Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Medicago sativa
(lucerne)

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Datasheet

Medicago sativa (lucerne)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Medicago sativa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lucerne
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mature lucerne plant (M. sativa), showing flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMature lucerne plant (M. sativa), showing flowers.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Mature lucerne plant (M. sativa), showing flowers.
FlowersMature lucerne plant (M. sativa), showing flowers.©AgrEvo
Adult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
TitleAdult pest
CaptionAdult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
Adult pestAdult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Medicago sativa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • lucerne

Other Scientific Names

  • Medicago vulgaris Alef.

International Common Names

  • English: purple medic; purple medicle
  • Spanish: alfalfa; carreton
  • French: luzerne; Luzerne cultivée
  • Portuguese: luzerna

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Luzerne
  • Italy: erba medica
  • Japan: murasakiumagoyashi
  • Sweden: blaaluzern

EPPO code

  • MEDSA (Medicago sativa)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Medicago
  •                                     Species: Medicago sativa

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent
LibyaPresent
MoroccoPresent
RéunionPresentIntroduced1996
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TunisiaPresent

Antarctica

French Southern TerritoriesPresentIntroduced1996Original location reported: Kerguelen Islands

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
BhutanPresentIntroduced1974
ChinaPresent
-GansuPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JilinPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-YunnanPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresentIntroduced1911
IndiaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
LebanonPresent
North KoreaPresentIntroduced1897
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresentIntroduced1897
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1931
TajikistanPresent
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: Yücel (1993)
TurkmenistanPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent
UzbekistanPresent
YemenPresent
-SocotraPresentIntroduced2003

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced1851
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1856
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresentIntroduced1900
CzechiaPresentOriginal citation: Svobodová et al. (1998)
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresentIntroduced1925
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced1877
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresentIntroduced1933
IrelandPresentIntroduced1867
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced1933
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1899
NorwayPresentIntroduced1834
PolandPresentIntroduced1550
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1901
RomaniaPresentIntroduced1816
RussiaPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1910-1912
-SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced1830
SpainPresent
SwedenPresentIntroduced1809
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1686

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced1860
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresentOriginal citation: Heinz (1987)
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1828
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentOriginal citation: Toll Vera et al., 1998
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresentOriginal citation: Lázzari et al. (1996)
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentOriginal citation: Ba±uelos et al., 1999
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

References

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Austin AD; White TCR; Maelzer DA; Taylor DG, 1993. Biology of Etiella behrii Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): a pest of seed lucerne in South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia Incorporated, 117(1-2):67-76

Ba±uelos GS; Ajwa HA; Caceres L; Dyer D, 1999. Germination responses and boron accumulation in germplasm from Chile and the United States grown with boron-enriched water. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Environmental Research, Section B, 43(1):62-67.

Beghdadi A; Richard C; Dostaler D, 1992. Aphanomyces euteiches of lucerne in Quebec: isolation, morphology and variability of growth and pathogenicity. Canadian Journal of Botany, 70(9):1903-1911

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Berberet RC; Bisges AD, 1998. Potential for competition among natural enemies of larvae of Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the southern plains. Environmental Entomology, 27(3):743-751; 20 ref.

Bereberdina GI, 1991. Resistance of collection accessions of lucerne to Fusarium root rot in western Siberia. Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, No. 2:19-24, 110; 12 ref.

Bergamaschi H; Aragonés RS; Santos AO, 1997. Water availability for alfalfa crop in different ecoclimatic regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisa Agropecuária Ga·cha, 3(2):99-107.

Berry D, 1997. Defusing the salt time bomb. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 38(2):35-41.

Billar M, 1989. Survey of alfalfa diseases in the Ghouta of Damascus, Syria, (1981, 1982, 1985 and 1986). Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 7(1):1-7; 13 ref.

Bingham ET; Groose RW; Woodfield DR; Kidwell KK, 1994. Complementary gene interactions in alfalfa are greater in autotetraploids than diploids. Crop Science, 34(4):823-829.

Bittman S; McCartney DH, 1994. Evaluating alfalfa cultivars and germplasms for pastures using the mob-grazing technique. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 74(1):109-114.

Blodgett SL; Carrel JE; Higgins RA, 1992. Cantharidin contamination of alfalfa hay. Journal of Medical Entomology, 29(4):700-703; 19 ref.

Blodgett SL; Denke PM, 1999. Blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) occurring in Montana alfalfa. Journal of Entomological Science, 34(1):113-118; 16 ref.

Boiko VS, 1998. The relationship between annual grasses and irrigation in western Siberia. Kormoproizvodstvo, 12:20-21.

Brown DE; Bingham ET, 1994. Selfing in an alfalfa seed production field. Crop Science, 34(4):1110-1112.

Bukvic G; Stjepanovic M; Grljusic S; Popovic S; Domacinovic M, 1998. Change of P and Ca concentration in the above-ground part of lucerne during second year of growth. Krmiva, 40(1):27-34.

Burenin VI; Ivanov AI; Krivchik OV; Yudaeva VE, 1988. Patterns in the expression of heterosis and the gene pool of fodder crops. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskii Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva Imeni N. I. Vavilova, 179:3-8.

Bzheumykhov VS, 1998. The nitrogen fixing activity of lucerne. Kormoproizvodstvo, 12:18-19.

Cangiano CA, 1992. Lucerne: factors affecting its production and utilization. Boletin Tecnico - Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria, Balcarce, 107, 55 pp.

Cardina J; Webster TM; Herms CP, 1998. Long-term tillage and rotation effects on soil seedbank characteristics. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 51:213-220; 12 ref.

Carlson JD; Choi H; Rotz CA, 1989. The influence of weather variables on the drying of hay. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: American Meteorological Society, 42-45.

Chang YZ; Chen HM; Qi RS, 1989. Ornamental pest - studies on leafcutting bees Megachile subtranquilla Yasumatsu. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Pekinensis, 15(2):208-213

Chen YQ, 1991. The Chinese Mesagroicus Schoenherr (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Naupactini). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 34(4):468-469

Chloupek O; Simon U, 1997. Seed production of lucerne. Proceedings of the 12th EUCARPIA Meeting of the Group Medicago, Brno, Czech Republic, 2-5 July 1996. Seed production of lucerne. Proceedings of the 12th EUCARPIA Meeting of the Group Medicago, Brno, Czech Republic, 2-5 July 1996., 202 pp.; [ref. at ends of papers].

Cho K; Eckel CS; Walgenbach JF; Kennedy GG, 1995. Overwintering of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in North Carolina. Environmental Entomology, 24(1):58-67

Crochemore ML; Huyghe C; Écalle C; Julier B, 1998. Structuration of alfalfa genetic diversity using agronomic and morphological characteristics. Relationship with RAPD markers. Agronomie, 18(1):79-94.

Day WH; Marsh PM; Fuester RW; Hoyer H; Dysart RJ, 1992. Biology, initial effect, and description of a new species of Peristenus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasite of the alfalfa plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae), recently established in the United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 85(4):482-488

Deeming JC, 1992. Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) established in the Old World. Tropical Pest Management, 38(2):218-219

Dehghan-Shoar M; Hampton JG; Gardiner SE, 1997. Genetic analysis among and within populations forming ecotypes and cultivars of lucerne, Medicago sativa (Leguminosae), using RAPD fragments. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 208(1/2):107-119.

Dellow J, 1998. Weed control in lucerne and pastures 1998-99. Orange, Australia: Library, NSW Agriculture, 48 pp.

Denman S; Knox-Davies PS; Ali-Shtayeh MS, 1992. Identification of Pythium isolates associated with damped-off lucerne seedlings in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 24(4):329-334

Dequech STB; Becker M, 1990. Lucerne pollination (Medicago sativa) I. Bees visiting the lucerne crop. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 19(2):423-435.

Dimitrova T, 1998. Effect of some alternative methods for weed control on the yield and quality of forage lucerne. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 35(9):765-769; 20 ref.

Doberschütz KD; Lusky K; Stoyke M; Lippert A, 1993. Occurrence of cadmium, lead and mercury in forage plants and animal organs from areas with different contamination. Darmstadt, Germany: VDLUFA-Verlag, 393-396.

Doohan DJ; Belanger G; King RR; Ivany JA, 1992. Residues and efficacy with fluazifop-P in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Weed Technology, 6(1):25-30; 9 ref.

Engqvist G, 1997. Breeding for resistance in grasses and forage legumes. Sveriges Utsa^umlaut~desfo^umlaut~renings Tidskrift, 107(2):100-110; 34 ref.

Fahlgren T, 1993. Express 50 T - now also in cereals with undersown forage plants. 34th Swedish crop protection conference: pests and diseases, Uppsala 27-28 January 1993 Uppsala, Sweden; University of Agricultural Sciences, 143-149

Fairey DT; Lefkovitch LP; Fairey NA, 1996. The relationship between fall dormancy and germplasm source in North American alfalfa cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 76(3):429-433.

Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 21(3), 425-433. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-21-3-2015/11.%20PJWSR-06-2015.pdf

Fazli H; Yazdisamadi B, 1992. Comparison of 64 Iranian and foreign alfalfa land races and cultivars for their agronomic and qualitative characteristics. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(1):15-23.

Fedoseenkov MA, 1998. A highly effective herbicide for legume crops. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii^breve~, No. 3:32.

Feng GH; Li JC, 1989. Study on the dynamics of spider population in forage crop fields. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 16(3):175-179

Fujimoto F, 1992. Forage plants. JICA Ref Series, 5:133-156.

Giles KL; Obrycki JJ; DeGooyer TA; Orr CJ, 1994. Seasonal occurrence and impact of natural enemies of Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae in Iowa. Environmental Entomology, 23(1):167-176

Goplen BP; Gossen BD, 1994. AC Nordica alfalfa. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 74(1):145-147; 6 ref.

Gorbunova NI; Shevtsova LB; Shevyakova MI; Soboleva AB, 1989. Virus and mycoplasma diseases of lucerne. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 7:20

Gubis V; Záková M; Drbal J, 1990. Resistance of lucerne cultivars to vascular wilt and longevity of lucerne. Pol'nohospodárstvo, 36(6):520-526; 10 ref.

Hanson AA; Barnes DK; Hill RR Jr(Editors), 1988. Alfalfa and alfalfa improvement. Madison, Wisconsin, USA; American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 1084 pp.

Hare QA; Vansell GH, 1946. Pollen collection by honeybees in the delta, Utah, alfalfa seed-producing area. American Society of Agronomy Journal, 38:462-469.

Hassannejad, S., Ghafarbi, S. P., Abbasvand, E., Ghisvandi, B., 2014. Quantifying the effects of altitude and soil texture on weed species distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), 5(1), 590-596. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/JBES-Vol5No1-p590-596.pdf

Hauptvogel P, 1997. Alfalfa gene-pool in Research Institute of Plant Production in Piest'any (Slovakia). Prague, Czech Republic: Academia, Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 63-66.

Heinz DJ; Rigby RA(Editors); Fukutomi BA(Graphic artist), 1987. Pests and their control. Insects. Annual report 1986, Experiment Station, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association Aiea, Hawaii, USA; Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, 24-30

Hernández RLA; Cujia LMR de, 1985. Identification of the mosaic virus of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Colombia. Revista Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, 20(3):163-168.

Herrero J; Casterad MA, 1999. Using satellite and other data to estimate the annual water demand of an irrigation district. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 55(2):305-317.

Hmimina M; Bourarach K, 1991. Mechanisms of exploitation of some host plants and the role of alimentary constraints in the acquisition of demographic strategies in Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Actes de l'Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, 11(1):35-42

Hovermale CH, 1993. Yield of semidormant and nondormant alfalfa varieties in Mississippi. Bulletin - Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1006, 6 pp.

Hulugalle NR; Entwistle PC; Mensah RK, 1999. Can lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) strips improve soil quality in irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields?. Applied Soil Ecology, 12(1):81-92; 27 ref.

Ingerson-Mahar J; Lee D, 1997. Assessing plant bug injury on forage alfalfa in New Jersey. New Jersey Grain and Forage Journal, 4:32-36.

Ingram BF, 1998. Possible alternative host plants for some major pod sucking bug pests of pulse crops in the South Burnett region of Queensland. General and Applied Entomology, 28:101-108; 28 ref.

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Iwan JW; Shanahan JF; Smith DH, 1993. Impact of environmental and harvest management variables on alfalfa forage drying and quality. Agronomy Journal, 85(2):216-220.

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Nashnosh IM; Abed El-Khalek; Abed El-Salam, 1992. Preliminary observations on the abundance of some insect predators and spider populations in alfalfa Medicago sativa L. fields in El-Jedieda region, Tripoli, Libya. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 10(2):246-248.

Nead BA; Weiss MJ; Milbrath LR, 1996. Feeding preferences of the ashgray blister beetle, Epicauta fabricii (Leconte) (Coleoptera: Meloidae), for four legumes. Canadian Entomologist, 128(2):349-350; 8 ref.

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Pandey KC; Faruqui SA, 1988. Incidence of lucerne weevil in relation to temperature and relative humidity. Indian Journal of Ecology, 15(2):199-201

Park GJ; Lee PS; Shin JS, 1990. Studies on application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer in grassland. I. Effect of N and KO fertilizer distribution on dry matter yield and botanical composition in grassland. Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science, 10(3):152-157

Parr JC; Pass BC; Nordin GL, 1993. Compatibility of Zoophthora phytonomi (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) and Bathyplectes anurus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in Kentucky alfalfa fields. Environmental Entomology, 22(3):674-678

Pasternak D; Nerd A; Malach Y de, 1993. Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions. IX. The salt tolerance of six forage crops. Agricultural Water Management, 24(4):321-334.

Pilkington L; Gurr GM; Fletcher MJ; Nikandrow A; Elliott E, 1999. Occurrence and severity of lucerne yellows disease in Australian lucerne seed crops. Australasian Plant Pathology, 28(3):235-239; 9 ref.

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