Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Adelphocoris lineolatus
(lucerne bug)



Adelphocoris lineolatus (lucerne bug)


  • Last modified
  • 26 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lucerne bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. lineolatus is the main insect pest of lucerne crops. Feeding damage can ultimately result in reduced seed production and quality. A. lineolatus usually has two generations a year and is present in the field throughout the vegetative period. It is...

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Adult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
CaptionAdult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.
AdultAdult lucerne plant bug feeding from a lucerne (Medicago sativa) flower.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.
TitleAdult - green form
CaptionAdult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.
Adult - green formAdult of Adelphocoris lineolatus - green form on lucerne plant.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Fourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.
CaptionFourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Fourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.
NymphFourth-instar nymph of lucerne plant bug.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze (1778)

Preferred Common Name

  • lucerne bug

Other Scientific Names

  • Adelphocoris binotata Goeze
  • Adelphocoris chenopodii Fallen, 1807
  • Adelphocoris italica Tamanini, 1961
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus baltrumensis Schumacher, 1911
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus binotatus Wagner, 1960
  • Adelphocoris lineolatus bisbipunctata Tamanini, 1982
  • Calocoris chenopodii
  • Calocoris chenopodii implagiata
  • Calocoris chenopodii lineolatus
  • Calocoris lineolatus bisbipunctatus Reuter, 1891
  • Capsus brevicollis Meyer-Dur, 1843
  • Capsus lineolatus Goeze
  • Cimex albinus Geoffroy, 1785
  • Cimex lineolatus Goeze, 1778
  • Lygaeus chenopodii Fallen, 1807

International Common Names

  • English: alfalfa plant bug
  • French: capside de la luzerne
  • Russian: lucernovii klop

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: lucernova darvenica
  • Croatia: lucernina stjenica
  • Czech Republic: klopuska svetlá
  • Germany: Gaensefuss Schoenwanze; Gemeine Zierwanze; Schoenwanze, Gaensefuss-
  • Italy: miridae emitteri rincoti
  • Portugal: escaravelho da luzerna

EPPO code

  • ADPHLI (Adelphocoris lineolatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page A. lineolatus is the main insect pest of lucerne crops. Feeding damage can ultimately result in reduced seed production and quality. A. lineolatus usually has two generations a year and is present in the field throughout the vegetative period. It is polyphagous and can damage other crops such as cotton, sunflower, rape, fruits, etc. It has many other wild hosts, but is not invasive. It is widespread in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere and will remain there because it prefers balanced weather conditions, thrives well under cool, wet conditions, and is adversely affected by warm, dry weather. Adults of A. lineolatus fly well, but not over long distances. Distribution with international trade is practically impossible.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Heteroptera
  •                             Family: Miridae
  •                                 Genus: Adelphocoris
  •                                     Species: Adelphocoris lineolatus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AzerbaijanWidespreadNative Not invasive Sadigov, 1991
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Hsiao Meng, 1963; APPPC, 1987
-HebeiWidespreadNative Not invasive Li-MengCha et al., 2005
-HenanWidespreadNative Not invasive Gao ZongRen & Li QiaOsi, 1998
-Nei MengguWidespreadNative Not invasive Zhang-YuMin et al., 2004
-XinjiangPresentLi et al., 2007
IranWidespreadNative Not invasive Khanjani Kalafchi, 2003
-HonshuPresentNative Not invasive Yasunaga, 1990
-KyushuPresentLinnavuori, 1963
KazakhstanWidespreadNative Not invasive Mel'nichuk, 1984
KyrgyzstanWidespreadNative Not invasive Krylova, 1982
TajikistanWidespreadNative Not invasive Vanyants Kovalenkov, 1979
TurkeyWidespreadNative Not invasive Kaya and Kovanc, 2004
UzbekistanWidespreadNative Not invasive Khamraev, 2001

North America

-AlbertaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Schaber, 1992
-ManitobaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Schaber, 1992
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced1917 Not invasive M-NDZTFA, 1998
-OntarioWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Smith and Ellis, 1983
-QuebecWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Al-Ghamdi et al., 1993
-SaskatchewanWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Soroka Murrell, 1993
-ArkansasWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Slaymaker Tugwell, 1984
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler Henry, 1992
-DelawareWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Day, 1999
-IowaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Poston Pedigo, 1975
-MontanaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Morrill et al., 1984
-New JerseyWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Day, 1999
-New YorkWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler, 1974b
-OhioPresentIntroduced Not invasive Dailey et al., 1978
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler, 1974a
-South DakotaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Walstrom, 1983
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wheeler et al., 1983
-WisconsinWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Wipfli et al., 1989


AlbaniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
AndorraPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
AustriaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
BelarusPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
BelgiumPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
BulgariaWidespreadNative Not invasive Yosifov, 1960; Fauna Europaea, 2004
CroatiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Balarin, 1978; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Sedivy Kocourek, 1988; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadNative Not invasive Rotrekl, 1973
DenmarkPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
EstoniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
FinlandPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
Former USSRPresent
FranceWidespreadNative Not invasive Bournoville Delaude, 1975; Fauna Europaea, 2004
-CorsicaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
GermanyWidespreadNative Not invasive Gottwald Rohr, 1973; Fauna Europaea, 2004
GreecePresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
HungaryWidespreadNative Not invasive Erdelyi Benedek, 1974; Fauna Europaea, 2004
IrelandPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
ItalyWidespreadNative Not invasive Accinelli et al., 2002; Fauna Europaea, 2004; Fauna Europaea, 2004
LatviaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
LiechtensteinPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
LithuaniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
LuxembourgPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
MacedoniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
MoldovaWidespreadNative Not invasive Brudea Kiss, 1978; Fauna Europaea, 2004
NetherlandsPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
NorwayPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
PolandWidespreadNative Not invasive Kordan & Ciepielewska, 2001; Fauna Europaea, 2004
PortugalPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
RomaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Paulian, 1980; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Golishin et al., 1989
-Southern RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Golishin et al., 1989
-Western SiberiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gorbunov et al., 1984
SlovakiaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SloveniaPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SpainPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SwedenPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
UKPresentNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004
UkraineWidespreadNative Not invasive Tereshchenko Sobchuk, 1980; Fauna Europaea, 2004
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadNative Not invasive Balarin, 1975
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadNative Not invasive Fauna Europaea, 2004; Sekulic et al., 2005

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / malformed skin
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / fall or shedding
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Stems / fasciation
Stems / necrosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aeolothrips fasciatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Nabis alternatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius tristicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Peristenus adelphocoridis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada; USA Medicago sativa
Peristenus conradi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Delaware
Peristenus digoneutis Parasite
Peristenus pallipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Peristenus rubricollis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada Medicago sativa
Phasia aeneoventris Parasite
Polynema pratensiphagum Parasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Day WH, 1999. Host preferences of introduced and native parasites (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of phytophagous plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) in alfalfa-grass fields in the northeastern USA. BioControl, 44(3):249-261; 30 ref.

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