Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Silene latifolia subsp. alba
(white campion)

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Datasheet

Silene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Silene latifolia subsp. alba
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white campion
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. latifolia subsp. alba is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb growing to 1 m in height, producing white, 5-petalled, showy flowers. Native to Eurasia, it has been introduced to East Asia, Australasia, and North and South A...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Silene latifolia subsp. alba, (white campion); close view of single flower. USA.
TitleFlower
CaptionSilene latifolia subsp. alba, (white campion); close view of single flower. USA.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Michigan State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Silene latifolia subsp. alba, (white campion); close view of single flower. USA.
FlowerSilene latifolia subsp. alba, (white campion); close view of single flower. USA.©David Cappaert/Michigan State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Silene latifolia subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet

Preferred Common Name

  • white campion

Other Scientific Names

  • Lychnis alba Mill.
  • Melandrium album (Mill.) Garcke
  • Melandrium vespertinum Fr.
  • Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause
  • Silene pratensis Godr.

International Common Names

  • English: bladder campion; campion (white); evening campion; white cockle
  • Spanish: colleja blanca
  • French: compagnon blanc; lychnis dioique; melandrie blanche
  • Chinese: bai jian qiu luo
  • Portuguese: assobios

Local Common Names

  • Germany: weisse Lichtnelke; weisse Nachtnelke; weisse Waldnelke
  • Italy: boccon di pecora; gittaione bianco; melandrio bianco; orecchiella; orecchietta
  • Japan: hirohanomantema; Matsuyoisenno
  • Netherlands: avondkoekoeksbloem
  • Poland: bniec bialy; lepnica biala
  • Sweden: vitblaera

EPPO code

  • MELAL (Silene latifolia subsp. alba)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. latifolia subsp. alba is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb growing to 1 m in height, producing white, 5-petalled, showy flowers. Native to Eurasia, it has been introduced to East Asia, Australasia, and North and South America. In some introduced areas it has become a noxious invasive weed of hay fields and pastures. In North America it is a seed contaminant of lucerne (alfalfa), clover, grass and small grain seed crops. In western North America it is displacing the native and threatened Silene spaldingii.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Caryophyllaceae
  •                             Genus: Silene
  •                                 Species: Silene latifolia subsp. alba

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The generic name Silene originally given by Linnaeus is thought to derive from the name of the Greek woodland god Selinus who was often depicted drunk and covered in a sticky foam from his drinking (Loudon, 1840); the name therefore alludes to the frothy foam secreted by female flowers of S. dioica (red campion) for capturing pollen. The specific epithet latifolia means wide-leaved, as leaves of S. latifolia subsp. alba are generally wider than those of the closely related S. dioica (First Nature, 2015). The subspecific epithet alba refers to the white colour of the flowers.

The taxonomy of this species is very confused. Most current botanists accept the name Silene latifolia subsp. alba, but in the literature a wide variety of other names can be found, some of them very similar to the names of similar species. Older taxonomic treatments place S. latifolia subsp. alba in the genus Lychnis, which differs from Silene in very small structural details of the flowers; however, Robinson and Fernald (1908) record both L. alba and S. latifolia, while other botanists record this species as S. alba. The differences between taxa were deemed so minor that taxonomists decided to disband Lychnis, absorbing its members into Silene (Flora Pittsburghensis, 2015). S. latifolia subsp. alba was validly published in 1982 in Willdenowia 12:189 (Greuter and Raus, 1982).

The common name 'white campion' is thought to be related to the word 'champion', as the flowers were used in the garlands used to crown the victors in ancient games.

Description

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S. latifolia subsp. alba is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb growing to 1 m in height. It has a tap root system which spreads laterally as the plant matures. Stems have hairs on the lower section that become glandular nearer the flower. Leaves are egg-shaped, and lower leaves are up to 10 cm long, reducing in size upward. Stem leaves are opposite. Inflorescences comprise unisexual flowers (plants are dioecious, i.e., either male or female) which are rather showy, evening blooming and scented; there are several to many in open, spreading, leafy-bracted clusters. Petals 5, white, tips wide, deeply notched into 2 lobes, 2 appendages above each petal in the flower centre, dividing into 2 lobes. Sepals 5, united, forming a downy, sticky tube 15-20 mm long. The calyx of the male flower has 10 veins; the female’s 20 veins are longer, and inflate with ripening. Capsules are egg-shaped, to 20 mm long, with 10 teeth. Seeds are about 1.5 mm long, dark bluish-brown, and prominently warty-pimply in concentric rows (Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014).

Plant Type

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Biennial
Perennial

Distribution

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The native range of S. latifolia subsp. alba encompasses most of Europe, from Scandinavia and the UK in the north, to the Mediterranean and western North Africa (Morocco, Algeria), then east to West Asia and through Russia as far as its Far Eastern provinces. The species has been introduced to East Asia (China, Japan), Australia, New Zealand and North America, and there are reports from South America (GBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). In Canada it is reported from every southern Canadian province from British Columbia to Newfoundland. It is listed as a noxious weed in Alberta and as a class C noxious weed in Washington State, USA (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2010; Center for Invasive Species Management, 2014). In the USA it is found in most states, particularly in those of the north-central and north-eastern areas (USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
MoroccoPresentNative

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-LiaoningPresentIntroduced
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroduced
LebanonPresentNative
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresentNative
CzechiaPresent
EstoniaPresentNative
FinlandPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresentNative
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
-AzoresPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentNative
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNative
-Russian Far EastPresentNative
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
-Western SiberiaPresentNative
SloveniaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
SwedenPresentNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroduced
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced1875
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced
GreenlandPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlaskaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-IdahoPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. latifolia subsp. alba was introduced multiple times from western and eastern Europe into western and eastern North America (Keller et al., 2012) from about 200 years ago, possibly as a component of ship ballast, which at the time largely comprised sand, stone and soil. It was first reported in Ontario, Canada, in 1875 (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 2015). Blair and Wolfe (2004) found that the successful and rapid invasion of North America by the species was due to natural selection favouring individuals with earlier germination, faster growth, greater flower production, and higher survival rates due to release from natural enemies.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada USA 1875 Yes Alberta Weed Monitoring Network (2014)
North America Europe 1800s Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Arrived in ship ballast

Risk of Introduction

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S. latifolia subsp. alba can be introduced to new areas by accidental inclusion as a contaminant in fodder crop seed or as a contaminant of hay imported for livestock feeding.

Habitat

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S. latifolia subsp. alba is commonly found in pastures and hay fields, along roadsides and rights-of-way, on grass embankments and in wasteland, as well as in many undisturbed areas (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2010). It prefers well-drained soils and is seldom seen in dry climates.  Seedlings do not tolerate high temperatures.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. latifolia subsp. alba competes with seed crop species including lucerne, clovers, grasses such as timothy and small grains. It displaces native plants such as the threatened Silene spaldingii (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
    Phleum pratense (timothy grass)PoaceaeMain
      Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly)CaryophyllaceaeMain
        Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeMain

          Growth Stages

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          Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

          Biology and Ecology

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          Genetics

          The chromosome number of S. latifolia subsp. alba is 2n=24 (Halkka, 1985). It hybridizes with S. dioica when both species grow in close proximity, producing offspring with pink flowers (NatureGate, 2015).

          Reproductive Biology

          S. latifolia subsp. alba is dioecious and thus obligatory outcrossing. Male flowers open longer than female ones in order to increase the chance of pollen dispersal by insects. The longer the flowers are open, the higher the chances that pollination will occur. Flowers usually open for more than 12 hours, from evening until mid-morning the next day, allowing a range of both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators to effect pollination. Most pollination occurs at night, the primary nocturnal pollinators being noctuid and sphingid moths. Diurnal pollinators are bees, flies and wasps (Young, 2002). Plants are profuse seed producers; a single plant produces about 50 capsules, each capsule containing about 500 seeds (Frendahl and Anderson, 2013).

          S. latifolia is a key plant model in the study of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution (Kejnovsky and Vyskot, 2010).

          Physiology and Phenology

          S. latifolia subsp. alba flowers from the end of April up to the end of October, but usually has two distinct flowering peaks at the end of May and the beginning of August (Biere and Honders, 1996). 

          Longevity

          It is a biennial or short-lived perennial (Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014).

          Associations

          S. latifolia subsp. alba is an alternative host or vector for Lychnis ringspot virus, which infects sugarbeet (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 2015).

          Environmental Requirements

          It can grow on light sandy, loam and heavy clay soils, with pH acid, neutral and alkaline. It prefers moist soil and cannot grow in the shade.

          Climate

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          ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
          Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
          Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
          Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

          Soil Tolerances

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          Soil drainage

          • free

          Soil reaction

          • acid
          • alkaline
          • neutral

          Soil texture

          • heavy
          • light
          • medium

          Natural enemies

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          Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
          Aulacorthum solani Herbivore
          Erysiphe buhrii Pathogen
          Hadena bicruris Herbivore Seedlings/Seeds Brantjes (1976); Elzinga et al. (2005)
          Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae Pathogen Fontaine et al. (2013)
          Polymyxa betae Pathogen

          Notes on Natural Enemies

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          In western Europe, the caterpillars of the specialist Hadena bicruris, a night-active pollinating moth, are the most important herbivores consuming developing seeds of S. latifolia (Brantjes, 1976; Elzinga et al., 2005).

          In North America, S. latifolia populations have become infected by the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a member of the M. violaceum complex, brought in fairly recently from Europe; the system is a well-studied model in evolutionary biology and ecology. Fontaine et al. (2013) found that the actual pathogen was likely introduced as a single population from Scotland, UK.

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

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          Natural Dispersal

          S. latifolia subsp. alba spreads mostly by seed, but root and stem fragments can establish. Seed is dispersed by wind (Jongejans and Schippers, 1999).

          Accidental Introduction

          S. latifolia subsp. alba can be spread as a contaminant of lucerne, clover, timothy (Phleum pratense) and other seed crops, and in hay for livestock feeding (Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014).

          Pathway Causes

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          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Crop productionSeed contaminant Yes Yes Alberta Weed Monitoring Network (2014)
          ForageContaminant of hay Yes Yes Alberta Weed Monitoring Network (2014)
          HitchhikerOriginally introduced in ship ballast Yes
          Seed tradeSeed contaminant Yes Yes Alberta Weed Monitoring Network (2014)

          Pathway Vectors

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          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Plants or parts of plantsAs a seed contaminant Yes Yes Alberta Weed Monitoring Network (2014)
          Ship ballast water and sedimentOriginal vector of introduction Yes
          WindNatural seed dispersal Yes Jongejans and Schippers (1999)

          Plant Trade

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          Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
          True seeds (inc. grain) Yes

          Impact Summary

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          CategoryImpact
          Economic/livelihood Negative
          Environment (generally) Negative

          Economic Impact

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          As S. latifolia subsp. alba seed is similar in size and shape to clover and lucerne seed, it is often encountered as a difficult-to-separate contaminant of commercial seed crops, which results in yield and economic losses in clover and lucerne seed production. It can also contaminate small grains and grass seed (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 2015). In Minnesota, USA, approximately 7% of the timothy seed intended for certification is rejected due to S. latifolia subsp. alba contamination (Strand and Wyse, 1982). S. latifolia subsp. alba is also problematic for Washington’s timothy growers (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2010).

          Efforts to extirpate S. latifolia subsp. alba and other invasive alien plants from key conservation areas occupied by the threatened native species S. spaldingii in the western USA was estimated to cost a total of US $8,666,000, with an average yearly cost across the first 5 years of US $349,200. Of the estimated total, roughly a quarter was for surveys and monitoring (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007).

          Environmental Impact

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          Impact on Biodiversity

          The presence of S. latifolia subsp. alba can have negative impacts on native plants. One such is the endangered species S. spaldingii (Spalding’s catchfly), a regional endemic found predominantly in bunchgrass grasslands and sagebrush steppe, occasionally in open pine communities, in eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, west-central Idaho and western Montana in the USA, extending into southern British Columbia, Canada. There are currently 99 known populations, with 66 of these composed of fewer than 100 individuals each. The species was listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act in 2001 (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001) as it is impacted by habitat loss due to human development, habitat degradation associated with adverse grazing and trampling by domestic livestock and wildlife, and invasions of aggressive non-native plants, including S. latifolia subsp. alba, which can be separated from S. spaldingii by its much larger, inflated flowers. As part of the recovery plan for S. spaldingii, invasive alien plants with the potential to displace it have been continually controlled or eradicated within a 100-m radius of all populations within key conservation areas by utilizing integrated pest management measures. These measures include use of herbicides (e.g., spot spraying), prescribed burning and hand pulling (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007).

          Threatened Species

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          Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
          Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUSACompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2001)

          Risk and Impact Factors

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          Invasiveness
          • Proved invasive outside its native range
          • Has a broad native range
          • Abundant in its native range
          • Has high reproductive potential
          • Reproduces asexually
          Impact outcomes
          • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
          • Negatively impacts agriculture
          • Negatively impacts livelihoods
          • Reduced native biodiversity
          • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Pest and disease transmission
          • Hybridization
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
          • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
          • Difficult/costly to control

          Uses

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          Social Benefit

          Roots contain saponin which, although mildly toxic, has been used in soap making; soap can be obtained by simmering roots in hot water (First Nature, 2015).

          Environmental Services

          S. latifolia subsp. alba is noted for attracting wildlife (Plants for a Future, 2015), particularly pollinating insects. Prior to dispersal, seeds are a source of food for noctuid moth larvae (Wright and Meagher, 2003).

          Uses List

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          Environmental

          • Wildlife habitat

          Materials

          • Chemicals

          Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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          Apart from flower colour and wider leaves, S. latifolia subsp. alba is very similar to S. dioica. Two other campions, S. vulgaris (bladder campion) and S. uniflora (sea campion), are sometimes mistaken for S. latifolia subsp. alba, but S. vulgaris has branched flower stems and greatly enlarged sepal tubes (seed pods), while S. uniflora is a short plant also with swollen sepal tubes but having unbranched flower stems, each topped by a single bloom (First Nature, 2015). Furthermore, S. vulgaris is not hairy or sticky, seed capsules only have 6 teeth and the calyx has netted veins. S. noctiflora also has similar flower appearance to S. latifolia subsp. alba but is hairy and sticky, its seed capsules only have 6 teeth and the calyx has branched veins. In general, S. latifolia subsp. alba can be differentiated from similar species by having (i) white flowers with 5 lobed/notched petals; (ii) leaves that are opposite and hairy; (iii) flowers which open at night and have a pleasant odour; (iv) hairy stems which may become almost woody when mature; and (v) a tap root and lateral roots (Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014).

          Prevention and Control

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          Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

          Prevention

          To prevent the infestation of pastures and seed crops by S. latifolia subsp. alba, the use of grass and legume seed that has a Certificate of Analysis declaring it free of S. latifolia subsp. alba seed is advocated. Also, any hay for livestock feeding should be certified as free of S. latifolia subsp. alba. As it requires full sun for best growth, crops sown at high densities and vigorous forage stands can generally outcompete its seedlings; however, established campion is not significantly reduced by crop competition (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 2015). 

          Eradication

          Eradication of S. latifolia subsp. alba from S. spaldingii habitats involves the use of integrated pest management measures (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007).

          Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

          Cultivation or tillage for seedbed preparation will kill many S. latifolia subsp. alba plants, although well-established plants generally survive cultivation, and tillage will promote weed seed germination. Tillage should be deep enough to cut off roots below the crown and deposit the plant on the soil surface to dry out. Tillage can be a suitable control method in row crops or prior to sowing small-seeded grasses or legumes. Surface tillage will also control seedlings in summer fallow situations. The addition of fertilizer to the crop, unfortunately, will enhance S. latifolia subsp. alba growth. Mowing can be effective in preventing campion seed production, but the weed can withstand annual mowing as the root will send up new shoots (Strand and Wyse, 1982; Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014).

          Physical/Mechanical Control

          Hand pulling will work for small infestations, but the entire root must be removed (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 2015).

          Chemical Control

          Based on information from Minnesota, S. latifolia subsp. alba can be controlled in field crops by herbicide application most easily when it is at the seedling stage or during seed germination. In grass seed fields, dicamba has been shown to be the most effective, while for small-seeded legumes, benefin (benfluralin) gave the best results in new sowings. Metribuzin was among several herbicides used effectively on older stands (Strand and Wyse, 1982).

          IPM

          Integrated pest management practices used in controlling S. latifolia subsp. alba in S. spaldingii habitats include spot spraying of herbicides, prescribed burning and hand pulling (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007).

          References

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          Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 2015. Pest selector: cockle, white. Canada: Alberta Agriculture and Forestry. http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/app107/printerfriendly?id=61

          Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014. White cockle (Silene latifolia ssp. alba). http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/prm13930

          Biere A; Honders SJ, 1996. Impact of flowering phenology of Silene alba and S. dioica on susceptibility to fungal infection and seed predation. Oikos, 77(3):467-480.

          Blair AC; Wolfe LM, 2004. The evolution of an invasive plant: an experimental study with Silene latifolia. Ecology, 85(11):3035-3042. http://www.esajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1890%2F04-0341

          Brantjes NBM, 1976. Prevention of superparasitism of Melandrium flowers (Caryophyllaceae) by Hadena (Lepidoptera). Oecologia, 24:1-6.

          Center for Invasive Species Management, 2014. State and province noxious weed lists. Montana State University-Bozeman, USA: Center for Invasive Species Management. http://www.weedcenter.org/resources/state.html

          Elzinga JA; Turin H; Damme JMMvan; Biere A, 2005. Plant population size and isolation affect herbivory of Silene latifolia by the specialist herbivore Hadena bicruris and parasitism of the herbivore by parasitoids. Oecologia, 144(3):416-426. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100458

          First Nature, 2015. Silene latifolia - white campion. http://www.first-nature.com/flowers/silene-latifolia.php

          Flora Pittsburghensis, 2015. White campion (Silene latifolia ssp. alba). https://florapittsburghensis.wordpress.com/2010/08/07/white-campion-silene-latifolia-ssp-alba/

          Fontaine MC; Gladieux P; Hood ME; Giraud T, 2013. History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America. New Phytologist, 198(3):946-956. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1469-8137

          Frendahl P; Anderson K, 2013. Silene latifolia. https://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/f2013/anderson_kir2/index.htm

          GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

          Greuter W; Raus T, 1982. Med-Checklist Notulae, 6. Willdenowia, 12:183-199.

          Halkka L, 1985. Chromosome counts of Finnish vascular plants. Annales Botanici Fennici, 22:315-317.

          Jongejans E; Schippers P, 1999. Modelling seed dispersal by wind in herbaceous species. Oikos, 87(2):362-372.

          Kejnovsky E; Vyskot B, 2010. Silene latifolia: the classical model to study heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 129(1/3):250-262. http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowAbstract&ArtikelNr=314285&Ausgabe=254368&ProduktNr=224037

          Keller SR; Gilbert KJ; Fields PD; Taylor DR, 2012. Bayesian inference of a complex invasion history revealed by nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity in the colonizing plant, Silene latifolia. Molecular Ecology, 21(19):4721-4734. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-294X

          Loudon J, 1840. The ladies' flower-garden of ornamental annuals. London, UK: William Smith.

          NatureGate, 2015. White campion. http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/white-campion

          Plants for a Future, 2015. Silene latifolia - Poir. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Silene+latifolia

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          Strand OE; Wyse DS, 1982. Identification and control of white cockle and night flowering catchfly. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Agricultural Chemicals Fact Sheet No. 18. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; final rule to list Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly) as threatened. Federal Register, 66:51598-51606.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery plan for Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly). Portland, Oregon, USA 203 pp.

          USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

          USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

          Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2010. White cockle, Silene latifolia ssp. alba. http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/detail.asp?weed=121

          Wright JW; Meagher TR, 2003. Pollination and seed predation drive flowering phenology in Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). Ecology, 84(8):2062-2073.

          Young HJ, 2002. Diurnal and nocturnal pollination of Silene alba (Caryophyllaceae). American Journal of Botany, 89(3):433-440.

          Distribution References

          Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014. White cockle (Silene latifolia ssp. alba)., http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/prm13930

          CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40

          GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

          Karpavičienė B, Radušienė J, Viltrakytė J, 2015. Distribution of two invasive goldenrod species Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea in Lithuania. Botanica Lithuanica. 21 (2), 125-132. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/botlit.2015.21.issue-2/botlit-2015-0015/botlit-2015-0015.xml?format=INT

          Miličević T, Kaliterna J, Ivić D, Milović M, 2014. Records of phytopathogenic fungal species on native plants new to Croatia. Natura Croatica. 23 (1), 179-187. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=181203

          Oh S M, Moon B C, Kim C S, 2007. Current status on influx and habitat of exotic weeds in Korea. In: Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka [Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka.], [ed. by Marambe B, Sangakkara U R, Costa W A J M de, Abeysekara A S K]. Peradeniya, Sri Lanka: Asian Pacific Weed Science Society. 608-613.

          Stobbs L W, Greig N, Weaver S, Shipp L, Ferguson G, 2009. The potential role of native weed species and bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) on the epidemiology of Pepino mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 254-261. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07060660909507599

          Strand OE, Wyse DS, 1982. Identification and control of white cockle and night flowering catchfly. In: University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Agricultural Chemicals Fact Sheet, 18 St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service.

          Svoboda J, Polák J, 2002. Distribution, variability and overwintering of zucchini yellow mosaic virus in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science. 38 (4), 125-130.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; final rule to list Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly) as threatened. In: Federal Register, 66 51598-51606.

          USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

          USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

          Vojnich V J, Pölös E, Baglyas F, 2017. Weed vegetation of a vineyard on sandy soil. Lucrări Științifice, Universitatea de Științe Agricole Și Medicină Veterinară a Banatului, Timisoara, Seria I, Management Agricol. 19 (1), 119-122. http://lsma.ro/index.php/lsma/article/view/1053/pdf

          Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2010. White cockle, Silene latifolia ssp. alba., http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/detail.asp?weed=121

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          22/06/15 Original text by:

          Andrew Praciak, Consultant, UK

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