Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Maruca vitrata
(lima bean pod borer)

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Datasheet

Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Maruca vitrata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lima bean pod borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); adult at rest. Fraser's Hill, Malaysia. March 2009.
TitleAdult
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); adult at rest. Fraser's Hill, Malaysia. March 2009.
Copyright©Alexey Yakovlev (alexey)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); adult at rest. Fraser's Hill, Malaysia. March 2009.
AdultMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); adult at rest. Fraser's Hill, Malaysia. March 2009.©Alexey Yakovlev (alexey)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae bore into pods and may distort them, as seen here on hyacinth bean.
TitleLarval damage
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae bore into pods and may distort them, as seen here on hyacinth bean.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae bore into pods and may distort them, as seen here on hyacinth bean.
Larval damageMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae bore into pods and may distort them, as seen here on hyacinth bean.©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larva 17-20 mm long, head capsule light to dark brown, body whitish to pale green or pale brown, with irregular brownish-black spots.
TitleLarva
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larva 17-20 mm long, head capsule light to dark brown, body whitish to pale green or pale brown, with irregular brownish-black spots.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larva 17-20 mm long, head capsule light to dark brown, body whitish to pale green or pale brown, with irregular brownish-black spots.
LarvaMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larva 17-20 mm long, head capsule light to dark brown, body whitish to pale green or pale brown, with irregular brownish-black spots.©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae in hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).
TitleLarvae
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae in hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).
Copyright©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae in hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).
LarvaeMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); larvae in hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); damage comparison on cowpea pods: undamaged spread pods (left) and damaged tied together pods (right).
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); damage comparison on cowpea pods: undamaged spread pods (left) and damaged tied together pods (right).
Copyright©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); damage comparison on cowpea pods: undamaged spread pods (left) and damaged tied together pods (right).
Damage symptomsMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); damage comparison on cowpea pods: undamaged spread pods (left) and damaged tied together pods (right).©James Litsinger
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia. April 2019.
TitleAdult
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia. April 2019.
Copyright©Donald Hobern/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia. April 2019.
AdultMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia. April 2019.©Donald Hobern/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Rancho Naturalista, Costa Rica. February 2016.
TitleAdult
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Rancho Naturalista, Costa Rica. February 2016.
Copyright©Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Rancho Naturalista, Costa Rica. February 2016.
AdultMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Rancho Naturalista, Costa Rica. February 2016.©Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Cayenne, French Guiana. November 2017.
TitleAdult
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Cayenne, French Guiana. November 2017.
Copyright©Bernard DUPONT/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Cayenne, French Guiana. November 2017.
AdultMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult. Cayenne, French Guiana. November 2017.©Bernard DUPONT/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult, note translucent parts of wings. Division Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. November 2015.
TitleAdult
CaptionMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult, note translucent parts of wings. Division Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. November 2015.
Copyright©Bernard DUPONT/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult, note translucent parts of wings. Division Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. November 2015.
AdultMaruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer); Adult, note translucent parts of wings. Division Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. November 2015.©Bernard DUPONT/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Maruca vitrata Fabricius

Preferred Common Name

  • lima bean pod borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Crochiphora testulalis Geyer
  • Maruca testulalis Geyer

International Common Names

  • English: bean pod borer; legume pod borer; maruca; mung moth; spotted podborer
  • Spanish: barrenador de la vaina; maruca de las vainas; perforador de la vainita; taladrador de la vaina
  • French: pyrale du pois

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohnenzuensler; Zuensler-Art
  • Japan: mame-nomeiga
  • Netherlands: Katjangvlindertje

EPPO code

  • MARUTE (Maruca vitrata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Crambidae
  •                             Genus: Maruca
  •                                 Species: Maruca vitrata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
ChadPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
Equatorial GuineaPresent, Localized
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LiberiaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
SenegalPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TibetPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-JharkhandPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent, Widespread
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent, Few occurrences
DenmarkAbsent, Intercepted only
FrancePresent, Few occurrences
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrences

North America

BelizePresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent, Few occurrences
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-HawaiiPresent
-TexasAbsent, Formerly present

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Localized
-Australian Capital TerritoryPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Widespread
-AmazonasPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Inflorescence / webbing
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anthrocephalus subelongatus Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Antrocephalus Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Apanteles hedyleptae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Argyrophylax solomonica Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bassus bruesi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bassus javanicus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Brachymeria lasus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bracon Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bracon cajani Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Cape Verde; Fiji; Hawaii; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; legumes
Bracon hebetor Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fiji legumes
Bracon kirkpatricki Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fiji beans
Bracon thurberiphagae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fiji; Hawaii; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; legumes; pigeon peas
Braunsia kriegeri Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Camptonotus sericeus Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Cedria paradoxa Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chelonus busckiella Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Mauritius pigeon peas
Coelophora inaequalis Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Hawaii beans
Cremastus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dolichogenidea Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Eiphosoma dentator Parasite Cape Verde; Fiji; Hawaii; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; legumes; pigeon peas
Eocanthecona furcellata Predator Arthropods|Larvae Nebapure and Meena (2011)
Goniozus emigratus Parasite Hawaii beans
Heterospilus etiellae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Mauritius pigeon peas
Iconella etiellae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Cape Verde; Fiji beans; legumes
Iconella etiellae var. isolatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Mauritius pigeon peas
Macrocentrus ancylivora Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Puerto Rico beans
Microdus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Nosema Pathogen
Nosema marucae Pathogen
Pachodynerus nasidens Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Parallorhogas pyralophagus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phanerotoma Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phanerotoma bennetti Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Cape Verde; Fiji; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; legumes; pigeon peas
Phanerotoma hendecasiella Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phanerotoma hendecasisella Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phanerotoma leucobasis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phanerotoma orientalis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phanerotoma philippinensis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phanerotoma planifrons Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Puerto Rico beans
Polyspilota aeruginosa Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae
Pristomerus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pseudoperichaeta leavis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Selenops radiatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae
Sphodromantis lineola Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae
Testudobracon Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Tetrastichus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Tetrastichus sesamiae Parasite
Thelairosoma palposum Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Trathala flavoorbitalis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Ankita et al. (2013)
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea Parasite Eggs

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) arthropods/larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Adati T; Tatsuki S, 1999. Identification of female sex pheromone of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata and antagonistic effects of geometrical isomers. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25(1):105-115.

Agboh-Noameshie A; Jackai LEN; Agboola AA; Ezumah HC, 1997. Manipulating canopy structure in cassava intercropped with cowpea and its effects on cowpea insect population densities. Tropical Agriculture, 74(3):210-215; 18 ref.

Ajeigbe HA; Adamu RS; Singh BB, 2012. Yield performance of cowpea as influenced by insecticide types and their combinations in the dry savannas of Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(44):5930-5938. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/abstracts/abstracts/Abstracts%202012/20Nov/Ajeigbe%20et%20al.htm

Alghali AM, 1991. Integrated pest management strategy for cowpea production under residual soil moisture in the Bida area of northern Nigeria. Tropical Pest Management, 37(3):224-227

Ankita Gupta; Sujayanand GK; Bakthavatsalam N, 2013. Record of three larval parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) of Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from southern India. Journal of Biological Control, 27(1):53-55. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/45506

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arodokoun DY, 1996. Importance des plantes-hotes alternatives et des ennemis naturels indigenes dans le controle biologique de Maruca testutalis Geyer (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), ravageur de Vigna unguiculata Walp. PhD thesis. Quebec, Canada: Universite Laval, 182.

Arodokoun DY; Tamò M; Cloutier C; Brodeur J, 2006. Larval parasitoids occurring on Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Benin, West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 113(1/4):320-325.

Arvind Kumar; Akhilesh Kumar; Satpathy S; Singh SM; Hira Lal, 2013. Legume pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer) and their relative yield losses in cowpea cultivars. Progressive Horticulture, 45(1):229-232.

Asiwe JAN; Nokoe S; Jackai LEN; Ewete FK, 2005. Does varying cowpea spacing provide better protection against cowpea pests? Crop Protection, 24(5):465-471. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0261-2194

Avinash Kumar; Mehto DN, 1996. Relative efficacy of different insecticides against the pests infesting urd (Vigna mungo L. (Hepper)). Journal of Entomological Research, 20(4):309-312; 4 ref.

AVRDC, 1993. AVRDC 1992 Progress Report. Shanhua, Taiwan: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center.

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AVRDC, 1996. AVRDC 1995 Report. Shanhua, Taiwan: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, 187 pp.

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Ba NM; Margam VM; Binso-Dabire CL; Sanon A; McNeil JN; Murdock LL; Pittendrigh BR, 2009. Seasonal and regional distribution of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 29(3):109-113. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

Barrion AT; Bandong JP; Cruz CG de la; Apostol RF; Litsinger JA, 1987. Natural enemies of the bean pod borer Maruca testulalis in the Philippines. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, No. 34:21-22

Borah BK; Sarma KK, 2004. Record of parasitoids of legume pod borer Maruca testulalis (Geyer) in Assam. Insect Environment, 10(2):77-78.

Bottenberg H; Tam= M; Arodokoun D; Jackai LEN; Singh BB; Youm O, 1997. Population dynamics and migration of cowpea pests in northern Nigeria: implications for integrated pest management. In: Singh BB, Mohan Raj DR, Dashiell KE, Jackai LEN, eds. Advances in cowpea research. Copublication of International Institute of Agriculture (IITA) and Japan International Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS). Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 271-184.

Bottenberg H; Tam= M; Singh BB, 1998. Occurrence of phytophagous insects on wild Vigna sp. and cultivated cowpea: comparing the relative importance of host-plant resistance and millet intercropping. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 70(2/3):217-229; 61 ref.

Chi YuCheng, Sakamaki, Y., Kushigemachi, K., 2003. The seasonal abundance of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, in Kagoshima, Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 38, 41-44.

Cock MJW (ed.), 1985. A review of biological control of pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982. Farnham Royal, United Kingdom; Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, xii + 218 pp.

Dar MH; Rizvi PQ; Naqvi NA, 2003. Effect of intercropping on the major insect pests of greengram and blackgram. Shashpa, 10(1):85-87.

Dey PK; Chakraborty G; Somchoudhury AK, 2012. Bioefficacy of flubendiamide 480 SC against pod borers of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). Journal of Interacademicia, 16(3):609-613.

Don-Pedro KN, 1983. Level of parasitisation of Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) larvae in early and late cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivar (prima) in Nigeria. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 97(3):677-683

Downham MCA, 2006. Maruca vitrata pheromone trapping in West Africa. Maruca vitrata pheromone trapping in West Africa. http://www.nri.org/maruca/

Downham MCA; Hall DR; Chamberlain DJ; Cork A; Farman DI; Tamò M; Dahounto D; Datinon B; Adetonah S, 2003. Minor components in the sex pheromone of legume podborer: Maruca vitrata development of an attractive blend. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29(4):989-1011.

Downham MCA; Tamò M; Hall DR; Datinon B; Adetonah S; Farman DI, 2004. Developing pheromone traps and lures for Maruca vitrata in Benin, West Africa. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 110(2):151-158. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.0013-8703.2004.00128.x/abs/

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Ekesi S; Adamu RS; Maniania NK, 2002. Ovicidal activity of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes to the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata and the pod sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis. Crop Protection, 21(7):589-595.

Ekesi S; Dike MC; Ogunlana MO, 1996. Relationship between planting dates and damage by the legume pod-borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(4):315-316; 9 ref.

Ekesi, S., 1999. Insecticide resistance in field populations of the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), Walp in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 45(1), 57-59. doi: 10.1080/096708799228058

Emosairue SO; Ubana UB, 1998. Field evaluation of neem for the control of some cow-pea insect pests in south eastern Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 4(3):237-241; 20 ref.

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Goater B, 1986. British pyralid moths. A guide to their identification. British pyralid moths. A guide to their identification., 175pp.; [8 col. pl., 12 fig., 22x16 cm].

Gopali, J. B., Raju Teggelli, Mannur, D. M., Suhas Yelshetty, 2010. Web-forming lepidopteran, Maruca vitrata (Geyer): an emerging and destructive pest in pigeonpea. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(1), 35-38.

Greathead DJ, 1971. A review of biological control in the Ethiopian Region. CIBC Technical Communication No. 5. Farnham Royal, UK: CAB International.

Halder J; Srinivasan S, 2007. Biochemical basis of resistance against Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in urd bean. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(2):287-290. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Hammig MD; Shepard BM; Carner GR; Dilts R; Rauf A, 2008. Areawide pest management for non-rice food crops in South-east Asia. In: Areawide pest management: theory and implementation [ed. by Koul, O.\Cuperus, G.\Elliott, N.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 326-350. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20083134936

Hassan MN, 2007. PhD Dissertation. Greenwich, UK: University of Greenwich, 244 pp.

Heppner JB; Inoue H; eds, 1992. Checklist Lepidoptera of Taiwan. Gainesville, USA: Scientific Publishers, 1(2):276 pp.

Huang ChiChung; Peng WuKang; Talekar NS, 2003. Parasitoids and other natural enemies of Maruca vitrata feeding on Sesbania cannabina in Taiwan. BioControl, 48(4):407-416.

Huang HY, 1999. Study on effects of varieties of asparagus bean on population of Maruca testulalis. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 20(1):17-20.

IIE, 1996. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 351. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Jackai LEN; Oyediran IO, 1991. The potential of neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. for controlling post-flowering pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp-I. The pod borer, Maruca testulalis. Insect Science and its Application, 12(1-3):103-109

Jaydeep Haider; Srinivasan S, 2011. Varietal screening and role of morphological factors on distribution and abundance of spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) on cowpea. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 19(1):71-74. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

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