Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Adelphocoris lineolatus
(lucerne bug)

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Datasheet

Adelphocoris lineolatus (lucerne bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lucerne bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. lineolatus is the main insect pest of lucerne crops. Feeding damage can ultimately result in reduced seed production and quality. A. lineolatus usually has two generations a year and is present in the field throughout the vegetative period. It is...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
AdultAdult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.
TitleAdult - green form
CaptionAdult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.
Adult - green formAdult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Fourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.
TitleNymph
CaptionFourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Fourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.
NymphFourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze (1778)

Preferred Common Name

  • lucerne bug

Other Scientific Names

  • Adelphocoris binotata Goeze
  • Adelphocoris chenopodii Fallen, 1807
  • Adelphocoris italica Tamanini, 1961
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus baltrumensis Schumacher, 1911
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus binotatus Wagner, 1960
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus bisbipunctata Tamanini, 1982
  • Calocoris chenopodii
  • Calocoris chenopodii implagiata
  • Calocoris chenopodii lineolatus
  • Calocoris lineolatus bisbipunctatus Reuter, 1891
  • Capsus brevicollis Meyer-Dur, 1843
  • Capsus lineolatus Goeze
  • Cimex albinus Geoffroy, 1785
  • Cimex lineolatus Goeze, 1778
  • Lygaeus chenopodii Fallen, 1807

International Common Names

  • English: alfalfa plant bug
  • French: capside de la luzerne
  • Russian: lucernovii klop

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: lucernova darvenica
  • Croatia: lucernina stjenica
  • Czech Republic: klopuska svetlá
  • Germany: Gaensefuss Schoenwanze; Gemeine Zierwanze; Schoenwanze, Gaensefuss-
  • Italy: miridae emitteri rincoti
  • Portugal: escaravelho da luzerna

EPPO code

  • ADPHLI (Adelphocoris lineolatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page A. lineolatus is the main insect pest of lucerne crops. Feeding damage can ultimately result in reduced seed production and quality. A. lineolatus usually has two generations a year and is present in the field throughout the vegetative period. It is polyphagous and can damage other crops such as cotton, sunflower, rape, fruits, etc. It has many other wild hosts, but is not invasive. It is widespread in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere and will remain there because it prefers balanced weather conditions, thrives well under cool, wet conditions, and is adversely affected by warm, dry weather. Adults of A. lineolatus fly well, but not over long distances. Distribution with international trade is practically impossible.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Heteroptera
  •                             Family: Miridae
  •                                 Genus: Adelphocoris
  •                                     Species: Adelphocoris lineolatus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanWidespreadNative Not invasive Sadigov, 1991
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Hsiao Meng, 1963; APPPC, 1987
-HebeiWidespreadNative Not invasive Li-MengCha et al., 2005
-HenanWidespreadNative Not invasive Gao ZongRen & Li QiaOsi, 1998
-Nei MengguWidespreadNative Not invasive Zhang-YuMin et al., 2004
-XinjiangPresentLi et al., 2007
IranWidespreadNative Not invasive Khanjani Kalafchi, 2003
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresentNative Not invasive Yasunaga, 1990
-KyushuPresentLinnavuori, 1963
KazakhstanWidespreadNative Not invasive Mel'nichuk, 1984
KyrgyzstanWidespreadNative Not invasive Krylova, 1982
TajikistanWidespreadNative Not invasive Vanyants Kovalenkov, 1979
TurkeyWidespreadNative Not invasive Kaya and Kovanc, 2004
UzbekistanWidespreadNative Not invasive Khamraev, 2001

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Schaber, 1992
-ManitobaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Schaber, 1992
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced1917 Not invasive M-NDZTFA, 1998
-OntarioWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Smith and Ellis, 1983
-QuebecWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Al-Ghamdi et al., 1993
-SaskatchewanWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Soroka Murrell, 1993
USAPresent
-ArkansasWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Slaymaker Tugwell, 1984
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler Henry, 1992
-DelawareWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Day, 1999
-IowaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Poston Pedigo, 1975
-MontanaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Morrill et al., 1984
-New JerseyWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Day, 1999
-New YorkWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler, 1974b
-OhioPresentIntroduced Not invasive Dailey et al., 1978
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler, 1974a
-South DakotaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Walstrom, 1983
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler et al., 1983
-WisconsinWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Wipfli et al., 1989

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
AndorraPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
AustriaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
BelarusPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
BelgiumPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
BulgariaWidespreadNative Not invasive Yosifov, 1960; Fauna Europaea, 2004
CroatiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Balarin, 1978; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Sedivy Kocourek, 1988; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadNative Not invasive Rotrekl, 1973
DenmarkPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
EstoniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
FinlandPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
Former USSRPresent
FranceWidespreadNative Not invasive Bournoville Delaude, 1975; Fauna Europaea, 2004
-CorsicaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
GermanyWidespreadNative Not invasive Gottwald Rohr, 1973; Fauna Europaea, 2004
GreecePresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
HungaryWidespreadNative Not invasive Erdelyi Benedek, 1974; Fauna Europaea, 2004
IrelandPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
ItalyWidespreadNative Not invasive Accinelli et al., 2002; Fauna Europaea, 2004; Fauna Europaea, 2004
LatviaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
LiechtensteinPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
LithuaniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
LuxembourgPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
MacedoniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
MoldovaWidespreadNative Not invasive Brudea Kiss, 1978; Fauna Europaea, 2004
NetherlandsPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
NorwayPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
PolandWidespreadNative Not invasive Kordan & Ciepielewska, 2001; Fauna Europaea, 2004
PortugalPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
RomaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Paulian, 1980; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Golishin et al., 1989
-Southern RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Golishin et al., 1989
-Western SiberiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gorbunov et al., 1984
SlovakiaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SloveniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SpainPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SwedenPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
UKPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
UkraineWidespreadNative Not invasive Tereshchenko Sobchuk, 1980; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadNative Not invasive Balarin, 1975
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004; Sekulic et al., 2005

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / malformed skin
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / fall or shedding
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Stems / fasciation
Stems / necrosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aeolothrips fasciatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Nabis alternatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius tristicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Peristenus adelphocoridis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada; USA Medicago sativa
Peristenus conradi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Delaware
Peristenus digoneutis Parasite
Peristenus pallipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Peristenus rubricollis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada Medicago sativa
Phasia aeneoventris Parasite
Polynema pratensiphagum Parasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Accinelli G; Ferrari R; Dradi D; Pozzati M, 2002. Main Miridae pests of crops. Informatore Agrario, 58(41):47-50.

Al-Ghamdi KM; Stewart RK; Boivin G, 1993. Note on overwintering of Polynema pratensiphagum (Walley) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in southwestern Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 125(2):407-408

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Balarin I, 1975. Heteroptera fauna on fodder Leguminosp and natural meadows in the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. Arhiv za Poljoprivredne Nauke, 28(103):81-132

Balarin I, 1978. Contribution to knowledge of the Heteroptera in the fauna of lucerne fields in the Adriatic region. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, 45(55):119-129

Bilewicz-Pawinska T, 1976. Natural enemies of some plant bugs (Miridae) in Poland. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E, 6(1):125-135

Bilewicz-Pawinska T, 1977. Parasitism of Adelphocoris lineolatus Popp. (Heteroptera) by braconids and their occurrence on alfalfa. Ekologia Polska, 25(3):539-550

Bochkareva ZA; Vdovichenko SM, 1974. The protection of lucerne seed crops. Zashchita Rastenii, No.7:19

Bogarada AP, 1975. Brief notes on the pests and diseases of Solanum laciniatum. Zakhist Roslin, 21:77-80.

Bournoville R; Badenhausser I, 1986. Mirid bugs, pests of spring white lupin. Proceedings of the fourth international lupin conference, Geraldton, Western Australia, 15-22 August, 1986 Perth, Australia; Department of Agriculture, 323

Bournoville R; Delaude A, 1975. Results of investigations on the leaf- and seed-eating insects of lucerne grown for seed. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Vegetale, 74(3):90-107

Brudea V; Kiss B, 1978. Studies on the presence of Heteroptera in clover crops in Moldavia. Suceava Anuarul Muzeului Judetean Stiintele Naturii, 5:19-23

Bujdos L; Gaborjanyi R; Molnar J; Simon Z; Szoke L, 2005. Tobacco protection. Novenyvedelem, 41(11):531-551.

Carli G; Cravedi P; Spada G, 1987. Damage caused to actinidia by some species of mirids (Rhynchota, Heteroptera, Miridae). Informatore Agrario, 43(9):207-208

Dailey PJ; Graves RC; Herring JL, 1978. Survey of Hemiptera collected on common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, at one site in Ohio. Entomological News, 89(7/8):157-162

Day WH, 1995. Biological observations on Phasia robertsonii (Townsend) (Diptera: Tachinidae), a native parasite of adult plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding on alfalfa and grasses. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 103(1):100-106; 18 ref.

Day WH, 1996. Evaluation of biological control of the tarnished plant bug ( Hemiptera: Miridae) in alfalfa by the introduced parasite Peristenus digoneutis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 25:512-518.

Day WH, 1999. Host preferences of introduced and native parasites (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of phytophagous plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) in alfalfa-grass fields in the northeastern USA. BioControl, 44(3):249-261; 30 ref.

Day WH; Marsh PM; Fuester RW; Hoyer H; Dysart RJ, 1992. Biology, initial effect, and description of a new species of Peristenus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasite of the alfalfa plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae), recently established in the United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 85(4):482-488

Dochkova B; Donchev K; Dimitrova Ts, 1982. Plant protection measures - an important factor in lucerne seed production. Selskostopanska Nauka, 20(3):96-101

Erdelyi C; Benedek P, 1974. Effect of climate on the density and distribution of some Mirid pests of lucerne (Heteroptera:Miridae). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 9(1/2):167-176

Erdélyi C; Vörös G; Rácz V; Kádár F, 1995. On the possibility of use of border stands in the integrated protection of seed lucerne. Növényvédelem, 31(12):569-578; 36 ref.

Fallén C, 1807. Monographia Cimicum Sveciae. C G Proft, Hafniae.

Fauna Europaea, 2004. Online: http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=221587.

Gainullina R; Dyakonov K; Smolich I, 1977. The species composition of the insect-vectors of potato-viruses in the foothill zone of Kirgizia. Entomological investigations in Kirgizia, Volume 10, 61-63.

Gao ZongRen; Li QiaOsi, 1998. On the selectivity and dispersion of alfalfa plant bug among its host plants in Eastern Henan cotton region. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 25(4):330-336; 6 ref.

Geoffroy E, 1785. [Description of new taxa], In: Fourcroy AF de, Entomologia Parisiensis; sive Catalogus Insectorum quae in Agro Parisiensi reperiuntur ... Part 1. Paris.

Goeze J, 1778. Entomologische Beyträge zu des Ritter Linné zwölften Ausgabe des Natursystems. Weidmann, Leipzig, Vol. 2, LXXII.

Golishin N; Grebcova V; Kashtanov A; Korbut L; Kuznecov L; Listopad G; Mesiac V; Mishustin E; Nikonov A; Pannikov V; Tretiakov A; Sheveluha V; Shumakov B; Ernst L, 1989. Agricultural Encyclopedical Dictionary. Sovetskaia encyclopedia, Moscow, Russia.

Gollner-Scheiding U, 1970. Beiträge zur Heteropteren-Fauna Brandenburgs. 1. Die Heteropteren-Fauna des Gross-Machnower Weinbergs und seiner naheren Umgebung. Arch. Naturschutz und Landschaftsforschung, 10:41-70.

Gorbunov NN; Sobakar' TA; Timokhina AF; Poskol'nyi NN, 1984. Increasing the productivity of surveillance workers. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 8:43

Gottwald R; Rohr C, 1973. Heteroptera in lucerne-seed culture. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR, 27(6):117-122

Grafius E; Morrow EA, 1982. Damage by the tarnished plant bug and alfalfa plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) to asparagus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(5):882-884.

Grigorov St, 1976. Special Entomology. 2nd ed. Sofia, Bulgaria: Zemizdat, 545 pp.

Hoberlandt L, 1956. Results of the Zoological Scientific Expedition of the National Museum in Praha to Turkey. 18. Hemiptera IV. Terrestrial Hemiptera-Heteroptera of Turkey. Acta Entomol. Mus. Natl. Pragae, suppl., 3:1-264 (1955).

Hsiao T-y; Meng H-l, 1963. The plant-bugs collected from cotton-fields in China (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae). Acta Zoologica Sinica, 15:439-449.

Ingerson-Mahar J; Lee D, 1997. Assessing plant bug injury on forage alfalfa in New Jersey. New Jersey Grain and Forage Journal, 4:32-36.

Jensen BM; Wedberg JL; Hogg DB, 1991. Assessment of damage caused by tarnished plant bug and alfalfa plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) on alfalfa grown for forage in Wisconsin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(3):1024-1027

Kaya M; Kovanc B, 2004. The species of Heteroptera occurred in raspberry areas in Bursa Province in Turkey. Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Dergisi. Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Dekanlg, Bornova, Turkey: 41(2):101-109 [in Turkish].

Khamraev A; Ochilov R; Turaev M, 2001. Influence of defoliants on cotton agrobiocoenosis. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.7:19-20.

Khamraev ASh, 1993. Mirids as cotton pests. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 4:25-26

Khamraev ASh, 2001. Miridae bugs on cotton. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.10:44-45.

Khanjani M; Kalafchi M, 2003. Preliminary investigation on identification of seed alfalfa pests and life history studies of dominant destructive species in Hamadan. Agricultural Science Tabriz, 13(2):7, 89-101.

Kondorosy E, 2001. Heteroptera fauna of different fodder legumes. Növényvédelem, 37(11):531-538; 9 ref.

Kordan B; Ciepielewska D, 2001. Occurrence of Heteroptera on lupines (Lupinus sp.). Progress in Plant Protection, 41(2):551-554; 18 ref.

Kovalenkov VG; Stolyarov VD, 2000. Particularities of the phytosanitary state of agrosystems of Stavropol'e. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.4:13-14.

Krylova VN, 1982. Species composition and abundance dynamics of pests of seed lucerne in the Chu Lowlands. Entomologicheskie Issledovanie v Kirgizii, No. 15:56-61

Leston D, 1956. Cyto-taxonomy of Miridae and Nabidae (Hemiptera). J. Hromosoma, 8(1):609-616. Online 2005 at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l621432q3778q327/.

Li HaoBin; Wu KongMing; Xu Yao; Yang XiuRong; Yao Ju; Wang Fei, 2007. Population dynamics of pest mirids in cotton filed in southern Xinjiang. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 44(2):219-222.

Li QiaoSi; Liu QinXuan; Deng WangXi, 1994. The effect of different host plants on the population dynamics of the alfalfa plant bug. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 21(4):351-355

Li-MengCha; Wen-XiuJun; Zhao-ZhiXin; Wang-ZhenLiang; Liu-ManGuang; Guo-XiaoJun; Song-HuaRu, 2005. Investigation on diseases and pest insects of lucerne in Huanghua city, Hebei and their control. Pratacultural Science, 22(3):81-83.

Linnavuori R, 1963. Contribution to the Miridae fauna of the Far East III. Ann. Entomol. Fenn., 29:73-82.

Markov FI, 1979. Bugs damaging sugar-beet seeds in Kirgizia. Entomologicheskie Issledovaniya v Kirgizii, No. 13:37-44

May W; Soroka J; Loeppky H; Murrell D, 2003. The effects of trichlorfon and deltamethrin on alfalfa plant bug and lygus bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) populations in alfalfa grown in Canada. Crop Protection, 22(6):883-889.

Mel'nichuk AI, 1984. Population dynamics of pests. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 10:26

Meyer-Dür L, 1843. Verzeichnis der in der Schweiz einhimischen Rhynchoten (Hemiptera Linn.). Erstes Heft. Die Familie der Capsini, X + 11-116 + IV pp., 7 pls. Jent und Gassmann, Solothurn.

M-NDZTFA, 1998. Manitoba - North Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Association. Online: http://www.mandakzerotill.org/books/proceedings/Proceedings%201994/plant%20bugs.htm.

Morrill WL; Ditterline RL; Cash SD, 1998. Insect pests and associated root pathogens of sainfoin in western USA. Field Crops Research, 59(2):129-134; 22 ref.

Morrill WL; Ditterline RL; Winstead C, 1984. Effects of Lygus borealis Kelton (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding on sainfoin seed production. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(4):966-968

Onder F; Unal E; Unal A, 1984. Heteropterous insects collected by light traps in Edirne (Turkey). Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi, 8(4):215-224

Paulian F, 1985. Results obtained in the year 1979 both on the study of diseases and pests of field crops and on the possibilities of forecasting and control. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 8(4):203-246.

Popov P, 1975. Possibilities of catching species of bugs (Heteroptera) by light-traps. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 12(10):182-190

Popov Y, 1965. Towards the knowledge of the terrestrial Hemiptera fauna of the southern regions of the western Tien-Shan (USSR, Mid-Asia). Acta Entomol. Mus. Natl. Pragae, 36:169-292.

Poston F; Pedigo L, 1975. Migration of plant bugs and the potato leafhopper in a soybean-alfalfa complex. Environmental Entomology, 4(1):8-10.

Reuter O, 1891. Hemiptera Heteroptera fran trakterna kring Sajanska bärgskedjan, insamlade af K. Ehnberg och R. Hammarström, förtecknade. Öfv. F. Vet. Soc. Förh., 33:166-208.

Roshko GM, 1976. The mirid bugs (Heteroptera, Miridae) of the Ukrainian Carpathians, Transcarpathia and Ciscarpathia. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 55(4):814-819

Rotrekl J, 1973. Investigation of the biology of the lucerne plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze) and the damage caused by it to lucerne seed production crops. Sbornik Vedeckych Praci Vyzkumne Stanice Picninarske v Troubsku u Brna, 3:161-173.

Sadigov G, 1993. Insects on alfalfa seed crops. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:16.

Sadigov GI, 1991. Pests of seed lucerne. Zashchita Rastenii, 11:53-55

Schaber BD, 1992. Insects infesting seed alfalfa in the Prairie Provinces: a field guide. Ottawa, Canada; Agriculture Canada, 26 pp.

Schaber BD; Entz T, 1994. Comparison of insect abundance under sprinkler and flood irrigation systems in alfalfa (Medicago sativa (L.)) grown for seed. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Manitoba, 49:16-25

Sedivy J, 1972. The injury caused by the bug Lygus rugulipennis Popp. to seed lucerne. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 79(7):407-412

Sedivy J; Kocourek F, 1988. Comparative studies on two methods for sampling insects in an alfalfa seed stand in consideration of a chemical control treatment. Journal of Applied Entomology, 106(3):312-318

Sekulic R; Katic S; Karagic; Keresi T, 2005. Plant bugs - pests of alfalfa and clover. Biljni Lekar - Plant Doctor, 33(5):517-519, 521-525.

Shelikhov AG, 1974. The protection of lucerne grown for seed. Zashchita Rastenii, No.9:23-24

Shindrova P, 1979. The influence of injuries caused by some species of pentatomid bugs on the seeding and biochemical characteristics of sunflower seeds. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 16(9/10):143-149

Shindrova P, 1982. Studies on the percentage of infestation by and preference of Hemiptera for various sunflower cultivars and hybrids. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 19(3):118-123

Shindrova P; Kontev Kh, 1982. Species composition and bioecological characteristics of plant bugs on sunflower. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 19(2):128-135

Shmyglya VA, 1974. Animal vectors (zoovectors) of viruses and mycoplasms infecting potato. Zashchita Rastenii, No.7:39-40

Slaymaker PH; Tugwell NP, 1984. Inexpensive female-baited trap for the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(4):1062-1063

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