Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


(seed chalcid)



Megastigmus (seed chalcid)


  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Megastigmus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • seed chalcid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Megastigmus Dalman, 1820

Preferred Common Name

  • seed chalcid

Other Scientific Names

  • Cycloneuron Dahlbom, 1857
  • Epimegastigmus Girault, 1915
  • Eumegastigmus Hussey, 1956
  • Megalostigmus Schultz, 1906
  • Trogocarpus Rondani, 1877
  • Xanthosomoides Girault, 1013

International Common Names

  • English: seed wasp
  • Spanish: cálcidos de las semillas
  • French: chalcidien des graines
  • Chinese: lin mu zhong zi xiao feng
  • Portuguese: calcideos das sementes

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: semeyadni chaltsidoidi
  • Czech Republic: krasenky
  • Denmark: frøhvespe
  • Germany: Samen-chalcidier; Samenschlupfwespe
  • Greece: hosszufarku magevo femfurkeszek; sporophaga hymenoptera
  • Italy: calcidide die semi
  • Lithuania: seklagrauziai
  • Mexico: avispas
  • Poland: znamionek
  • Romania: viespea semintelor
  • Sweden: fröstekel
  • Turkey: tohumarisí

EPPO code

  • MEGSSP (Megastigmus sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Torymidae
  •                             Genus: Megastigmus


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Balduf WV, 1957. Variations in Megastigmus from rose hips (Torymidae, Hymenoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 50:479-483.

Candau Da Ros N; Ostermeyer R; Roques A; Raimbault JP, 1993. Insect damage to cones of exotic conifer species introduced in arboreta, I. Interspecific variations within the genus Picea. Journal of Applied Entomology, 115:113-133.

Fabre JP; Auger-Rozenberg MA; Chalon A; Boivin S; Roques A, 2003. Competition between exotic and native insects for seed resources in trees of a Mediterranean forest ecosystem, Biological Invasions (in press).

Galindo-González J; Sánchez-Velásquez LR; Ruiz Montiel C, 2011. First report of Megastigmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) damaging Abies spp. (Pinales: Pinaceae) seeds in Veracruz, Mexico. Entomological News, 122(1):79-84.

Grissell EE, 1999. An annotated catalog of world Megastigminae, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 31:4.

Grissell EE; Prinsloo GL, 2001. Seed-feeding species of Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) associated with Anacardiaceae. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 10(2):271-279; 31 ref.

Hedlin AF; Yates HOIII; Cibrian-Tovar D; Ebel BH; Koerber TW; Merkel EP; eds, 1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada/Canadian Forestry Service, Washington DC, USA: US Forest Service, Mexico, Mexico: Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos.

Hoy JB; Haverty MI, 1988. Pest management in Douglas-fir seed orchards: a microcomputer decision method. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-108.

Hussey NW, 1955. The life histories of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hym. Chalcidoidea) and its principal parasite, with descriptions of the developmental stages. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 106:133-151.

Hussey NW; Klingler J, 1954. Variation in Megastigmus pinus Parf. (Hym, Chalcid., Torymidae). The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 90:198-201.

Iversen T; Jensen TS, 1998. Host location in Megastigmus pinus. In: Battisti A, Turgeon JJ, eds. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of the Cone and Seed Working Party (IUFRO S7.03 -01). Padova, Italy: Institute of Agricultural Entomology, 123-130.

Jarry M; Candau JN; Roques A; Ycart B, 1997. Impact of emigrating seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), on seed production in a Douglas-fir seed orchard in France and modelling of orchard invasion. Canadian Entomologist, 129(1):7-19; 35 ref.

Kristek J, 1967. Die Verbreitung der Douglasien-Samenschlupfwespe, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hym., Torymidae). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Brno C, 36:275-286.

Lessmann D, 1974. Studies on distribution and bionomics of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl and M. bipunctatus Swederus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 75(1):1-42

Luik A; Ochsner P; Jensen TS, 1999. Olfactory responses of seed wasps Megastigmus pinus parfitt and Megastigmus rafni Hoffmeyer (Hym., Torymidae) to host-tree odours and some monoterpenes. Journal of Applied Entomology, 123(9):561-567; 33 ref.

Milliron HE, 1949. Taxonomic and biological investigations in genus Megastigmus, with particular references to the taxonomy of Nearctic species (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Callimomidae). American Naturalist, 41:257-420.

Nalepa CA, 1992. Evaluation of flotation as a method for determining infestation of multiflora rose seeds by Megastigmus aculeatus var. nigroflavus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 27(1):35-36

Niwa CG, 1995. Evaluation of color sticky panels for monitoring Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4):955-958

Niwa CG; Overhulser DL, 1992. Oviposition and development of Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) in unfertilized Douglas-fir seed. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(6):2323-2328

Noyes JS, 1998. Chalcidoidea, biological and taxonomical information. London, UK: The Natural History Museum, CD-Rom.

Overhulser DL; Tanaka Y, 1983. Insect damage to noble fir seed and the feasibility of protecting cone crops in natural stands. Forest Science, 29(1):112-116

Padii NN, 1952. Vrediteli semjan listvennicy v USSR. Lesnoe khoziaistvo, 1:71-73.

Rappaport NG; Mori S; Roques A, 1993. Estimating impact of a seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) on Douglas-fir seed production: the new paradigm. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86:845-49.

Rappaport NG; Roques A, 1991. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France. The Canadian Entomologist, 123:1219-1228.

Roques A, 1981. Biology and distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Torymidae) and other insects related to cones in forest stands and seed orchards of Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 2(2):161-180

Roques A; ed, 1983. Les insectes ravageurs des cônes et graines de conifères en France. Versailles, France: INRA.

Roques A; Raimbault JP, 1998. Visual traps baited with cone volatiles to trap the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus. In: Battisti A, Turgeon JJ, eds. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of the Cone and Seed Working Party (IUFRO S7.03 -01). Padova, Italy: Institute of Agricultural Entomology, 101-107.

Roques A; Skrzypczynska M, 2003. Seed-infesting chalcids of the genus Megastigmus Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) native and introduced to the West Palearctic region: taxonomy, host specificity and distribution. Journal of Natural History, 37(2):127-238; many ref.

Roques A; Sun JH; Auger- Rozenberg MA; Hua O, 2003. Potential invasion of China by exotic insect pests associated with tree seeds. Biodiversity and Conservation, (in press).

Roques A; Sun JH; Gourov A; Auger-Rozenberg MA; Boivin S; Turgeon JJ, 2002. Biological control of an invasive seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in Europe. In: Proceedings 7th European Congress of Entomology, Thessaloniki, Greece, 300.

Rouault G, 1998. Etude de l'impact du chalcidien des graines, Megastigmus spermotrophus (Wachtl) sur le dTveloppement du gamétophyte femelle des graines non pollinisées du sapin de Douglas. Unpublished student memory. France: University of NancyáII.

Ruth DS; Hedlin AF, 1974. Temperature treatment of Douglas-fir seeds to control the seed chalcid. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 4:441-445.

Scheffer SJ; Grissell EE, 2003. Tracing the geographical origin of Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae): an African wasp feeding on a South American plant in North America. Molecular Ecology, 12(2):415-421; 29 ref.

Schowalter TD, 1994. Cone and seed insect phenology in a Douglas-fir seed orchard during three years in western Oregon. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(3):758-765

Scurlock JH; Mitchell RG; Ching KK, 1982. Insects and other factors affecting noble fir seed production at two sites in Oregon. Northwest Science, 56(2):101-107

Skrzypczynska M, 1973. Znamionek modrzewiowiec Megastigmus pictus (F÷rster) (= Megastigmus seitneri Hoffmr.) (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) oraz jego pasozyty: Eupelmus urozonus Dalm. (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae) i Mesopolobus zetterstedtii (Dalla Torre) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). Acta Agraria et Silvestria, Series Silvestris, 13:121-132.

Stein JD; Koerber TW; Frank CL, 1988. Trunk-implanted acephate to protect Douglas-fir seed crops on individual trees in northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(6):1668-1671

Stein JD; Sandquist RE; Koerber TW; Frank CL, 1993. Response of Douglas-fir cone and seed insects to implants of systemic insecticides in a northern California forest and a southern Oregon seed orchard. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(2):465-469

Stoakley JT, 1967. Oviposition period of the Douglas-fir seed wasp Megastigmus spermotrophus). London, UK: Forestry Commission, Research and Development paper No. 43.

Szmidt A; Banaszak R, 1991. Chemical control of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. (Hymenoptera, Torymidae), a seed pest of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii F.) [in Poland]. Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A, Lesnictwo, No. 33:35-44

Thiery D; Mario-Poll F, 1998. Electroantennogram responses of Douglas-fir seed chalcid to plant volatiles. Journal of Plant Physiology, 44:483-490.

Turgeon JJ; Roques A; Groot Pde, 1994. Insect fauna of coniferous seed cones: diversity, host plant interactions, and management. Annual Review of Entomology, 39:179-212

Yates HO III, 1986. Checklist of insect and mite species attacking cones and seeds of world conifers. Journal of Entomological Science, 21(2):142-168

Zerova MD; Seryogina Lya; eds, 1994. [The seed-eating Chalcidoidea of Palearctics] (in Russian). Kiev, Ukraine: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.