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Datasheet

Meloidogyne arenaria
(peanut root-knot nematode)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 March 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne arenaria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peanut root-knot nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
TitleSymptoms on roots
CaptionGalled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
Symptoms on rootsGalled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.J.D. Eisenback
Galled root system of tobacco.
TitleSymptoms on roots
CaptionGalled root system of tobacco.
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Galled root system of tobacco.
Symptoms on rootsGalled root system of tobacco.J.D. Eisenback
Washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
TitleDamage to root system
CaptionWashed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
CopyrightEd McGawley
Washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
Damage to root systemWashed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.Ed McGawley
Damage symptoms on groundnut pods infected with M. arenaria.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionDamage symptoms on groundnut pods infected with M. arenaria.
CopyrightPat Phipps
Damage symptoms on groundnut pods infected with M. arenaria.
Symptoms on podsDamage symptoms on groundnut pods infected with M. arenaria.Pat Phipps
Detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
TitleLight micrographs
CaptionDetail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
Light micrographsDetail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).J.D. Eisenback
Scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
TitleMale and female stylets
CaptionScanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
Male and female styletsScanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).J.D. Eisenback
Light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
TitleNematodes invading root tip
CaptionLight micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
Nematodes invading root tipLight micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.J.D. Eisenback
Light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
TitleFemale with egg mass
CaptionLight micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
Female with egg massLight micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).J.D. Eisenback
Scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
TitleSEM of female
CaptionScanning electron micrograph of whole female.
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
SEM of femaleScanning electron micrograph of whole female.J.D. Eisenback
Left: Light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. 

Right: Light micrograph of perineal pattern.
TitlePerineal patterns
CaptionLeft: Light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right: Light micrograph of perineal pattern.
CopyrightJ.D. Eisenback
Left: Light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. 

Right: Light micrograph of perineal pattern.
Perineal patternsLeft: Light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right: Light micrograph of perineal pattern.J.D. Eisenback

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • peanut root-knot nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillula arenaria Neal, 1889
  • Heterodera arenaria (Neal, 1889) Marcinowski, 1909
  • Meloidogyne arenaria arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949
  • Meloidogyne arenaria thamesi Chitwood in Chitwood et al., 1952
  • Meloidogyne thamesi (Chitwood et al., 1952) Goodey, 1963
  • Tylenchus arenarius (Neal, 1889) Cobb, 1890

International Common Names

  • English: groundnut root knot nematode; root-knot nematode disease
  • Spanish: nematodo nodulador del cacahuete
  • French: nématode galligène de l'arachide; nodosite des racines

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Erdnusswurzelgallen-Aelchen
  • Japan: Nekobu-sentyubyo

EPPO code

  • MELGAR (Meloidogyne arenaria)
  • MELGTH (Meloidogyne thamesi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne arenaria

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The taxonomy of the peanut root-knot nematode was greatly clarified by Chitwood in 1949; however, one morphological variant that he described has caused confusion in the literature because it has been cited as either subspecies M. arenaria thamesi or elevated to species M. thamesi. Because this variant has been extremely difficult to identify and does not correlate with other taxonomic characters, the two rankings are considered as synonyms of M. arenaria (Eisenback and Triantaphyllou, 1991). The morphological variation of this species has been described for seven populations representing the two host races, as well as the two cytological races (Cliff and Hirschmann, 1985).

Two host races of M. arenaria have been recognized: race 1 infects and reproduces on groundnut, whereas populations of race 2 do not (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). It is ironic that many populations of the nematode with the common name peanut root-knot nematode do not infect peanut.

Two cytological races of M. arenaria have been described (Triantaphyllou, 1963, 1979). The most common populations belong to race A and are triploid (3n = 51-56). Race B populations are less common and are diploid (2n = 34-37). There is no correlation between host race and cytological race.

Description

Top of page The body of the female is pearly white and pear-shaped, 500-1000 µm long by 400-600 µm wide. The conical neck of the female is in line with the spherical portion of the body. The stylet is robust, 13-17 (16) µm long and characteristically shaped with large, posteriorly sloped, tear-drop-shaped knobs. The distance of the dorsal oesophageal gland orifice to the base of the stylet is comparatively long (3-7 (5) µm). The overall morphology of females of M. arenaria is similar to other species within the genus.

The perineal pattern may be characteristic for the species, but some populations may contain individual variants that restrict the usefulness of this character. Likewise, other species of Meloidogyne may also have perineal patterns that closely resemble that of M. arenaria. The perineal pattern of M. arenaria may be very similar to that of M. incognita and other Meloidogyne species. Patterns that contain short, lateral incisures resemble that of M. javanica, and patterns that are rounded to hexagonal, often containing wings, are like that of M. hapla. The perineal pattern of M. arenaria has a low and rounded dorsal arch, but in some individuals it may be high and squarish. The striae are coarse and smooth to wavy, and some striae may bend toward the vulva. The most useful character of the perineal pattern is the lines in the lateral areas of the dorsal arch that sharply curve toward the tail terminus and meet the ventral striae at an angle. These striae become forked and the distance between them increases near the lateral areas which are often demarcated, but not delineated by distinct lateral incisures. Very short lateral incisures may be present very near the tail terminus. Some perineal patterns of M. arenaria form one or two 'wings' that extend laterally and are marked by fusion of the striae in the dorsal and ventral arches.

Males of M. arenaria are long (0.9-2.3 mm) and narrow (27-48 µm). Although the shape of the head is a useful morphological character, it is similar to several other less common species. The labial disc and medial lips form a smooth, posteriorly sloping head cap. The head annule is smooth and usually not marked with additional head annulations. Both the head annule and the body annulations are in the same contour. The stylet is long (20-28 µm) and robust with a bluntly pointed tip. The wide, cylindrical shaft gradually merges with the large, rounded, slightly tear-drop-shaped knobs. The dorsal oesophageal gland orifice to the base of the stylet is long to very long (4-8) 6 µm. The overall morphology of males of M. arenaria is similar to other species within the genus.

Second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria are long (398-605 (504) µm) and slender (13-18 (15) µm). The tail is moderately long (44-69 (56) µm), and the poorly defined hyaline tail terminus is moderately long (6-13 (9) µm), with a finely rounded to pointed tip. The stylet of second-stage juveniles is moderately long (10-12 (11) µm), and the dorsal oesophageal gland orifice distance to the stylet base is moderately long (3-5 (4) µm). The morphology of the second-stage juvenile of M. arenaria is similar to many other species of Meloidogyne and requires critical evaluation by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to be differentiated.

Distribution

Top of page M. arenaria is widely distributed around the world in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates where the average temperature in the warmest month is 36°C or lower and the average temperature in the coldest month is at lowest 3°C. The principal limiting factor in the distribution of M. arenaria seems to be an average temperature in the coldest month of 3°C (Taylor et al., 1982). This species seems to be rare or absent in areas with an average annual temperature of less than 15°C and most common in climates with average annual temperatures of 18-27°C (Taylor et al., 1982). This root-knot nematode is most common where the annual precipitation averages 1000-2000 mm (Taylor et al., 1982).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
AzerbaijanPresentTreskova et al., 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BangladeshPresentChoudhury, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ChinaPresentShaoshing and Ziming, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Wang et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2013
-FujianPresentShaoshing and Ziming, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Xu et al., 2012
-HainanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Fu et al., 2013
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-HenanPresentYang, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-JiangsuPresentSun et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShaanxiPresentMao et al., 2007
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ZhejiangPresentHuan, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IndiaPresentWadjid-Khan et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ChhattisgarhPresentSahu et al., 2011
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-HaryanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentKumar et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Uttar PradeshPresentWadjid-Khan et al., 1984; Abdullaeva, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-West BengalPresentSen and Dasgupta, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-JavaPresentHadisoeganda, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-SumatraWidespreadHadisoeganda, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IranPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IraqPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
JapanPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShikokuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
JordanPresentKarajeh et al., 2005
Korea, DPRWidespreadChoi, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentChoi, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LebanonPresentMacaron et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MalaysiaPresentMuhammed, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MaldivesWidespreadKozhokaru et al., 1979
MongoliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NepalPresentBhardwaj and Hogger, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PakistanPresentAhmad & Saeed, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PhilippinesPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Saudi ArabiaPresentIbrahim and Al-Yahya, 2002
Sri LankaPresentSivapalan, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SyriaWidespreadTayar, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TaiwanPresentTsai, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TajikistanPresentKulichin, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ThailandWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TurkeyPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Mennan et al., 2011
TurkmenistanPresentArutyunov, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UzbekistanPresentAbdullaeva, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
VietnamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2003
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
EgyptPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GambiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
GhanaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
LiberiaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2003
LibyaPresentKhan, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MadagascarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MoroccoPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MozambiqueWidespreadMartin and Armstrong, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NigeriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SenegalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
South AfricaPresentWyk, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SudanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TunisiaPresentChihani-Hammas et al., 2018
UgandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ZimbabwePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

North America

BermudaPresentCPPC; Taylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlabamaPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArizonaWidespreadWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArkansasWidespreadWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-FloridaPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HawaiiWidespreadWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-KansasPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-LouisianaWidespreadWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MississippiWidespreadWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New JerseyPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New YorkPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-OklahomaWidespreadWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TexasPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-VirginiaPresentWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-West VirginiaWidespreadWalters et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Costa RicaPresentLopez, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CubaPresentFernandez & Ortega, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
El SalvadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GuadeloupePresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JamaicaWidespreadCPPC; Sosa Moss, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MartiniqueWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
Puerto RicoPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003

South America

ArgentinaPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BoliviaPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BrazilPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AmazonasWidespreadLemos and Ponte, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-BahiaPresentFreire and Ponte, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-CearaPresentHuang & Costa Manso, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GoiasPresentAntônio, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParaPresentFreire and Freire, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParaibaPresentHuang & Costa Manso, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParanaPresentAntônio, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Machado et al., 2013
-PernambucoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLima et al., 2005
-Rio Grande do NortePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rio Grande do SulPresentHuang & Costa Manso, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Sao PauloPresentHuang & Costa Manso, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-SergipePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ChilePresentJiminez, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ColombiaPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EcuadorWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
GuyanaPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ParaguayWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
PeruPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SurinamePresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UruguayPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
VenezuelaPresentCrozzoli et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Europe

BelgiumPresentBGARC, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BulgariaPresentStoyanov, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
FrancePresentDalmasso, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GermanyPresentZunke, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GreecePresentKolipanos, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Tzortzakakis et al., 2011
HungaryPresentBudai, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IcelandRestricted distributionSiggeirsson & Riel, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IrelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-SicilyPresentd'Errico and Ingenito, 2003
MacedoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MontenegroPresentPajovic et al., 2007
NetherlandsPresentBrinkman, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PolandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003
PortugalPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
RomaniaRestricted distributionRomascu et al., 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Russian FederationPresentMar'enko, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Eastern SiberiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003
SpainPresentMarull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentVallotton, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UKPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UkrainePresentVolodchenko, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Yugoslavia (former)PresentGrujicic, 1975

Oceania

AustraliaPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-TasmaniaPresentPethybridge et al., 2008
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
FijiPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NiuePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentBridge and Page, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TuvaluPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

Risk of Introduction

Top of page M. arenaria is a phytosanitary risk, but because it is so widespread it is not specifically quarantined.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The host range of M. arenaria is extremely large and includes members from many plant families including monocotyledons, dicotyledons, and herbaceous and woody plants. This root-knot species parasitizes most of the major food crops (vegetables, fruit trees, brambles and vines) and ornamental plants grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates.

For further details on hosts see Sasser (1952, 1954), Taylor et al. (1982) and Colbran (1958).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
Angelica dahuricaApiaceaeOther
Anubias barteriAraceaeOther
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Atractylodes macrocephalaAsteraceaeOther
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
Brosimum gaudichaudiiMoraceaeHabitat/association
Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeMain
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeMain
Clerodendrum inermeLamiaceaeHabitat/association
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
Desmodium tortuosum (Florida beggarweed)FabaceaeWild host
Deutzia gracilis (slender deutzia)HydrangeaceaeWild host
Digitalis purpurea (foxglove)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Eleusine indica (goose grass)PoaceaeWild host
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PoaceaeWild host
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Lespedeza stipulacea (Korean lespedeza)FabaceaeWild host
Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)PoaceaeWild host
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
Malva parviflora (pink cheeseweed)MalvaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)LamiaceaeHabitat/association
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeOther
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeMain
Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Petroselinum crispum (parsley)ApiaceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
Pimpinella anisum (aniseed)ApiaceaeHabitat/association
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeWild host
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeWild host
Rumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PolygonaceaeWild host
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple)SolanaceaeOther
Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeOther
Trifolium pratense (red clover)FabaceaeWild host
Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeMain
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain
Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily)AraceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Underground symptoms are primarily galls on roots, corms, tubers or peanut pods, abnormal formation and function of root system and giant cells blocking the vascular cylinder.

Non-specific above-ground symptoms include patchy, stunted growth; discoloration and leaf chlorosis; excessive wilting during dry, hot conditions; stunting of whole plants; reduced yield and quality; and sometimes premature senescence or death.

Infected plants are often stunted and chlorotic. Small to large galls (2-200 mm in diameter) occur on the roots of infected plants. M. arenaria populations often produce many small bead-like galls that do not form short lateral roots (Eisenback et al., 1981). Small wart-like projections may occur on infected corms, tubers and peanut pods. Symptoms are similar to those produced by most of the other root-knot nematode species.

Root-knot is generally more severe in sandy soils and under adverse environmental conditions such as drought and high temperatures. M. arenaria can interact with fungi or bacteria to cause more severe symptoms, break resistance to the disease agent, or allow weakly parasitic and non-pathogenic organisms to cause disease.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Roots / galls along length
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Life Cycle

The egg of a root-knot nematode develops into a vermiform first-stage juvenile that undergoes one moult into a second-stage juvenile. The second-stage juvenile hatches from the egg, moves freely in the soil, penetrates the root just behind the root cap, migrates intercellularly in the root and establishes a feeding site within the developing vascular cylinder. As it feeds on the nematode-induced giant cell system, the second-stage juvenile loses its mobility and begins to increase in girth. After it has imbibed a sufficient quantity of sustenance, the flask-shaped second-stage juvenile moults three times without feeding and matures into a saccate adult female. Females of M. arenaria reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis; as soon as they are mature adults they begin producing eggs (Triantaphyllou and Hirschmann, 1960).

Male second-stage juveniles undergo a metamorphosis during the third moult into elongate vermiform fourth-stage juveniles. The fourth-stage juvenile male remains enclosed in the cuticle of the second and third stages where it moults again to form an adult vermiform male. The male escapes from the cuticles and the root system. It moves freely in the soil, not feeding, only mating with mature adult females. As populations of M. arenaria reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, males serve no reproductive function (Triantaphyllou and Hirschmann, 1960).

The length of one generation of M. arenaria is greatly affected by temperature. At very high temperatures (>29°C), the life cycle takes approximately 3 weeks, but at very cool temperatures it can be extended to 2-3 months.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anatonchus Parasite Juveniles
Arthrobotrys tortor Predator Juveniles
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Butlerius Parasite Juveniles
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen Juveniles
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist Adults
Dactylella Predator Juveniles
Diplogaster Parasite Juveniles
Discolaimus Parasite Juveniles
Dorylaimus Parasite Juveniles
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Eggs
Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist Adults
Hypoaspis aculeifer Predator Eggs
Mononchoides Parasite Juveniles
Mononchus Parasite Juveniles
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite Juveniles
Paecilomyces nostocoides Pathogen
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Juveniles
Pseudopapulaspora kendrickii Pathogen
Sarocladium strictum Pathogen Eggs
Seinura Parasite Juveniles
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Tripyla Predator Juveniles
Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs
Verticillium lamellicola Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The immense reproductive potential of the root-knot nematodes make them difficult to control by biological methods. Of the 500-1500 eggs produced by a single female, only 2% of the offspring need to be successful parasites for the population to increase by a factor of 12 in just three generations (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). Under most growing conditions where M. arenaria occurs, more than three generations are completed during one season.

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Land vehiclesEggs and galls in soil. Yes
MailEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelEggs and galls in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page M. arenaria is an economically important plant pathogen that parasitizes thousands of plant species worldwide. The peanut root-knot nematode is a pest of major food crops and significantly reduces the quantity and quality of food and fibre production.

The average loss caused by root-knot nematodes is thought to be around 5%; however, in some fields the loss can be complete. In some areas of the world, root-knot nematodes are so common that galls on roots are considered normal. Often the damage caused by these nematodes is overlooked or the blame is placed on other agronomic problems. Stunted, unthrifty growth by infected plants is often attributed to vague agricultural ailments such as tired, poor, worn-out and exhausted land (Sasser and Carter, 1984).

Diagnosis

Top of page Morphology of perineal patterns, shape and measurements of the stylet of the female, shape and measurements of the head and stylet of the male, and measurements of the second-stage juveniles are useful characters for species identification. Additional host range tests may be necessary to confirm the identification of the species and determination of the host race. Hosts of M. arenaria in the North Carolina differential host range test (Hartman and Sasser, 1984) include tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC95), pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Rutgers) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris [C. lanatus] cv. Charleston Gray). Host race 1 populations infect and reproduce on groundnut, whereas host race 2 populations do not.

A DNA probe that is specific for M. arenaria has been developed and may be useful for diagnosis of this species (Baum et al., 1994). Cytological and biochemical characterization provide additional characters for identification of M. arenaria (Triantaphyllou, 1979; Esbenshade and Triantaphyllou, 1989).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Galls formed on the roots of plants are very diagnostic for most species of root-knot nematode. Root-knot infected tubers, corms and groundnut pods can be examined for characteristic surface swellings, but may also be sliced into 1-2 mm sections and stained with hot acid fuchsin (Daykin and Hussey, 1984). Likewise, endoparasitic second-stage juveniles can be stained with acid fuchsin inside whole roots, placed between glass slides and examined with a dissecting microscope.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Many aspects of the morphology of M. arenaria are similar to other species within the Meloidogyne genus.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Host-Plant Resistance

Much progress has been made in the use of resistant plants for reducing the damage caused by M. arenaria on various crop plants (Sasser and Kirby, 1979). Plants with some level of resistance include cultivars of cowpea, crown vetch, soyabean, passionfruit, okra, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, cucumber, guava rootstock, pepper, tobacco and various grasses (Sasser and Kirby, 1979). No useful source of resistance has been found in peanut.

Crop Rotation

Meloidogyne species are obligate parasites and populations decline rapidly in the absence of a host. Rotation of susceptible host crop plants with those that are immune or poor hosts is a useful way to reduce the effect that M. arenaria has on plant growth. Unfortunately, the non-host, when it does occur, is usually less profitable than the susceptible crop. M. arenaria has a very large host range and non-hosts or cultivars that have been reported resistant should be used with caution because of the innate variability that occurs in the root-knot nematodes. Other agronomic and economic factors are also important in the selection of a rotation crop. An adequate weed control programme is absolutely necessary for a crop rotation scheme to be effective because many weed species serve as suitable hosts (Taylor and Sasser, 1978).

Chemical Control

Nematicides have often been used for limiting the damage that nematodes cause on plants. Nematicides are usually used as a soil treatment before planting. However, a few nematicides can be applied after planting. These chemicals are relatively expensive and they require costly equipment and trained personnel to apply them.

High-value crops that are good hosts of M. arenaria can be protected with a soil fumigant. These chemicals volatilize and kill the nematodes on contact. Less valuable crops can be protected with cheaper non-fumigant nematicides that dissolve in water and act as nerve poisons. They prevent nematodes from feeding on plants for 2-3 weeks, but their effect is reversible. Often they do not kill the nematodes. Because they are water soluble, their effectiveness is dependent on an adequate amount of soil moisture. If an optimum amount of water is available, the optimum effect is achieved; if too much or too little water is present, very little control is achieved (Bunt, 1987).

Biological Control

Numerous attempts have been made to control root-knot nematodes with parasitic and predacious organisms or various organic amendments, with varying degrees of success. Naturally occurring organisms, such as Pasteuria penetrans, which are obligate parasites of Meloidogyne, may prove to be effective for biological control.

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Top of page

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