Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Melicoccus bijugatus
(Spanish lime)



Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)


  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Melicoccus bijugatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Spanish lime
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. bijugatus is a slow growing tree, native to South America, which is now cultivated and naturalized widely throughout the tropics (

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Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); foliage and fruits.
TitleFoliage and fruits
CaptionSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); foliage and fruits.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); foliage and fruits.
Foliage and fruitsSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); foliage and fruits. ©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); habit of seedling. May 2013.
CaptionSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); habit of seedling. May 2013.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); habit of seedling. May 2013.
SeedlingSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); habit of seedling. May 2013.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); inflorescence and florets.
CaptionSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); inflorescence and florets.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); inflorescence and florets.
InflorescenceSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); inflorescence and florets.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); close-up of inflorescence and florets.
TitleInflorescence and florets
CaptionSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); close-up of inflorescence and florets.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); close-up of inflorescence and florets.
Inflorescence and floretsSpanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus); close-up of inflorescence and florets.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq., 1760

Preferred Common Name

  • Spanish lime

Other Scientific Names

  • Melicocca bijuga L.
  • Melicoccus bijugatus f. alatus Kitan.
  • Melicoccus carpopodea Juss.

International Common Names

  • English: genip; honeyberry
  • Spanish: limoncillo; mamon (Mexico); mamoncillo; quenepa; tapaljocote (Mexico)
  • French: kenépier; quenette; quenettier

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: pitomba
  • Dominican Republic: quenepe; quenepo
  • Germany: Honigbeere
  • Haiti: canapé; quenepe a fruits; quenépier; quenépier male
  • Jamaica: ginep; guinep
  • Lesser Antilles: ackee; chennet; Jamaica bullace plum
  • Nicaragua: escanjocote
  • Suriname: knippen
  • United States Virgin Islands: genep

EPPO code

  • MLCBI (Melicoccus bijugatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. bijugatus is a slow growing tree, native to South America, which is now cultivated and naturalized widely throughout the tropics (Francis, 1992) and which is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It has been intentionally introduced and cultivated for its fruits in many tropical countries, and is also actively planted as an ornamental, shade tree, and honey-plant (Little and Wadsworth 1964; Francis, 1992). Seeds are dispersed mainly by humans when they consume its fruits. Consequently, seeds can be dispersed long distances. In addition, demographic attributes of the species such as high germination rates, high probability of seedling establishment, and high survival rates of young plants are factors contributing to the successful establishment of this species when invading new habitats (Francis, 1992). Currently, M. bijugatus is listed as an invasive species in the US Virgin Islands and Galápagos Islands (Clark, 2003; Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008). In the secondary forest of St. Thomas, St. John (US Virgin Islands) and the Galápagos Islands this species is becoming dominant and is displacing native vegetation (Clark, 2003). In Cuba it is listed as a potentially invasive species (González-Torres et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Sapindales
  •                         Family: Sapindaceae
  •                             Genus: Melicoccus
  •                                 Species: Melicoccus bijugatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Spanish lime, Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Melicoccus bijuga L.), is a member of the Sapindaceae or the soapberry family which includes about 143 genera and 2000 species widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions with a few genera extending to sub-temperate zones (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2012). Members of this family are trees, shrubs, and tendril-bearing herbaceous or woody vines.

The genus name comes from the Greek mel (honey) and kokkos (seed). Francis (1992) reported that the only other member of the genus was Melicoccus lepidopetanus, a similar tree with edible fruit. A revision of the genus by Acevedo-Rodríguez (2003) listed a number of other species, and The Plant List (2013) gives eleven Melicoccus species as accepted and a number of others as ‘unresolved’. The species M. bijugatus is grown for its fruit and the specific epithet refers to the bijugate leaves (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003).

In Spanish-speaking countries it is called mamoncillo (the most common name), grosella de miel, macao, maco, mauco, muco (Colombia, Venezuela), mamón (Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina), mamón de Cartagena (Costa Rica), quenepa, mamoncillo, limoncillo (Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Colombia), grosella de miel, guayo (México) and tapaljocote (El Salvador). In English, names include genip, ginep, ginepe, guenepa, guinep (Barbados, Jamaica, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago), genip lime, genip tree, honeyberry (Guyana), Jamaica bullace plum, kanappy (Puerto Rico), and knippelboom and Spanish lime (Florida). The names in French are kenépier, kenettier, knépier and quenettier, with quenette (French West Indies) and quenepe (Haiti). In German, it is dotter knippe. Limoncillo and Spanish lime evoke acidity, whereas honeyberry and grosella de miel refer to sweetness. Popenoe (1974) explained this apparent contradiction by the existence of very sour types of mamoncillo in Cuba (Duarte and Paull, 2015).


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General description

M. bijugatus is a dioecious or monoecious tree, slow-growing and erect, reaching 6-15 m, sometimes 25-30 m, the trunk can grow to 1.7 m. The bark is thick, light grey, smooth, with horizontal markings. Stems are glabrous.


Leaves of M. bijugatus are paripinnate; early deciduous; leaflets (2) 4, opposite or sub-opposite, asymmetrical, elliptic, oblong, ovate or obovate, 4-14(20) × 2.2-5(7) cm, chartaceous, glabrous on both surfaces; the margins are entire, slightly wavy, the apex acute or obtuse (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003). The rachis is frequently winged.


M. bijugatus flowers are borne on terminal panicles, 5-12 cm long, glabrous, the staminate inflorescences with 4-8 lateral branches, slightly shorter than the main axis, the pistillate inflorescences with 3-4 mostly basal, short branches; bracts triangular, minute, ciliate at margins; pedicels (2)5- 7 mm long, not articulate. Flowers fragrant; sepals 4, greenish, 1.5-2.2 mm long, oblong, concave, glabrous except for the woolly margins; petals 5, cream to yellowish, obovate, 2-2.5 mm long, narrowed at base, rounded at apex, woolly to sparsely woolly at margins; nectary disc annular, lobed, glabrous; stamens 8 , spreading, the filaments of unequal length, glabrous, ca. 4 mm long in male flowers; ovary glabrous, the style ca. 0.5 mm long, the stigmas bilobed or bilobed-disciform, papillate (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003).


M. bijugatus fruits are borne in clusters and are subglobose or ellipsoid green drupes, 2-3.5 cm long and 10-25 g in weight, green to yellowish when mature with a thin, leathery, brittle skin. The fruits have a short, sharp terminal protrusion. The pulp is a gelatinous aril that is juicy and tart or acid-sweet, translucent, somewhat astringent, orange to salmon pink, and contains one relatively large seed to which the aril is firmly attached. The single seed is large, 1.5-2.5 cm long, yellowish-white or white, hard-shelled, starchy and astringent. Some trees produce a proportion of fruit with two hemispherical seeds (Duarte and Paull, 2015).


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M. bijugatus is native to northern South America, from Colombia to the Guianas, and Central America and the West Indies (Martin et al., 1987). It is grown and found growing wild in most of these countries. M. bijugatus is widely cultivated in home gardens, and even in urban habitats including streets, in the Antilles, Central and northern South America. It is grown in South Florida and Hawaii mainly as an ornamental or street or backyard tree (Duarte and Paull, 2015). It has become naturalized along roadsides and in secondary dry forests throughout Central America, the West Indies, Cameroon, Gabon, and on several Pacific Islands such as Hawaii, French Polynesia, and the Cook Islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


CameroonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
GabonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedLittle and Wadsworth, 1964
MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen, 2008
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al., 2000
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Guana, Jost van Dyke, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedINBio, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
CubaPresentIntroducedGonzález-Torres et al., 2012Listed as potentially invasive
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedLittle and Wadsworth, 1964
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2003
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2003
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAdams, 1972
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Saba, St. Barthelemy, St. Eustatius, St. Martin
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2003
PanamaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2003
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLittle and Wadsworth, 1964Also on Mona Island
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedLittle and Wadsworth, 1964
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003; Clark, 2003St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. John

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParaPresentNativeForzza et al., 2012
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
VenezuelaPresentNativeHokche et al., 2008


Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2002
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2011
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2003Society Islands
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. bijugatus is a tree species that has been part of the flora of the West Indies for centuries and according to some authors, it may have been brought to some islands by indigenous people during pre-Columbian times (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Francis, 1992). The genus Melicoccus was described by Browne in 1756 based on M. bijugatus which was already well established in the vicinity of Kingston, Jamaica (Browne, 1756). As early as 1830, this species appears in botanical records from Barbados (Maycock, 1830) and in herbarium collections made in 1881 on the island of St. Thomas (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection). Ignaz Urban reported this species as “common” for the islands of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Bahamas, Jamaica, Hispaniola, St Thomas, St Croix, St John, St Martin, Saba, St Eustatius, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Barbados, Trinidad, Bonaire, and Curaçao (Urban, 1905).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of M. bijugatus is moderate to high. It is widely cultivated mainly in tropical countries to commercialize its fruits and it is also planted as an ornamental, honey-plant, and shade-tree. M. bijugatus spreads by seeds which can be easily dispersed by humans and animals. Seeds have germination rates greater than 60% under natural conditions (Francis, 1992). Because humans are the main local and long-distance disperser of M. bijugatus, there is a high probability of colonizing new locations.


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M. bijugatus can be found growing in secondary forests, coastal forests, old farmsteads, and along roadsides. In the West Indies, it is an occasional element in dry coastal forests (Little and Wadsworth, 1964), but can become a dominant species to the point of forming monospecific stands. In its natural range in Venezuela it is found in tropical dry transition to moist and tropical moist forests (Francis, 1992).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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There are no studies available reporting the chromosome number in M. bijugatus. However, for other species within the genus Melicoccus, studies have shown chromosome numbers varying from 2n=32 to 2n=96, which is the highest chromosome number reported for the family Sapindaceae (Ferrucci and Solís, 1997). 

Physiology and Phenology

In the Greater Antilles and Central America, flowering of M. bijugatus occurs between March and August (rarely as late as November), followed by fruiting from April to August. In northern South America and the Lesser Antilles, flowering has been recorded from October to May and fruiting from January to June (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003). 


M. bijugatus is a long-lived tree in which flowering and fruit production begins after 5-6 years (Duarte and Paull, 2015). Francis (1992) reported that it grows by about 1 cm/year in diameter and that the largest tree known to the author in Puerto Rico measured 1 m in diameter. 

Environmental Requirements

Within its native range, M. bijugatus grows in areas receiving from 900 mm to 2600 mm of annual precipitation and annual temperatures around 25-27°C, from sea level to elevations about 1000 m (Francis, 1992). This species is adapted to grow in a great variety of substrates including clays, loams, and sandy soils, but these substrates have to be well-drained. In some countries, it is used in soil reclamation efforts. It is found in a pH range of around 5.5-8.0 (Francis, 1992). The best soils are deep, rich, and of calcareous origin. It does very well in the oolitic limestone of Florida and grows spontaneously in dry coastal districts (Morton, 1987). M. bijugatus is also able to grow in porous limestone and partially saline soils. It is well adapted to grow in dry forests with a drought season lasting from 3 to 5 months, but it does not tolerate frost or shaded conditions (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Francis, 1992; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003).

Reproductive biology

M. bijugatus is generally dioecious with male and female plants but some plants are monoecious or have bisexual flowers (Martin et al., 1987). Flowering takes place once a year. In the Greater Antilles and Central America, flowering of M. bijugatus occurs between March and August (rarely as late as November), followed by fruiting from April to August. In northern South America and the Lesser Antilles, flowering has been recorded from October to May and fruiting from January to June (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003).

The anthers of many bisexual flowers of M. bijugatus are non-functional or pollen-sterile so that fruits do not develop unless cross-pollination occurs. It is therefore necessary to interplant male plants with female or hermaphroditic plants to ensure adequate pollination and fruit set. Some trees have sufficient flowers of both sexes to yield fruits without interplanting. No information has been found about pollination agents but the flowers are rich in nectar and it is considered a plant suitable for the production of honey (Vargas et al., 1999). This could be an indication that honey bees and other flying insects are involved in pollination. Only a small proportion of the flowers develop into fruits which take around 100, sometimes up to 150 days, to mature (Martin et al., 1987, Duarte and Paull, 2015).


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Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 27


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration05number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall9002600mm; lower/upper limits

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. bijugatus spreads by seeds. Under natural conditions, seeds can be dispersed by birds and bats, but because fruits are commonly consumed by humans, it has been suggested that humans could be the main long-distance disperser of this species at least in those areas where its fruits are consumed (Francis, 1992).

Impact Summary

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Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Although M. bijugatus is a slow-growing tree, it represents a serious threat to native vegetation mainly in insular dry ecosystems. For islands in the Galápagos Archipelago and in US Virgin Islands, this species is listed as invasive. On these islands, M. bijugatus has shown high germination rates and high seedling survival under natural conditions. Consequently, it is becoming the dominant species mainly in secondary forests and is displacing native vegetation (Clark, 2003; Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008).  

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally


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M. bijugatus is commonly planted as a fruit and shade tree. The fruits are cut and sold mostly along roadsides and streets to be eaten from the hand as a snack. The aril of Spanish limes has a sweet taste when fully ripe that is a pleasant mixture of sweetness with acidic overtones. The tight, thin skin is easily cracked by the teeth or thumbnails. It is made into jam, marmalade, jellies or beverages and the peeled fruit can be boiled to make a cold drink. The seeds are said to be edible after roasting. Indians of the Orinoco River basin use the cooked seeds as a substitute for cassava (Duarte and Paull, 2015).

The abundant flower nectar allows the production of an appreciated dark, flavoured honey. The wood is valued for rafters, indoor framing and cabinetwork. Pulverized, roasted seed kernels and a decoction of bark or leaves are used for dysentery and intestinal disorders (Janick and Paull, 2008). Extracts from the leaves are used in South America to kill flies and repel sandflies and a tea made from young leaves is used in the Dominican Republic to reduce fever (Francis, 1992).


Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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For M. bijugatus, information is required in the following areas:

  1. History of introduction.
  2. Reproductive biology and breeding system.
  3. Demographic status of populations of this exotic species in invaded habitats.
  4. Impacts on native plants and natural communities within its introduced range.
  5. Recommendations for the management, control, and mitigation of the impacts of this invasive species in natural areas.  


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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2003. Melicocceae (Sapindaceae): Melicoccus and Talisia. Flora Neotropica, 87:1-179.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2012. Sapindaceae. Flora of the Guianas, Series A: Phanerogams Fascicle 29:196 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267.

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies.

Browne P, 1756. The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. London, UK 503 pp. + 49 fig.

Cabrera, I., Brunner, B. R., 2007. Variedades de Quenepa: Evaluación del germoplasma de Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. en la Estación Experimental Agrícola de Juana Díaz Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto Universitario de Mayagüez, Colegio de Ciencias Agrícolas, Estación Experimental Agrícola, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Boletín No. 30

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Clark D, 2003. Weeds are Still "Weeds" in Paradise. Wildland Weeds, Winter:16-17.

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Duarte, O., Paull, R., 2015. Exotic fruits and nuts of the New World., Exotic fruits and nuts of the New World:ix + 332 pp.

Ferrucci MS, Solís NVG, 1997. [English title not available]. (Citotaxonomía de Sapindaceae sudamericanas.) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 33:77-83.

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) .

Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.

Francis JK, 1992. Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. Quenepa. Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. Quenepa. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Southern Forest Experiment Station, 4 pp. [SO-ITF-SM-48.]

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

INBio (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad), 1998. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Manual of plants of Costa Rica). Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, 125 pp.

Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts., The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts:xviii + 954 pp.

Knudsen, H., 2000. Directorio de Colecciones de Germoplasma en América Latina y el Caribe Primera edición. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRl), Rome

Little EL Jr, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agricultural Handbook, No. 249. Washington DC, US; Department of Agriculture.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Maycock JD, 1830. Flora Barbadensis: A catalogue of plants, indigenous, naturalized, and cultivated in Barbados. Piccadilly, London, UK: James Ridgway, 446 pp.

Morton, J. F., 1987. Fruits of warm climates., Fruits of warm climates:517 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USAL USDA Forest Service, 146 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.

Urban I, 1905. Symbolae Antillanae. Volumen IV. Berlin, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger, 771 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida.

Links to Websites

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Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
Flora of the West Indies
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk


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03/07/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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