Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mayetiola destructor
(Hessian fly)

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Datasheet

Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mayetiola destructor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Hessian fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adults 2-4 mm long, females generally larger than males.
TitleAdult
CaptionMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adults 2-4 mm long, females generally larger than males.
Copyright©Keith M. Harris
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adults 2-4 mm long, females generally larger than males.
AdultMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adults 2-4 mm long, females generally larger than males.©Keith M. Harris
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adult male.
TitleAdult
CaptionMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adult male.
Copyright©Keith M. Harris
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adult male.
AdultMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); adult male.©Keith M. Harris
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia, commonly known as 'flaxseeds', 2-6 mm long, dark brown, slightly tapered anteriorly.
TitlePuparia
CaptionMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia, commonly known as 'flaxseeds', 2-6 mm long, dark brown, slightly tapered anteriorly.
Copyright©Keith M. Harris
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia, commonly known as 'flaxseeds', 2-6 mm long, dark brown, slightly tapered anteriorly.
PupariaMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia, commonly known as 'flaxseeds', 2-6 mm long, dark brown, slightly tapered anteriorly.©Keith M. Harris
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia in leaf axils: their shape may be modified by compression, especially when three or more puparia develop at the same feeding site.
TitlePuparia
CaptionMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia in leaf axils: their shape may be modified by compression, especially when three or more puparia develop at the same feeding site.
Copyright©Keith M. Harris
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia in leaf axils: their shape may be modified by compression, especially when three or more puparia develop at the same feeding site.
PupariaMayetiola destructor (Hessian fly); puparia in leaf axils: their shape may be modified by compression, especially when three or more puparia develop at the same feeding site.©Keith M. Harris

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mayetiola destructor (Say)

Preferred Common Name

  • Hessian fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Cecidomyia destructor
  • Cecidomyia frumentaria Rondani
  • Chortomyia secalina Loew
  • Mayetiola mimeuri MESNIL
  • Mayetiola secalis Bollow
  • Phytophaga cerealis Rondani
  • Phytophaga destructor

International Common Names

  • English: fly, Hessian
  • Spanish: cecidomia destructora; liendre del trigo; mosca del hess; mosca del trigo; mosquito del trigo
  • French: cecidomyie destructive; mouche de hesse

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: hessisk flue
  • Finland: hessinsääski
  • Germany: Gallmuecke, Getreide-; Hessenfliege; Hessenmuecke
  • Israel: yatush hakama
  • Italy: Cecidomia distruttice (del grano)
  • Netherlands: Hessevlieg; Mug, hessische
  • Norway: korngallmygg
  • Sweden: hessisk fluga; korngallmygga
  • Turkey: bugday aniz sinegi

EPPO code

  • MAYEDE (Mayetiola destructor)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Cecidomyiidae
  •                             Genus: Mayetiola
  •                                 Species: Mayetiola destructor

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IraqPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentEPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-South DakotaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresent, few occurrences****IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespread****IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
CyprusPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014; NPPO of Denmark, 2019
FinlandRestricted distributionIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread****IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO, 2014
-SiberiaPresentIIE, 1992
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SpainPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distribution****IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
UKPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentEPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIIE, 1992

Oceania

New ZealandPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aprostocetus zosimus Parasite Pupae
Ceraphron vagans Parasite
Eupelmus allynii Parasite Pupae
Eupelmus microzonus Parasite Pupae
Eurytoma Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Homoporus destructor Parasite Pupae
Macroneura vesicularis Parasite Pupae
Metaporus graminicola Parasite Pupae
Oligosita anomala Parasite Eggs
Panstenon poaphilum Parasite Wise, 2007
Pediobius acantha Parasite Pupae
Pediobius epigonus Parasite Pupae New Zealand cereals
Pediobius eubius Parasite Wise, 2007
Pediobius metallicus Parasite Pupae USA barley; rye; wheat
Platygaster heimalis Parasite Eggs
Platygaster hiemalis Parasite
Platygaster pleuron Parasite Eggs USA barley; rye; wheat
Platygaster zosine Parasite Eggs
Pseuderimerus luteus Parasite Pupae
Pseudoderimus mayetiolae Parasite Pupae
Semiotellus nigripes Parasite Pupae USA barley; rye
Trichacis remulus Parasite USA barley; rye
Trichomalopsis americana Parasite Wise, 2007
Trichomalopsis subapterus Parasite

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - woodStraw. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Alvarado M, Durán JM, Serrano A, de la Rosa A, 1992. Contribucfon al conocimiento del mosquito del trigo, Mayetiola destructort Say, en Andalucfa Occidental. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 18:175-183

Amri A, Bouhssini ME, Lhaloui S, Cox TS, Hatchett JH, 1992. Estimates of yield loss due to the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on bread wheat using near-isogenic lines. Al Awamia, No. 77:75-88

Barnes HF, 1956. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. VII: Gall midges of cereal crops. London, UK: Crosby Lockwood

Bergh JC, Harris MO, Rose S, 1990. Temporal patterns of emergence and reproductive behaviour of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 83(5):998-1004

Bergh JC, Harris MO, Rose S, 1992. Factors inducing mated behavior in female Hessian flies (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 85(2):224-233

Bouhssini E, Nsarellah MN, Nachit MM, Bentika A, Benlahbib O, Lhaloui S, 1999. First source of resistance in durum to Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Morocco. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 46(2):107-109; 9 ref

Buntin GD, Bruckner PL, 1990. Effect of planting date on Hessian fly infestation and production of triticale. Applied Agricultural Research, 5(2):82-88

Buntin GD, Bruckner PL, Johnson JW, 1990. Management of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Georgia by delayed planting of winter wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):1025-1033

Buntin GD, Chapin JW, 1990. Biology of hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the southeastern United States: geographic variation and temperature-dependent phenology. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):1015-1024

Buntin GD, Cunfer BM, Bridges DC, 1991. Impact of volunteer wheat on wheat insects in a wheat-soybean double-crop system. Journal of Entomological Science, 26(4):401-407

Buntin GD, Hudson RD, 1991. Spring control of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in winter wheat using insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(6):1913-1919

Buntin GD, Raymer PL, 1989. Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) damage and forage production of winter wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(1):301-306

Buntin GD, Raymer PL, 1992. Response of winter barley yield and yield components to spring infestations of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(6):2447-2451

Chapin JW, Thomas JS, Sullivan MJ, 1992. Spring- and fall-tillage system effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) emergence from a coastal plain soil. Journal of Entomological Science, 27(4):293-300

Davidson RH, Lyon WF, 1987. Insect pests of farm, garden, and orchard. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 8: 640 pp

Delibes A, Moral JD, Martfn-Sßnchez JA, Mejias A, Gallego M, Casado D, Sin E, L=pez-Brana I, 1997. Hessian fly-resistance gene transferred from chromosome 4M of Aegilops ventricosa to Triticum aestivum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 94(6/7):858-864; 26 ref

Durán JM, Alvarado M, Serrano A, de la Rosa A, 1992. Estudio de algunas medidas de lucha contra el mosquito del trigo, Mayetiola destructor Say, en Andalucia Occidental. Boletin Sanidad Vegetal Plagas, 18:185-191

Dweikat I, Ohm H, Mackenzie S, Patterson F, Cambron S, Ratcliffe R, 1994. Association of a DNA marker with Hessian fly resistance gene H9 in wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 89(7/8):964-968

El-Bouhssini M, Benlhabib O, Nachit MM, Houari A, Bentika A, Nsarellah N, Lhaloui S, 1998. Identification in Aegilops species of resistant sources to Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Morocco. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 45(4):343-345; 10 ref

El-Bouhssini M, Hatchett JH, Wilde GE, 1998. Survival of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae on wheat cultivars carrying different genes for antibiosis. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 15(3):183-193; 20 ref

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Ertel M, 1975. Untersuchungen zur Larvalsytematik der Gattung Mayetiola (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera). Stuttgarter BeitrSge zur Naturkunde, 267:1-64

Evdokimov NYa, Korchagin AA, Telepa NG, Gorbunov NN, 1986. The Hessian fly in northern Kazakhstan. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 3:22-23

Foster JE, 1977. Suppression of a field population of the Hessian fly by releases of the dominant avirulent Great Plains biotype. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(6):775-778

Foster SP, Bergh JC, Rose S, Harris MO, 1991. Aspects of pheromone biosynthesis in the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). Journal of Insect Physiology, 37(12):899-906

Foster SP, Harris MO, 1992. Foliar chemicals of wheat and related grasses influencing oviposition by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 18(11):1965-1980

Foster SP, Harris MO, Millar JG, 1991. Identification of the sex pheromone of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). Naturwissenschaften, 78(3):130-131

Gagne RJ, Hatchett JH, 1989. Instars of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 82(1):73-79

Gagne RJ, Hatchett JH, Lhaloui S, El-Bouhssini M, 1991. Hessian fly and barley stem gall midge, two different species of Mayetiola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Morocco. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 84(4):436-443

Gahan AB, 1933. The serphoid and chalcidoid parasites of the Hessian fly. Miscellaneous Publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, 174:1-147

Harris MO, Dando JL, Griffin W, Madie C, 1996. Susceptibility of cereal and non-cereal grasses to attack by Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 24(3):229-238; 28 ref

Harris MO, Rose S, 1989. Chemical, color, and tactile cues influencing oviposition behavior of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Environmental Entomology, 19(2):303-308

Harris MO, Rose S, 1991. Factors influencing the onset of egglaying in a cecidomyiid fly. Physiological Entomology, 16(2):183-190

Harris MO, Rose S, Malsch P, 1993. The role of vision in the host plant-finding behaviour of the Hessian fly. Physiological Entomology, 18(1):31-42

Hatchett JH, Kreitner GL, Elzinga RJ, 1990. Larval mouthparts and feeding mechanism of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 83(6):1137-1147; 21 ref

IIE, 1992. Distribution maps of pests. Series A, No.57 (second revision). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Luck RF, 1981. Parasitic insects introduced as biological control agents for arthropod pests. In: Pimentel D, ed., CRC handbook of pest management in Agriculture, Volume II. Florida, USA: CRC Press, 125-298

McKay PA, Hatchett JH, 1984. Mating behavior and evidence of a female sex pheromone in the hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 77(5):616-620

Moral JdeL, Gallego M, Casada D, Chica V, Meijas-Chacon A, Del Moral J, 1994. Mayetiola destructor Say. (IV) Study of cultural methods in wheat in relation to the pest. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 20:221-227

Painter RH, 1951. Insect resistance in crop plants. New York, USA: Macmillan

Patterson FL, Foster JE, Ohm HW, Hatchett JH, Taylor PL, 1992. Proposed system of nomenclature for biotypes of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in North America. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(2):307-311

Pfadt RE, 1985 (4th edition). Fundamentals of applied entomology. New York, USA: Macmillan Publishing Company

Prestidge RA, 1992. Population biology and parasitism of Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Bromus wildenowii in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 35(4):423-428

Roberti D, 1953. Contributo alla conoscenza delle specie italiane di Mayetiola Kieffer (Diptera-Cecidomyiidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', 12:98-153

Schuster MF, Lidell MC, 1990. Distribution and seasonal abundance of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) parasitoids in Texas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(6):2269-2273

Skuhravá M, 1986. Cecidomyiidae. In: Soós A, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 4 Sciaridae - Anisopodidae. Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó

Skuhrava M, Skuhravy V, Brewer JW, 1984. The distribution and long-term changes in population dynamics of gall midges on cereals in Europe (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera). Cecidologia Internationale, 5(1/2):1-7

Sokhansanj S, Wood HC, Whistlecraft JW, Koivisto GA, 1993. Thermal disinfestation of hay to eliminate possible contamination with Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 3(2):165-172

Solinas M, Isidoro N, 1996. Functional anatomy of female sex pheromone gland of Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Entomologica, 30:43-54; 20 ref

Stuart JJ, Schulte SJ, Hall PS, Mayer KM, 1998. Genetic mapping of Hessian fly avirulence gene vH6 using bulked segregant analysis. Genome, 41(5):702-708; 33 ref

Wade JS, 1934. An annotated bibliography of the Hessian fly, Phytophaga destructor (Say). Miscellaneous Publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, 198:1-100

Wellso SG, 1991. pstivation and phenology of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Indiana. Environmental Entomology, 20(3):795-801

Wise IL, 2007. Parasitism of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on spring wheat (Poaceae) in southern Manitoba. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Manitoba, 63:23-32

Withers TM, Harris MO, 1997. Influence of wind on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) flight and egglaying behavior. Environmental Entomology, 26(2):327-333; 30 ref

Withers TM, Harris MO, Madie C, 1997. Dispersal of mated female Hessian flies (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in field arrays of host and nonhost plants. Environmental Entomology, 26(6):1247-1257; 17 ref

Yokoyama VY, Hatchett JH, Miller GT, 1994. Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) mortality related to moisture, season, temperature, and harvesting practices for compressed and fumigated hay exported to Japan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(5):1266-1271

Yokoyama VY, Hatchett JH, Miller GT, Hartsell PL, 1994. Hydrogen phosphide residues and efficacy to control Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in compressed hay for export to Japan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(5):1272-1277

Zantoko L, Shukle RH, 1999. An STS linked to a Hessian fly locus controlling virulence to resistance gene H13 in wheat. Journal of Heredity, 90(1):242-247; 23 ref

Zeiss MR, Brandenburg RL, Duyn JWvan, 1993. Suitability of seven grass weeds as Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) hosts. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 10(2):107-119; 34 ref

Distribution Maps

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