Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Macaranga tanarius
(parasol leaf tree)

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Datasheet

Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Macaranga tanarius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • parasol leaf tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Native to southeastern Asia, through to Australia and the western Pacific islands, Macaranga tanarius is a medium-sized tree that is cultivated in tropical regions throughout the world for a range of uses, in...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, in abandoned agriculture fields. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, in abandoned agriculture fields. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, in abandoned agriculture fields. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
HabitMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, in abandoned agriculture fields. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
HabitMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing a dense sapling stand. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing a dense sapling stand. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing a dense sapling stand. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2012.
Habit Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing a dense sapling stand. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleLeaves
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
LeavesMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing trunk and bark. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
TitleTrunk and bark
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing trunk and bark. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing trunk and bark. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Trunk and barkMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); habit, showing trunk and bark. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); flowers and leaves. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); flowers and leaves. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); flowers and leaves. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
FlowersMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); flowers and leaves. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves and flowers. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleLeaves and flowers
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves and flowers. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves and flowers. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Leaves and flowersMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves and flowers. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); developing fruits. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
TitleFruits
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); developing fruits. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); developing fruits. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
FruitsMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); developing fruits. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); ripe fruit. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
TitleFruit
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); ripe fruit. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); ripe fruit. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
FruitMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); ripe fruit. Malaekahana, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); sapling, in habitat with stream. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleSapling
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); sapling, in habitat with stream. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); sapling, in habitat with stream. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
SaplingMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); sapling, in habitat with stream. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves, on a small sapling. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleSapling
CaptionMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves, on a small sapling. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves, on a small sapling. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
SaplingMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree); leaves, on a small sapling. Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg.

Preferred Common Name

  • parasol leaf tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Croton laccifer Blanco
  • Croton lacciferus Blanco
  • Macaranga tanarius var. brevibracteata Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga tanarius var. glabra F.Muell.
  • Macaranga tanarius var. tomentosa (Blume) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga tomentosa (Blume) Druce
  • Macaranga vulcanica Elmer ex Merr.
  • Mappa moluccana Wight
  • Mappa tanarius (L.) Blume
  • Mappa tomentosa Blume
  • Ricinus tanarius L.
  • Rottlera tanarius (L.) Hassk.
  • Rottlera tomentosa (Blume) Hassk.

International Common Names

  • English: blush macaranga; Davids heart; elephant’s ear; hairy mahang; hairy mahogany; heart leaf; kamala; macaranga; nasturtium tree

Local Common Names

  • Indonesia: hanuwa; mapu; mara; tutup ancur
  • Malaysia: ka-lo; kundoh; mahang puteh; tampu
  • Philippines: binunga; himindang; kuyonon
  • Solomon Islands: rebareba; taksui
  • Thailand: hu chang lek; lo khao; mek; paang
  • Vietnam: hach dâu nam

Summary of Invasiveness

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Native to southeastern Asia, through to Australia and the western Pacific islands, Macaranga tanarius is a medium-sized tree that is cultivated in tropical regions throughout the world for a range of uses, including the production of timber, firewood, traditional medicinal products and shade. It is also used as an ornamental and in reforestation. As a pioneer species, M. tanarius is favoured by disturbance and rapidly colonizes gaps or margins in well-developed rainforest. In Hawaii, given its potential for rapid colonization and its ability to form dense stands, it is considered either an environmental weed or a potentially invasive cultivated plant threatening endangered native species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Macaranga
  •                                 Species: Macaranga tanarius

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Macaranga is a genus of the Euphorbiaceae family. It comprises 250-280 species from tropical Africa, Madagascar and Malesia to Australia and some parts of the Pacific. The genus Macaranga derives its name from mokarana, the Malagasy vernacular name for M. alnifolia, a species native to eastern Madagascar (Rakotovao et al., 2012; World Agroforestry Centre, 2015).

Description

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Adapted from Purwaningsih and Sukardjo (1991):

Evergreen, dioecious, small to medium-sized tree up to 20 m tall, usually much shorter; bole straight, up to 50 to 70 cm in diameter. Branches rather thick, glaucous, pubescent when young. Trunk seldom exceeding 30 cm diameter. Outer bark is covered with narrow, brittle, brownish stripes. Leaves simple, alternate; suborbicular, 8-32 cm x 5-28 cm, rounded at the base, acuminate at the apex, entire, sometimes denticulate or slightly lobed, with distinct veins; petiole 6-27 cm long, attached to the blade on the underside, with large caducous stipules at the base. Flowers in axillary, paniculate inflorescences, composed of bracts enclosing clusters of flowers; male flowers minute, many in a cluster with (3-)5-6(-10) stamens; female flowers few in a cluster, with a subovoid, glandular, two-celled ovary and two large stigmas. Fruit a bicoccus capsule, about 1 cm in diameter, with long, soft prickles, yellowish, glandular outside. Seeds globose, about 5 mm in diameter, rugose.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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In its native range, M. tanarius occurs from the Andaman Islands (India), southern China, Ryukyu Islands, northern Australia and Malesia to the west Pacific islands (Whitmore, 1980Airy Shaw, 1982). It is a common species in mainland South-East Asia, including southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and on Indonesian islands, including Sumatra, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Islands and Sulawesi, as well as New Guinea and the Philippine Archipelago (Purwaningsih and Sukardjo, 1991).

M. tanarius has been introduced to Singapore, the Marshall Islands and all the main islands of Hawaii, having become naturalized and invasive in valleys on Kauai, Oahu and Maui (Starr et al., 2003; PIER, 2015; Speith and Harrison, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
CambodiaPresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2015
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentNativeGBIF, 2015
East TimorPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeAiry Shaw, 1982
-KarnatakaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresentNativePurwaningsih and Sukardjo, 1991
-KalimantanPresentNativePurwaningsih and Sukardjo, 1991
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNativeAiry Shaw, 1982
-SulawesiPresentNativeAiry Shaw, 1982
-SumatraPresentNativePurwaningsih and Sukardjo, 1991
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
LaosPresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2015
MalaysiaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
MyanmarPresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2015
PhilippinesPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
SingaporePresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
Sri LankaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
TaiwanPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
ThailandPresentNativeAiry Shaw, 1982
VietnamPresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2015

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiLocalisedIntroduced1927 Invasive Skolmen, 1960

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
French PolynesiaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1960 Not invasive Florence, 1997Two male specimens introduced to Papeari, Tahiti, in 1960 from Vanuatu, neither of which survived
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Observed on Jaluit Atoll
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
VanuatuPresentNativeGBIF, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Hawaii, forestry records for M. tanarius report that in 1926, six trees were planted in Honolulu on Oahu and 237 trees in Hilo on Hawaii for forestry purposes. A further 30 trees were planted in Lihue-Koloa on Kauai in 1927 (Skolmen, 1960). The species is now naturalized in Hawaii in disturbed mesic valleys on Kauai and Oahu (Wagner et al., 1999) and also on Maui (Oppenheimer et al., 1999). M. tanarius is naturalized on West Maui in the Waikapu area, where it forms dense thickets in streams, valleys and moist areas. These dense thickets crowd out desirable native vegetation and can form deep shade in streams and valleys. This prolific tree also invades roadsides, fence lines and disturbed areas near to major infestation sites.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1926-1927 Forestry (pathway cause) ,
Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)
Government Yes No Skolmen (1960)

Risk of Introduction

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Apart from Hawaii, M. tanarius is not listed as an invasive species in any of the regions outside its native range. However, given its uses as an ornamental and in reforestation projects, further intentional introduction of M. tanarius in the tropics is likely.

Habitat

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M. tanarius is limited to tropical and subtropical climates. As a fast-growing pioneer plant, it is often found growing in secondary forests and especially in cleared rainforests. Its spread is favoured by disturbance and so rapidly colonizes gaps or margins in well-developed rainforest (Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2010). It is also found in thickets, brushwood, village groves, coastal rainforest and estuaries (Florabank, 2015; World Agroforestry Centre, 2015). M. tanarius occurs mainly in areas with a mean annual rainfall between 950 and 4000 mm, at altitudes from near sea level up to 800 m (Florabank, 2015). It grows in a variety of soil types including clay, loam and sand, and is fairly common in lowlands (World Agroforestry Centre, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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A study by Tseng et al. (2003) indicated that the phytotoxins produced during leaf decomposition of M. tanarius inhibited the growth of Lactuca sativa, Bidens pilosa and Leucaena leucocephala. They concluded that the pattern of weed exclusion underneath stands of M. tanarius and its invasion into adjacent grassland vegetation results from allelopathic interactions.

Growth Stages

Top of page Pre-emergence, Seedling stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

M. tanarius has a haploid chromosome number of 11 (Miller and Webster, 1966; Whitmore et al., 1970).

Reproductive Biology

M. tanarius is pollinated by insects and to a lesser extent by wind (Ishida et al., 2009), with flowering and fruiting occurring several times a year. It propagates by seed, with an average germination rate of 50% if the pulp remains on the seeds (World Agroforestry Centre, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

Cotyledons of M. tanarius are broadly elliptic to orbicular, about 16 mm in diameter; upper surface hairy; undersurface sometimes bearing numerous small, yellow glands (Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2010).

M. tanarius flowers and bears fruit fairly regularly (World Agroforestry Centre, 2015). In Australia it flowers from spring to summer and fruits mature in summer (Florabank, 2015). In Hong Kong, it is reported to flower from April to May and to fruit from June to August (Hong Kong Flora and Vegetation, 2012).

Longevity

Under cultivation, this species lives less than 15 years (Florabank, 2015). Under natural conditions, the lifespan is over 20 years, but as a pioneer species that quickly fills any gap that occurs in the forest canopy allowing light to penetrate to the ground, M. tanarius quickly disappears as the longer-lived components of the mature rainforest return.

Population Size and Structure

M. tanarius tends to form dense thickets that impede the growth of other vegetation, thus allowing it to form near monocultures.

Associations

This species is myrmecophilic: several ant species in the genera Crematogaster and Camponotus can serve as partners that sometimes colonize the trees (Guhling et al., 2005).

In Japan, M. tanarius is pollinated by the flower bug Orius atratus (Anthocoridae, Hemiptera), which breeds on the inflorescences (Ishida et al., 2009).

Environmental Requirements

M. tanarius is found in tropical and subtropical climates, from coastal estuaries to inland upland sites as high as 800 m above sea level (World Agroforestry Centre, 2015). It has been reported to tolerate temperatures as low as 6°C and as high as 34°C. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about 1°C (FAO, 2007). It tolerates different soil types including clay, loamy, medium and coarsely textured soils, either acid or neutral. It prefers a mean annual rainfall between 800 and 1200 mm, but tolerates 700 to 4000 mm. The species is sensitive to waterlogging and drought (Florabank, 2015). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 6
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 15

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7004000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The potential damage by the bug Decomioides schneirlai, which feeds on M. tanarius’ floral nectar without contributing to the pollination of the plant, is regulated by the plant’s insect pollinator Orius atratus (Ishida et al., 2009).

When it suffers leaf damage from herbivory, M. tanarius produces extrafloral nectar on its shoots and leaves to attract predators and parasitoids, which reduce the number of herbivores on the plant (Heil et al., 2001).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds of M. tanarius are dispersed mainly by birds and, to a lesser extent, by wind (Ishida et al., 2009) and possibly also by water (Starr et al., 2003).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The seeds of M. tanarius are dispersed primarily by birds (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015).

Accidental Introduction

Because of its profuse seed production, ease of dispersal and intentional planting, M. tanarius is very likely to escape from cultivation into suitable habitats.

Intentional Introduction

M. tanarius is cultivated commercially for reforestation purposes and is planted widely as a popular ornamental in Hawai'i and other tropical regions of the world (Speith and Harrison, 2015), so it is highly likely that it will be introduced to new areas.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionSeed dispersed by birds Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Forestry Yes Yes
Horticulture Yes USDA, 1915
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Water Yes Starr et al., 2003
Wind Yes Starr et al., 2003

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Given its potential for rapid colonization and its ability to form dense stands, M. tanarius is a threat to native species and their habitats in Hawaii, where it is considered an environmental weed (Global Compendium of Weeds, 2007) or a potentially invasive cultivated plant (Staples et al., 2000).

Impact on Biodiversity

On the Hawaiian island of Maui, habitat degradation and competition from M. tanarius and other invasive alien plant species, such as Lantana camara, Rubus rosifolius, Erigeron karvinskianus and Adiantum hispidulum, are serious threats to Pritchardia munroi, a species of fan palm endemic to Hawaii. This species was, until 2007, only known in the wild from a single individual on the leeward side of east Molokai. The species is currently known from two locations on the island of Molokai and three on West Maui, some of which only have single trees. P. munroi, originally listed as endangered in 1992, is listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. One of the priority actions for conserving P. munroi is the control of introduced invasive plant species around all populations (Bruegmann and Newton, 2011). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

According to Sosef et al. (1998), some Macaranga species are regarded as commercial timber in Indonesia. When traded, it is found in mixed consignments of light-weight hardwood.

Social Benefit

Orwa et al. (2009) listed the following uses for M. tanarius. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the gum from the bark is used as a glue. This species is used for firewood, its fibers can be used to make particle boards. In Sumatra, the fruit is added to palm juice and boiled to produce sugar for use in foods. Poles of this species have been used by pepper growers in southern Sumatra to make temporary ladders to harvest their crop (Sosef et al., 1998).

The bark is used in a decoction to treat dysentery, a decoction of the root is used to treat fever and haemoptysis, and powdered leaves are used for healing wonds (Purwaningsih and Sukrdjo, 1991). Other uses include dyes made from its leaves and fermented drinks made from the leaves and bark (Purwaningsih and Sukrdjo, 1991).

M. tanarius is a popular ornamental tree.

Environmental Services

M. tanarius has been recommended as a shade and shelter tree to promote natural regeneration on deforested land (Sosef et al., 1998; World Agroforestry Centre, 2015). Moreover, it is recognized for its erosion control and windbreak potential and, particularly, for its tolerance to sandy sites and salt-laden coastal winds (Florabank, 2015). M. tanarius has also been characterised as a fire retardant species (Noosa’s Native Plants, 2015).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Firebreak
  • Revegetation
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Materials

  • Alcohol
  • Bark products
  • Dyestuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Wood Products

Top of page

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Posts

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A similar species to M. tanarius in Hawaii is Macaranga mappa (L.) Mull. Arg., which is distinguishable from M. tanarius by its larger leaves (60-100 cm) and bracts, and pink calyx (Starr et al., 2003).

Prevention and Control

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Public Awareness

The Big Island Association of Nurserymen in Hawaii has voluntarily agreed to not order or sell M. tanarius to prevent further spread. It has been classified as "High Risk" by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment and should not be cultivated (Speith and Harrison, 2015). Starr et al. (2003) suggested discouraging the public from planting M. tanarius, especially near uncultivated areas or water bodies.

Eradication

Eradication techniques include hand-pulling or treatment with herbicide.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Control by use as firewood is unlikely, as this species has been reported as undesirable for charcoal production in the Philippines (Hyman, 1983). 

Biological Control

There are no known biological agents for the control of M. tanarius (Starr et al., 2003).

Chemical Control

In large wild stands, Starr et al. (2003) suggested cut stump or basal bark herbicide application as a possibly effective method for the control of M. tanarius. Foliar spray on taller individuals, however, may not be effective and is not advised in areas where non-target plants are present, although control methods suggested for dense stands in Maui, Hawaii, include aerial applications of herbicide via spray ball or herbicide ballistic technology (Maui Invasive Species Council, 2013).

Monitoring and Surveillance (Incl. Remote Sensing)

In the West Maui mountains, M. tanarius populations were mapped using helicopter surveys and ground surveying. This revealed that M. tanarius had a much larger range than was previously thought, and resulted in this species being added to the area’s priority invasive species lists (Maui Invasive Species Council, 2013).

 

References

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Airy Shaw HK, 1982. The Euphorbiaceae of Central Malesia (Celebes, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Is.). Kew Bulletin, 37(1):1-40.

Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2010. Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Version 6.1 - December 2010. CSIRO, Queensland, Australia.

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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09/07/15 Original text by:

Diana Quiroz, Wageningen University, Netherlands

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