progress has been made in the use of resistant plants for reducing the damage caused by M. arenaria on various crop plants (Sasser and Kirby, 1979). Plants with some level of resistance include cultivars of cowpea, crown vetch, soyabean, passionfruit, okra, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, cucumber, guava rootstock, pepper, tobacco and various grasses (Sasser and Kirby, 1979). No useful source of resistance has been found in peanut.

                                                                                                              Crop Rotation

                                                                                                              Meloidogyne species are obligate parasites and populations decline rapidly in the absence of a host. Rotation of susceptible host crop plants with those that are immune or poor hosts is a useful way to reduce the effect that M. arenaria has on plant growth. Unfortunately, the non-host, when it does occur, is usually less profitable than the susceptible crop. M. arenaria has a very large host range and non-hosts or cultivars that have been reported resistant should be used with caution because of the innate variability that occurs in the root-knot nematodes. Other agronomic and economic factors are also important in the selection of a rotation crop. An adequate weed control programme is absolutely necessary for a crop rotation scheme to be effective because many weed species serve as suitable hosts (Taylor and Sasser, 1978).

                                                                                                              Chemical Control

                                                                                                              Nematicides have often been used for limiting the damage that nematodes cause on plants. Nematicides are usually used as a soil treatment before planting. However, a few nematicides can be applied after planting. These chemicals are relatively expensive and they require costly equipment and trained personnel to apply them.

                                                                                                              High-value crops that are good hosts of M. arenaria can be protected with a soil fumigant. These chemicals volatilize and kill the nematodes on contact. Less valuable crops can be protected with cheaper non-fumigant nematicides that dissolve in water and act as nerve poisons. They prevent nematodes from feeding on plants for 2-3 weeks, but their effect is reversible. Often they do not kill the nematodes. Because they are water soluble, their effectiveness is dependent on an adequate amount of soil moisture. If an optimum amount of water is available, the optimum effect is achieved; if too much or too little water is present, very little control is achieved (Bunt, 1987).

                                                                                                              Biological Control

                                                                                                              Numerous attempts have been made to control root-knot nematodes with parasitic and predacious organisms or various organic amendments, with varying degrees of success. Naturally occurring organisms, such as Pasteuria penetrans, which are obligate parasites of Meloidogyne, may prove to be effective for biological control.

                                                                                                              References

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