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Megastigmus spermotrophus
(Douglas-fir seed chalcid)

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Datasheet

Megastigmus spermotrophus (Douglas-fir seed chalcid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Megastigmus spermotrophus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Douglas-fir seed chalcid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lateral view of M. spermotrophus adult female.
TitleAdult female
CaptionLateral view of M. spermotrophus adult female.
CopyrightAlain Roques
Lateral view of M. spermotrophus adult female.
Adult femaleLateral view of M. spermotrophus adult female.Alain Roques

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl

Preferred Common Name

  • Douglas-fir seed chalcid

International Common Names

  • English: Douglas fir, seed fly
  • French: chalcis du Douglas; chalcis du pin douglas

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: douglasfrohveps
  • Germany: Samenwespe, Douglasien-
  • Netherlands: Douglaszaadwesp
  • Norway: douglasfroveps
  • Sweden: douglasgranfroestekel

EPPO code

  • MEGSSR (Megastigmus spermotrophus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Torymidae
  •                             Genus: Megastigmus
  •                                 Species: Megastigmus spermotrophus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1977)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1977)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1977)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1977); CABI (Undated)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHoffmeyer (1931); UK, CAB International (1977); Jespersen and Lomholdt (1983); Jensen and Ochsner (1999)
EstoniaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Luik and Voolma (1988)
FinlandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveAnnila (1982); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresentIntroducedVayssière (1931); UK, CAB International (1977); Roques (1981); Rappaport and Roques (1991); Roques and Skrzypczyńska (2003); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadIntroducedTubeuf (1930); Lessmann (1974); Lessmann (1974a); UK, CAB International (1977); Sellenschlo (1984); Schneider (1985); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1977); CABI (Undated);
IrelandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1977); O'Connor and Nash (2000); CABI (Undated)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveRoversi et al. (1993); Da Ros (1997); Roques and Skrzypczyńska (2003); CABI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveOudemans (1933); UK, CAB International (1977); Roques and Skrzypczyńska (2003)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWall (1984)
PolandPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKozikowski (1949); Madziara (1955); Schnaider (1970); UK, CAB International (1977); Szmidt and Banaszak (1991); CABI (Undated)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveRoques and Skrzypczyńska (2003)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveNanu (1976); Nanu et al. (1986); CABI (Undated)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveStadnickii et al. (1978)
-Central RussiaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveBekreneva and Tropin (1975); Nikol'skaya and Zerova (1978)
-Southern RussiaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveBekreneva and Tropin (1975); Nikol'skaya and Zerova (1978)
SpainPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveRoques and Skrzypczyńska (2003)
SwedenPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: TrõgÕrdh, 1917
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveRoques and Skrzypczyńska (2003)
UkrainePresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Zerova & Seryogina, 1994
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveLAIDLAW (1931); Hussey (1954); Hussey (1955); UK, CAB International (1977); CABI (Undated)
-ScotlandPresentUK, CAB International (1977)

North America

CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1977)
-AlbertaPresent, WidespreadNativeHedlin et al. (1980)
-British ColumbiaPresent, WidespreadNativeMilliron (1949); Keen (1958); UK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980); CABI (Undated)
-New BrunswickPresentNativeMilliron (1949); Hedlin et al. (1980)
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeHedlin et al. (1980)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadNativeCibrian-Tovar et al. (1995); CABI (Undated);
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1977)
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadNativeHedlin et al. (1980)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadNativeMilliron (1949); Keen (1958); UK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980)
-ColoradoPresent, WidespreadNativeMilliron (1949); Keen (1958); UK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980)
-IdahoPresent, WidespreadNativeKeen (1958); UK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980)
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadNativeHedlin et al. (1980)
-NevadaPresent, WidespreadNativeUK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980)
-New MexicoPresent, WidespreadNativeMilliron (1949); Keen (1958); UK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980)
-New YorkPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePalm and Abrahamson (1984)
-OregonPresentIntroducedMilliron (1949); Keen (1958); UK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980)
-UtahPresent, WidespreadNativeHedlin et al. (1980)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadNativeMilliron (1949); Keen (1958); UK, CAB International (1977); Hedlin et al. (1980)

Oceania

New ZealandPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1977); CABI (Undated);

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Abies (firs)PinaceaeUnknown
Pseudotsuga (douglas-fir)PinaceaeUnknown
Pseudotsuga japonica (japanese Douglas fir)PinaceaeOther
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)PinaceaeMain

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Mesopolobus spermotrophus Parasite Larvae New Zealand Pseudotsuga menziesii
Mesopolobus zetterstedtii Parasite
Pteromalus chrysos Parasite

References

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Annila E, 1982. Diapause and population fluctuations in Megastigmus specularis Walley and Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera, Torymidae). Annales Entomologici Fennici, 48(2):33-36

Bekreneva VM; Tropin IV, 1975. Nasekomye-vrediteli semian khvoinych porod, Zashchita lesa ot vreditelej i boleznej. Pushkino: Gosudarstvennyi Komitet, Lesnoe Khoziaistvo Sovet Ministrov SSSR, 86-119.

Cibrian-Tovar D; Mendez-Montiel JT; Campos Bolans R; Yates HO III; Flores Lara J; eds, 1995. Forest Insects of Mexico. [Insectos Forestales de Mexico.] Chapingo, Mexico: Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, 453 pp.

CIE, 1977. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 378. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Da Ros N, 1997. Biologie et impact des insectes spTcialisTs dans l'exploitation des c(nes de mTlFze, Larix decidua Mill., et du sapin de Douglas, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, en Italie. Unpublished PhD thesis. France: University of OrlTans.

Györfi J, 1956. Nadelholzzapfen-und Nadelhlozsamenschädlinge und ihre Parasiten. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 6:321-373.

Györfi J, 1962. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Lebensweise der Chalcididen-Arten in Ungarn. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie, 49:207-223.

Hedlin AF; ed, 1974. Cone and seed insects of Bristish Columbia. Victoria BC, Canada: Canadian Forestry Service/ Pacific Forest Research Centre, BC-X-90.

Hedlin AF; Yates HOIII; Cibrian-Tovar D; Ebel BH; Koerber TW; Merkel EP; eds, 1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada/Canadian Forestry Service, Washington DC, USA: US Forest Service, Mexico, Mexico: Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos.

Hoffmeyer EB, 1931. BeitrSge zur Kenntnis der dSnischen Callimomiden mit Bestimmungstabellen der europSischen Arten (Hym., Chalc.) (Callimomidenstudien 5). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 17:232-285.

Hussey NW, 1954. Megastigmus flies attacking conifer seeds. Forestry Commission Leaflet, 8:1-10.

Hussey NW, 1955. The life histories of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hym. Chalcidoidea) and its principal parasite, with descriptions of the developmental stages. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 106:133-151.

Jensen TS; Ochsner P, 1999. Indigenous and introduced seed chalcids in Denmark - with a revised key to the Danish species (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 67(2):47-56; 17 ref.

Jespersen C; Lomholdt O, 1983. The Danish seed wasps, Megastigmus Dalmann, 1820 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Torymidae). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 50(3):111-118

Kapuscinski S; ed, 1966. Szkodniki owadzie nasion drzew lesnych. Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Lesne.

Keen FP, 1958. Cone and seed insects of western forest trees. USDA Technical Bulletin, 1169.

Kozikowski A, 1949. Znamionek jedlicowy (Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl) (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) w Polsce. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, 51:281-286.

Laidlaw WBR, 1931. Megastigmus in Scotland; with an addition to the Scottish list. Scottish Forestry Journal, 45:177-193.

Lessmann D, 1974. Studies on distribution and bionomics of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl and M. bipunctatus Swederus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 75(1):1-42

Lessmann D, 1974. The occurrence of Megastigmus spp. and other seed pests in the German Federal Republic. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 76(2):160-166

Luik A; Voolma K; ed, 1988. [Pests of seeds and fruits] (in Estonian). Tartu, Estonia: Eesti P÷llumaianduse Akademi.

Madziara K, 1955. Szkodniki nasion drzew iglastych. Las Polski, 1:42-43.

Mendez Montiel JT; Zavala Chavez F, 1996. Un procedimiento para la proteccion contra insectos de conos en Pseudotsuga macrolepis Flous. Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente, 2:119-124.

Milliron HE, 1949. Taxonomic and biological investigations in genus Megastigmus, with particular references to the taxonomy of Nearctic species (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Callimomidae). American Naturalist, 41:257-420.

Nanu N, 1976. Contributii la cunoasterea daunatorilor duglasului (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) en RomGnia. Revista Padurilor, 86:616-620.

Nanu N; ed, 1980. Biologia si combaterea principalelor insecte daunatoare fructificatiei rasinoaselor (Duglas, molid, brad). Bucarest: Instutul Cercetari si Amenajari Silvice Bucuresti, Seria II-a.

Nanu N; Lacatusu M; Tudor C, 1986. The balance factor in the conifer merocenoses in Romania. Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Cone and Seed Insects Working Party S2.07-01. Briancon, 05100, France, September 3-5, 1986 [edited by Roques, A.] Olivet, France; Station de Zoologie Forestiere, 91-99

Nikol'skaya MN; Zerova MD, 1978. 9. Sem. Torymidae (Callimomidae)-Torymidy. In: Medvedev GS, ed, Opredelitel' nasekomych evropejskojchasti SSSR, 3, Pereponchatokrylye 2. Leningrad, Russian Federation: Nauka.

O'Connor JP; Nash R, 2000. Notes on the Irish Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) including two species new to Ireland. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 13(4):202; 4 ref.

O'Connor JP; Nash R; Boucek Z, 2000. A catalog of the Irish Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society, 6.

Oudemans JT, 1933. Nederlandsche Megastigmus soorten (Hym., Chalc.). Entomologische Berichten- Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereenigung, 190:465-469.

Palm CE Jr; Abrahamson LP, 1984. Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) (Douglas-fir chalcid) found in New York State. Entomological News, 95(2):43-44

Rappaport NG; Roques A, 1991. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France. The Canadian Entomologist, 123:1219-1228.

Roques A, 1981. Biology and distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Torymidae) and other insects related to cones in forest stands and seed orchards of Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 2(2):161-180

Roques A; ed, 1983. Les insectes ravageurs des cônes et graines de conifères en France. Versailles, France: INRA.

Roques A; Skrzypczynska M, 2003. Seed-infesting chalcids of the genus Megastigmus Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) native and introduced to the West Palearctic region: taxonomy, host specificity and distribution. Journal of Natural History, 37(2):127-238; many ref.

Roversi PF; Covassi M; Binazzi A, 1993. Insetti fitofagi della Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii in Italia. In: Tiberi R, Capretti P, eds, Le avversita delle abietine. Firenze: Universitß degli studi, 125-140.

Schnaider Z, 1970. Znamionek jedlicowy (Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl) na ziemiach Polski w latach 1967-1969. Sylwan, 11:19-34.

Schneider I, 1985. Host finding and oviposition by some species of Megastigmus, an example of K-oriented reproductive strategy in inhabitants of extreme ecological niches. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 100(3):233-244

Sellenschlo U, 1984. Biologie und +kologie der Torymidae (Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). In: Sellenschlo U, Wall I, eds. Die Erzwespen Mitteleuropas: System, Biologie und Bibliographie der Torymidae und Ormyridae. Keltern: Erich Bauer, 71-100.

Sorauer P; ed, 1953. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 5, Tierische SchSdlinge an Nutzpflanzen. Berlin/Hamburg, Germany: P. Parey.

Stadnickii GV; Jurchenko GI; Smetanin AN; Grebenshchikova VP; Pribylova MV; eds, 1978. [Cone and seed pests of conifers] (in Russian). Moscow: Lesnaia Promyshlenost'.

Szmidt A; Banaszak R, 1991. Chemical control of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera, Torymidae), a seed pest of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii F.) [in Poland]. Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A, Lesnictwo, No. 33:35-44

Trägårdh I, 1917. Undersökningar över granoch tallkottarnas skadeinsekter. Meddelande Statens Skogsf., 13-14:1141-1204.

Tubeuf C, 1930. Schutz vor der Einschleppung von Nadelholzschädlingen mit den Samen. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 40:521-526.

Vayssières P, 1931. Apparition en France du Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl, parasite des semences du Pseudotsuga Douglasii Haar. Revue de Pathologie Végétale et d'Entomologie Agricole, 18:180-186.

Wall I, 1984. System und Biologie der Torymiden und Ormyriden Mitteleuropas (Hymenoptera Parasitica Chalcidoidea: Torymidae et Ormyridae). In: Sellenchlo U, Wall I, eds. Die Erzwespen Mitteleuropas: System, Biologie und Bibliographie der Torymidae und Ormyridae. Keltern: Erich Bauer.

Zerova MD; Seryogina Lya; eds, 1994. [The seed-eating Chalcidoidea of Palearctics] (in Russian). Kiev, Ukraine: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Distribution References

Annila E, 1982. Diapause and population fluctuations in Megastigmus specularis Walley and Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera, Torymidae). Annales Entomologici Fennici. 48 (2), 33-36.

Anon, 1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers., [ed. by Hedlin AF, Yates HOIII, Cibrian-Tovar D, Ebel BH, Koerber TW, Merkel EP]. Ottawa; Washington DC; Mexico, Canada; USA; Mexico: Environment Canada/Canadian Forestry Service; US Forest Service; Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos.

Anon, 1995. Forest Insects of Mexico. (Insectos Forestales de Mexico)., [ed. by Cibrian-Tovar D, Mendez-Montiel JT, Campos Bolans R, Yates HO III, Flores Lara J]. Chapingo, Mexico: Universidad Autonoma Chapingo. 453 pp.

Bekreneva VM, Tropin IV, 1975. (Nasekomye-vrediteli semian khvoinych porod, Zashchita lesa ot vreditelej i boleznej)., Pushkino, Gosudarstvennyi Komitet, Lesnoe Khoziaistvo Sovet Ministrov SSSR. 86-119.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Da Ros N, 1997. (Biologie et impact des insectes specialists dans l'exploitation des c(nes de mTlFze, Larix decidua Mill., et du sapin de Douglas, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, en Italie). In: Unpublished PhD thesis, France: University of Orleans.

Hoffmeyer E B, 1931. Contribution to the Knowledge of Danish Torymids, with Keys to the European Species including a list of food-plants hosts. (Beitrage zur Kenntnis der danischen Callimo-miden, mit Bestimmungstabellen der europaischen Arten (Hym. Chalc.) (Callimomidenstudien 5).). Entomologiske Meddelelser. 17 (4), 232-285 pp.

Hussey N W, 1954. Megastigmus flies attacking conifer seeds. In: Forestry Commission Leaflet. 10 pp.

Hussey N W, 1955. The life-histories of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and its principal parasite with descriptions of the developmental stages. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 106 (2), 133-51.

Jensen T S, Ochsner P, 1999. Indigenous and introduced seed chalcids in Denmark - with a revised key to the Danish species (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Entomologiske Meddelelser. 67 (2), 47-56.

Jespersen C, Lomholdt O, 1983. The Danish seed wasps, Megastigmus Dalmann, 1820 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Torymidae). (De danske frøhvepse, Megastigmus Dalmann, 1820 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Torymidae).). Entomologiske Meddelelser. 50 (3), 111-118.

Keen FP, 1958. Cone and seed insects of western forest trees. In: USDA Technical Bulletin, 1169.

Kozikowski A, 1949. [English title not available]. (Znamionek jedlicowy (Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl) (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) w Polsce.). Rocznik nauk rolniczych. 281-286.

LAIDLAW W B R, 1931. Megastigmus in Scotland; with an Addition to the Scottish List. Scottish Forestry. 45 (pt. 2), 177-193 pp.

Lessmann D, 1974. Studies on distribution and bionomics of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl and M. bipunctatus Swederus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). (Ein Beitrag zur Verbreitung und Lebensweise von Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl und M. bipunctatus Swederus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 75 (1), 1-42.

Lessmann D, 1974a. The occurrence of Megastigmus spp. and other seed pests in the German Federal Republic. (Zum Vorkommen von Megastigmus-Arten und weiteren Samenschadlingen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 76 (2), 160-166.

Madziara K, 1955. (Szkodniki nasion drzew iglastych). In: Las Polski, 1 42-43.

Milliron H E, 1949. Taxonomic and biological investigations in genus Megastigmus, with particular references to the taxonomy of Nearctic species (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Callimomidae). American Naturalist. 257-420.

Nanu N, 1976. (Contributii la cunoasterea daunatorilor duglasului (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) en RomGnia). In: Revista Padurilor, 86 616-620.

Nanu N, Lăcătușu M, Tudor C, 1986. The balance factor in the conifer merocenoses in Romania. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Cone and Seed Insects Working Party S2.07-01. Briançon, 05100, France, September 3-5, 1986. [Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Cone and Seed Insects Working Party S2.07-01. Briançon, 05100, France, September 3-5, 1986.], [ed. by Roques A]. Olivet, France: Station de Zoologie Forestière. 91-99.

Nikol'skaya MN, Zerova MD, 1978. (9. Sem. Torymidae (Callimomidae)-Torymidy). In: Opredelitel' nasekomych evropejskojchasti SSSR, 3, Pereponchatokrylye 2, [ed. by Medvedev GS]. Leningrad, Russian Federation: Nauka.

O'Connor J P, Nash R, 2000. Notes on the Irish Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) including two species new to Ireland. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History. 13 (4), 202.

Oudemans J T, 1933. [English title not available]. (Nederlandsche Megastigmus soorten (Hym. Chalc.).). Entomologische Berichten- Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereenigung. 465-469.

Palm C E Jr, Abrahamson L P, 1984. Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) (Douglas-fir chalcid) found in New York State. Entomological News. 95 (2), 43-44.

Rappaport N, Roques A, 1991. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France. Canadian Entomologist. 123 (6), 1219-1228.

Roques A, 1981. Biology and distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Torymidae) and other insects related to cones in forest stands and seed orchards of Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. (Biologie et repartition de Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Torymidae) et des autres insectes lies aux cones dans les peuplements forestiers et vergers a graines francais de sapin de Douglas Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco.). Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata. 2 (2), 161-180.

Roques A, Skrzypczyńska M, 2003. Seed-infesting chalcids of the genus Megastigmus Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) native and introduced to the West Palearctic region: taxonomy, host specificity and distribution. Journal of Natural History. 37 (2), 127-238. DOI:10.1080/713834669

Roversi PF, Covassi M, Binazzi A, 1993. (Insetti fitofagi della Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii in Italia). In: Le avversita delle abietine, [ed. by Tiberi R, Capretti P]. Firenze, Italy: 125-140.

Schnaider Z, 1970. (Znamionek jedlicowy (Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl) na ziemiach Polski w latach 1967-1969). In: Sylwan, 11 19-34.

Schneider I, 1985. Host finding and oviposition by some species of Megastigmus, an example of K-oriented reproductive strategy in inhabitants of extreme ecological niches. (Wirtsfindung und Eiablage einiger Megastigmus-Arten, ein Beispiel für K-orientierte Fortpflanzungsstrategie bei Bewohnern extremer ökologischer Nischen.). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie. 100 (3), 233-244.

Sellenschlo U, 1984. (Biologie und +kologie der Torymidae (Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera)). In: Die Erzwespen Mitteleuropas: System, Biologie und Bibliographie der Torymidae und Ormyridae, [ed. by Sellenschlo U, Wall I]. Keltern, Erich Bauer. 71-100.

Stadnickii GV, Jurchenko GI, Smetanin AN, Grebenshchikova VP, Pribylova MV, 1978. Cone and seed pests of conifers., [ed. by Stadnickii GV, Jurchenko GI, Smetanin AN, Grebenshchikova VP, Pribylova MV]. Moscow, Lesnaia Promyshlenost.

Szmidt A, Banaszak R, 1991. Chemical control of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera, Torymidae), a seed pest of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii F.) [in Poland]. Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A, Leśnictwo. 35-44.

Tubeuf C von, 1930. [English title not available]. (Schutz vor der Einschleppung von Nadelholzschädlingen mit den Samen.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten, Pflanzenpathologie und Pflanzenschutz. 521-526.

UK, CAB International, 1977. Megastigmus spermotrophus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 378.

Vayssière P, 1931. [English Title not available]. (Apparition en France du Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl, parasite des semences du Pseudotsuga Douglasii Haar.). Revue de pathologie vegetale et d'entomologie agricole de France. 18 (fasc. 5), 180-186 pp.

Wall I, 1984. (System und Biologie der Torymiden und Ormyriden Mitteleuropas (Hymenoptera Parasitica Chalcidoidea: Torymidae et Ormyridae)). In: Die Erzwespen Mitteleuropas: System, Biologie und Bibliographie der Torymidae und Ormyridae, [ed. by Sellenchlo U, Wall I]. Keltern, Erich Bauer.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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