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Datasheet

Meloidogyne arenaria
(peanut root-knot nematode)

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Datasheet

Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne arenaria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peanut root-knot nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
TitleSymptoms on roots
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.
Symptoms on rootsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system with three females dissected free from root tissue.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.
TitleSymptoms on roots
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.
Symptoms on rootsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); galled root system of tobacco.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
TitleDamage to root system
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
Copyright©Ed McGawley
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.
Damage to root systemMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); washed infected root system. The formation and function of the root system is abnormal in infected plants.©Ed McGawley
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.
Copyright©Pat Phipps
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.
Symptoms on podsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); damage symptoms on infected groundnut pods.©Pat Phipps
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
TitleLight micrographs
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).
Light micrographsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); detail of anterior end of female (left) and male (right).©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
TitleMale and female stylets
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).
Male and female styletsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrographs of extracted stylet of female (top) and male (bottom).©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
TitleNematodes invading root tip
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.
Nematodes invading root tipMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of second-stage juveniles (stained red) invading root tip.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
TitleFemale with egg mass
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).
Female with egg massMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); light micrograph of female with egg mass in a galled root (stained red).©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
TitleSEM of female
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.
SEM of femaleMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); scanning electron micrograph of whole female.©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.
TitlePerineal patterns
CaptionMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.
Perineal patternsMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); left) light micrograph of perineal pattern of female. Right) light micrograph of perineal pattern.©J.D. Eisenback

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • peanut root-knot nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillula arenaria Neal, 1889
  • Heterodera arenaria (Neal, 1889) Marcinowski, 1909
  • Meloidogyne arenaria arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949
  • Meloidogyne arenaria thamesi Chitwood in Chitwood et al., 1952
  • Meloidogyne thamesi (Chitwood et al., 1952) Goodey, 1963
  • Tylenchus arenarius (Neal, 1889) Cobb, 1890

International Common Names

  • English: groundnut root knot nematode; root-knot nematode disease
  • Spanish: nematodo nodulador del cacahuete
  • French: nématode galligène de l'arachide; nodosite des racines

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Erdnusswurzelgallen-Aelchen
  • Japan: Nekobu-sentyubyo

EPPO code

  • MELGAR (Meloidogyne arenaria)
  • MELGTH (Meloidogyne thamesi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne arenaria

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The taxonomy of the peanut root-knot nematode was greatly clarified by Chitwood in 1949; however, one morphological variant that he described has caused confusion in the literature because it has been cited as either subspecies M. arenaria thamesi or elevated to species M. thamesi. Because this variant has been extremely difficult to identify and does not correlate with other taxonomic characters, the two rankings are considered as synonyms of M. arenaria (Eisenback and Triantaphyllou, 1991). The morphological variation of this species has been described for seven populations representing the two host races, as well as the two cytological races (Cliff and Hirschmann, 1985).

Two host races of M. arenaria have been recognized: race 1 infects and reproduces on groundnut, whereas populations of race 2 do not (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). It is ironic that many populations of the nematode with the common name peanut root-knot nematode do not infect peanut.

Two cytological races of M. arenaria have been described (Triantaphyllou, 1963, 1979). The most common populations belong to race A and are triploid (3n = 51-56). Race B populations are less common and are diploid (2n = 34-37). There is no correlation between host race and cytological race.

Description

Top of page The body of the female is pearly white and pear-shaped, 500-1000 µm long by 400-600 µm wide. The conical neck of the female is in line with the spherical portion of the body. The stylet is robust, 13-17 (16) µm long and characteristically shaped with large, posteriorly sloped, tear-drop-shaped knobs. The distance of the dorsal oesophageal gland orifice to the base of the stylet is comparatively long (3-7 (5) µm). The overall morphology of females of M. arenaria is similar to other species within the genus.

The perineal pattern may be characteristic for the species, but some populations may contain individual variants that restrict the usefulness of this character. Likewise, other species of Meloidogyne may also have perineal patterns that closely resemble that of M. arenaria. The perineal pattern of M. arenaria may be very similar to that of M. incognita and other Meloidogyne species. Patterns that contain short, lateral incisures resemble that of M. javanica, and patterns that are rounded to hexagonal, often containing wings, are like that of M. hapla. The perineal pattern of M. arenaria has a low and rounded dorsal arch, but in some individuals it may be high and squarish. The striae are coarse and smooth to wavy, and some striae may bend toward the vulva. The most useful character of the perineal pattern is the lines in the lateral areas of the dorsal arch that sharply curve toward the tail terminus and meet the ventral striae at an angle. These striae become forked and the distance between them increases near the lateral areas which are often demarcated, but not delineated by distinct lateral incisures. Very short lateral incisures may be present very near the tail terminus. Some perineal patterns of M. arenaria form one or two 'wings' that extend laterally and are marked by fusion of the striae in the dorsal and ventral arches.

Males of M. arenaria are long (0.9-2.3 mm) and narrow (27-48 µm). Although the shape of the head is a useful morphological character, it is similar to several other less common species. The labial disc and medial lips form a smooth, posteriorly sloping head cap. The head annule is smooth and usually not marked with additional head annulations. Both the head annule and the body annulations are in the same contour. The stylet is long (20-28 µm) and robust with a bluntly pointed tip. The wide, cylindrical shaft gradually merges with the large, rounded, slightly tear-drop-shaped knobs. The dorsal oesophageal gland orifice to the base of the stylet is long to very long (4-8) 6 µm. The overall morphology of males of M. arenaria is similar to other species within the genus.

Second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria are long (398-605 (504) µm) and slender (13-18 (15) µm). The tail is moderately long (44-69 (56) µm), and the poorly defined hyaline tail terminus is moderately long (6-13 (9) µm), with a finely rounded to pointed tip. The stylet of second-stage juveniles is moderately long (10-12 (11) µm), and the dorsal oesophageal gland orifice distance to the stylet base is moderately long (3-5 (4) µm). The morphology of the second-stage juvenile of M. arenaria is similar to many other species of Meloidogyne and requires critical evaluation by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to be differentiated.

Distribution

Top of page M. arenaria is widely distributed around the world in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates where the average temperature in the warmest month is 36°C or lower and the average temperature in the coldest month is at lowest 3°C. The principal limiting factor in the distribution of M. arenaria seems to be an average temperature in the coldest month of 3°C (Taylor et al., 1982). This species seems to be rare or absent in areas with an average annual temperature of less than 15°C and most common in climates with average annual temperatures of 18-27°C (Taylor et al., 1982). This root-knot nematode is most common where the annual precipitation averages 1000-2000 mm (Taylor et al., 1982).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2003)
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
EgyptPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EthiopiaPresentAwol Seid et al. (2019)
GambiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
GhanaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
LiberiaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2003)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
MoroccoPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
MozambiquePresent, WidespreadMartin and Armstrong (1975); CABI and EPPO (2003)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
SenegalPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentWyk (1985); CABI and EPPO (2003)
SudanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
TunisiaPresentChihani-Hammas et al. (2018)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
AzerbaijanPresentTreskova et al. (1979); CABI and EPPO (2003)
BangladeshPresentChoudhury (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
ChinaPresentShaoshing and Ziming (1991); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); Wang et al. (2012); Wang XiZhuo et al. (2013)
-FujianPresentShaoshing and Ziming (1991); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); Xu et al. (2012)
-HainanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); Fu et al. (2013)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-HenanPresentYang (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-JiangsuPresentSun et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-ShaanxiPresentMao Qi et al. (2007)
-ShandongPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ShanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ZhejiangPresentHuan (1983); CABI and EPPO (2003)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ChhattisgarhPresentSahu et al. (2011)
-DelhiPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Tamil NaduPresentKumar et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-Uttar PradeshPresentAbdullaeva (1986); CABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-West BengalPresentSen and Dasgupta (1979); CABI and EPPO (2003)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-JavaPresentHadisoeganda (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-SumatraPresent, WidespreadHadisoeganda (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
IranPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
JapanPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ShikokuPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
JordanPresentKarajeh et al. (2005)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
MaldivesPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kozhokaru et al., 1979
MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
NepalPresentBhardwaj and Högger (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003)
North KoreaPresent, WidespreadChoi (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Saudi ArabiaPresentIbrahim and Al-Yahya (2002)
South KoreaPresentChoi (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
SyriaPresent, WidespreadTayar (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
TaiwanPresentTsai (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
TajikistanPresentKulichin (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
TurkeyPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003); Mennan et al. (2011)
TurkmenistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
UzbekistanPresentAbdullaeva (1986); CABI and EPPO (2003)
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)

Europe

BelgiumPresentBGARC (1972); CABI and EPPO (2003)
BulgariaPresentStoyanov (1980); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentGrujicic (1975)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresentZunke (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2003); Tzortzakakis et al. (2011); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresentBudai (1980); CABI and EPPO (2003)
IcelandPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
IrelandPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ItalyPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-SicilyPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: d'Errico and Ingenito (2003)
MoldovaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
MontenegroPresentPajovic et al. (2007)
NetherlandsPresentBrinkman (1975); CABI and EPPO (2003)
North MacedoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
PolandPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2003)
PortugalPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedRomascu et al. (1974); CABI and EPPO (2003)
RussiaPresentMar'enko (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Eastern SiberiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2003)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-Canary IslandsPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
SwitzerlandPresentVallotton (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003)
UkrainePresentVolodchenko (1975); CABI and EPPO (2003)
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)

North America

BelizePresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
BermudaPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
Costa RicaPresentLopez (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
El SalvadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
GuadeloupePresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated);
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2003)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Puerto RicoPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSchotman (1989); CABI and EPPO (2003)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-AlabamaPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-CaliforniaPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-FloridaPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-GeorgiaPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-KansasPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-LouisianaPresent, WidespreadWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-New JerseyPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-New YorkPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-North CarolinaPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-OklahomaPresent, WidespreadWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-South CarolinaPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-TexasPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-VirginiaPresentWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-West VirginiaPresent, WidespreadWalters and Barker (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-TasmaniaPresentPethybridge et al. (2008)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Cook IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
FijiPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
NiuePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Papua New GuineaPresentBridge and Page (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003)
SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
TuvaluPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)

South America

ArgentinaPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
BoliviaPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
BrazilPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-AmazonasPresent, WidespreadLemos and Ponte (1978); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-BahiaPresentFreire and Ponte (1976); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-CearaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-GoiasPresentAntônio (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ParaPresentFreire and Freire (1978); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-ParaibaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-ParanaPresentAntônio (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003); Machado et al. (2013)
-PernambucoPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLima et al. (2005)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-SergipePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
ColombiaPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EcuadorPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
GuyanaPresentSchotman (1989); CABI and EPPO (2003)
ParaguayPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
PeruPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
SurinamePresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
UruguayPresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
VenezuelaPresentCrozzoli P. et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2003)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page M. arenaria is a phytosanitary risk, but because it is so widespread it is not specifically quarantined.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The host range of M. arenaria is extremely large and includes members from many plant families including monocotyledons, dicotyledons, and herbaceous and woody plants. This root-knot species parasitizes most of the major food crops (vegetables, fruit trees, brambles and vines) and ornamental plants grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates.

For further details on hosts see Sasser (1952, 1954), Taylor et al. (1982) and Colbran (1958).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
Angelica dahuricaApiaceaeOther
Anubias barteriAraceaeOther
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Atractylodes macrocephalaAsteraceaeOther
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
Brosimum gaudichaudiiMoraceaeHabitat/association
Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeMain
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeMain
Clerodendrum inermeLamiaceaeHabitat/association
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
Desmodium tortuosum (Florida beggarweed)FabaceaeWild host
Deutzia gracilis (slender deutzia)HydrangeaceaeWild host
Digitalis purpurea (foxglove)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Eleusine indica (goose grass)PoaceaeWild host
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PoaceaeWild host
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Lespedeza stipulacea (Korean lespedeza)FabaceaeWild host
Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)PoaceaeWild host
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
Malva parviflora (pink cheeseweed)MalvaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)LamiaceaeHabitat/association
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeOther
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeMain
Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Petroselinum crispum (parsley)ApiaceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
Pimpinella anisum (aniseed)ApiaceaeHabitat/association
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeWild host
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeWild host
Rumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PolygonaceaeWild host
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple)SolanaceaeOther
Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeOther
Trifolium pratense (red clover)FabaceaeWild host
Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeMain
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain
Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily)AraceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Underground symptoms are primarily galls on roots, corms, tubers or peanut pods, abnormal formation and function of root system and giant cells blocking the vascular cylinder.

Non-specific above-ground symptoms include patchy, stunted growth; discoloration and leaf chlorosis; excessive wilting during dry, hot conditions; stunting of whole plants; reduced yield and quality; and sometimes premature senescence or death.

Infected plants are often stunted and chlorotic. Small to large galls (2-200 mm in diameter) occur on the roots of infected plants. M. arenaria populations often produce many small bead-like galls that do not form short lateral roots (Eisenback et al., 1981). Small wart-like projections may occur on infected corms, tubers and peanut pods. Symptoms are similar to those produced by most of the other root-knot nematode species.

Root-knot is generally more severe in sandy soils and under adverse environmental conditions such as drought and high temperatures. M. arenaria can interact with fungi or bacteria to cause more severe symptoms, break resistance to the disease agent, or allow weakly parasitic and non-pathogenic organisms to cause disease.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Roots / galls along length
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Life Cycle

The egg of a root-knot nematode develops into a vermiform first-stage juvenile that undergoes one moult into a second-stage juvenile. The second-stage juvenile hatches from the egg, moves freely in the soil, penetrates the root just behind the root cap, migrates intercellularly in the root and establishes a feeding site within the developing vascular cylinder. As it feeds on the nematode-induced giant cell system, the second-stage juvenile loses its mobility and begins to increase in girth. After it has imbibed a sufficient quantity of sustenance, the flask-shaped second-stage juvenile moults three times without feeding and matures into a saccate adult female. Females of M. arenaria reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis; as soon as they are mature adults they begin producing eggs (Triantaphyllou and Hirschmann, 1960).

Male second-stage juveniles undergo a metamorphosis during the third moult into elongate vermiform fourth-stage juveniles. The fourth-stage juvenile male remains enclosed in the cuticle of the second and third stages where it moults again to form an adult vermiform male. The male escapes from the cuticles and the root system. It moves freely in the soil, not feeding, only mating with mature adult females. As populations of M. arenaria reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, males serve no reproductive function (Triantaphyllou and Hirschmann, 1960).

The length of one generation of M. arenaria is greatly affected by temperature. At very high temperatures (>29°C), the life cycle takes approximately 3 weeks, but at very cool temperatures it can be extended to 2-3 months.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anatonchus Parasite Juveniles
Arthrobotrys tortor Predator Juveniles
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Butlerius Parasite Juveniles
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen Juveniles
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist Adults
Dactylella Predator Juveniles
Diplogaster Parasite Juveniles
Discolaimus Parasite Juveniles
Dorylaimus Parasite Juveniles
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Eggs
Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist Adults
Hypoaspis aculeifer Predator Eggs
Mononchoides Parasite Juveniles
Mononchus Parasite Juveniles
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite Juveniles
Paecilomyces nostocoides Pathogen
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Juveniles
Pseudopapulaspora kendrickii Pathogen
Sarocladium strictum Pathogen Eggs
Seinura Parasite Juveniles
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Tripyla Predator Juveniles
Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs
Verticillium lamellicola Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The immense reproductive potential of the root-knot nematodes make them difficult to control by biological methods. Of the 500-1500 eggs produced by a single female, only 2% of the offspring need to be successful parasites for the population to increase by a factor of 12 in just three generations (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). Under most growing conditions where M. arenaria occurs, more than three generations are completed during one season.

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Land vehiclesEggs and galls in soil. Yes
MailEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelEggs and galls in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page M. arenaria is an economically important plant pathogen that parasitizes thousands of plant species worldwide. The peanut root-knot nematode is a pest of major food crops and significantly reduces the quantity and quality of food and fibre production.

The average loss caused by root-knot nematodes is thought to be around 5%; however, in some fields the loss can be complete. In some areas of the world, root-knot nematodes are so common that galls on roots are considered normal. Often the damage caused by these nematodes is overlooked or the blame is placed on other agronomic problems. Stunted, unthrifty growth by infected plants is often attributed to vague agricultural ailments such as tired, poor, worn-out and exhausted land (Sasser and Carter, 1984).

Diagnosis

Top of page Morphology of perineal patterns, shape and measurements of the stylet of the female, shape and measurements of the head and stylet of the male, and measurements of the second-stage juveniles are useful characters for species identification. Additional host range tests may be necessary to confirm the identification of the species and determination of the host race. Hosts of M. arenaria in the North Carolina differential host range test (Hartman and Sasser, 1984) include tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC95), pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Rutgers) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris [C. lanatus] cv. Charleston Gray). Host race 1 populations infect and reproduce on groundnut, whereas host race 2 populations do not.

A DNA probe that is specific for M. arenaria has been developed and may be useful for diagnosis of this species (Baum et al., 1994). Cytological and biochemical characterization provide additional characters for identification of M. arenaria (Triantaphyllou, 1979; Esbenshade and Triantaphyllou, 1989).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Galls formed on the roots of plants are very diagnostic for most species of root-knot nematode. Root-knot infected tubers, corms and groundnut pods can be examined for characteristic surface swellings, but may also be sliced into 1-2 mm sections and stained with hot acid fuchsin (Daykin and Hussey, 1984). Likewise, endoparasitic second-stage juveniles can be stained with acid fuchsin inside whole roots, placed between glass slides and examined with a dissecting microscope.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Many aspects of the morphology of M. arenaria are similar to other species within the Meloidogyne genus.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Host-Plant Resistance

Much progress has been made in the use of resistant plants for reducing the damage caused by M. arenaria on various crop plants (Sasser and Kirby, 1979). Plants with some level of resistance include cultivars of cowpea, crown vetch, soyabean, passionfruit, okra, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, cucumber, guava rootstock, pepper, tobacco and various grasses (Sasser and Kirby, 1979). No useful source of resistance has been found in peanut.

Crop Rotation

Meloidogyne species are obligate parasites and populations decline rapidly in the absence of a host. Rotation of susceptible host crop plants with those that are immune or poor hosts is a useful way to reduce the effect that M. arenaria has on plant growth. Unfortunately, the non-host, when it does occur, is usually less profitable than the susceptible crop. M. arenaria has a very large host range and non-hosts or cultivars that have been reported resistant should be used with caution because of the innate variability that occurs in the root-knot nematodes. Other agronomic and economic factors are also important in the selection of a rotation crop. An adequate weed control programme is absolutely necessary for a crop rotation scheme to be effective because many weed species serve as suitable hosts (Taylor and Sasser, 1978).

Chemical Control

Nematicides have often been used for limiting the damage that nematodes cause on plants. Nematicides are usually used as a soil treatment before planting. However, a few nematicides can be applied after planting. These chemicals are relatively expensive and they require costly equipment and trained personnel to apply them.

High-value crops that are good hosts of M. arenaria can be protected with a soil fumigant. These chemicals volatilize and kill the nematodes on contact. Less valuable crops can be protected with cheaper non-fumigant nematicides that dissolve in water and act as nerve poisons. They prevent nematodes from feeding on plants for 2-3 weeks, but their effect is reversible. Often they do not kill the nematodes. Because they are water soluble, their effectiveness is dependent on an adequate amount of soil moisture. If an optimum amount of water is available, the optimum effect is achieved; if too much or too little water is present, very little control is achieved (Bunt, 1987).

Biological Control

Numerous attempts have been made to control root-knot nematodes with parasitic and predacious organisms or various organic amendments, with varying degrees of success. Naturally occurring organisms, such as Pasteuria penetrans, which are obligate parasites of Meloidogyne, may prove to be effective for biological control.

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Top of page

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