Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Maize rough dwarf virus

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Datasheet

Maize rough dwarf virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Maize rough dwarf virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Reoviridae
  •         Subfamily: Spinareovirinae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
MRDV- infected maize plant. Plants are dwarfed, though the stem remains stout.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMRDV- infected maize plant. Plants are dwarfed, though the stem remains stout.
CopyrightCourtesy of M. Conti
MRDV- infected maize plant. Plants are dwarfed, though the stem remains stout.
SymptomsMRDV- infected maize plant. Plants are dwarfed, though the stem remains stout.Courtesy of M. Conti
Foliar symptoms of MRDV on maize: the backs of the leaves and leaf sheaths are roughened by enations developed on the veins.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionFoliar symptoms of MRDV on maize: the backs of the leaves and leaf sheaths are roughened by enations developed on the veins.
CopyrightCourtesy of M. Conti
Foliar symptoms of MRDV on maize: the backs of the leaves and leaf sheaths are roughened by enations developed on the veins.
Symptoms on leafFoliar symptoms of MRDV on maize: the backs of the leaves and leaf sheaths are roughened by enations developed on the veins.Courtesy of M. Conti
Longitudinal splits of roots occur, particularly in adventitious roots. These are caused by internal swelling of phloem in the roots.
TitleSymptoms on roots
CaptionLongitudinal splits of roots occur, particularly in adventitious roots. These are caused by internal swelling of phloem in the roots.
CopyrightCourtesy of M. Conti
Longitudinal splits of roots occur, particularly in adventitious roots. These are caused by internal swelling of phloem in the roots.
Symptoms on rootsLongitudinal splits of roots occur, particularly in adventitious roots. These are caused by internal swelling of phloem in the roots.Courtesy of M. Conti
MRDV- infected wheat plants; healthy plant on the left. Infected plants are dwarfed.
TitleComparison of healthy and infected wheat plants
CaptionMRDV- infected wheat plants; healthy plant on the left. Infected plants are dwarfed.
CopyrightCourtesy of M. Conti
MRDV- infected wheat plants; healthy plant on the left. Infected plants are dwarfed.
Comparison of healthy and infected wheat plantsMRDV- infected wheat plants; healthy plant on the left. Infected plants are dwarfed.Courtesy of M. Conti
Electron micrograph of MRDV particles.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionElectron micrograph of MRDV particles.
CopyrightCourtesy of R.G. Milne
Electron micrograph of MRDV particles.
Virus particlesElectron micrograph of MRDV particles.Courtesy of R.G. Milne
The planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (mature female).
TitleVector of MRDV
CaptionThe planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (mature female).
Copyright©P. Caciagli
The planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (mature female).
Vector of MRDVThe planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (mature female).©P. Caciagli

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Maize rough dwarf virus

Other Scientific Names

  • maize rough dwarf fijivirus
  • nanismo ruvido del mais

Local Common Names

  • Italy: Virus del nanismo ruvido del mais
  • Sweden: Bestockningsjuka (cereal tillering disease)

English acronym

  • MRDV

EPPO code

  • MRDV00 (Maize rough dwarf fijivirus)

Subspecies

  • Cereal tillering disease reovirus
  • Cereal tillering disease virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Reoviridae
  •                 Subfamily: Spinareovirinae
  •                     Genus: Fijivirus
  •                         Species: Maize rough dwarf virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)Dwarfing of cereal crops in China is now recognized to be induced by Rice black streaked dwarf virus.
-XinjiangAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)Dwarfing of cereal crops in China is now recognized to be induced by Rice black streaked dwarf virus.
IranAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)Unconfirmed reports, considered doubtful.
IsraelPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveHarpaz (1972); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)Dwarfing of cereal crops in Korea is now recognized to be induced by Rice black streaked dwarf virus.

Europe

CzechiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)Uncofirmed report in 1965, considered doubtful.
FrancePresentNativeInvasiveHarpaz (1972); Signoret and Alliot (1985); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresentNativeInvasiveHuth (1994); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentNativeInvasiveDovas et al. (2004); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedNativeInvasiveCONTI and LOVISOLO (1971); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
NorwayPresentNativeInvasiveCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PortugalAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
SerbiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
SpainPresent, LocalizedNativeInvasiveHarpaz (1972); Signoret and Alliot (1985); CABI and EPPO (1997); Louie and Abt (2004); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, LocalizedNativeInvasiveLindsten (1974); Lindsten and Conti (1977); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresentNativeInvasiveCONTI and LOVISOLO (1971); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)Disease caused by Mal de Rio Cuarto virus, now recognized as a distinct but related virus.
BrazilAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Laodelphax striatellusInsect

References

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Antignus Y; Klein M; Ovadia S, 1987. The use of insecticides to control maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) in maize. Annals of Applied Biology, 110(3):557-562

Appiano A; Caciagli P; Adrian M, 1991. Fine structure of maize rough dwarf virus. Sixth Conference on Virus Diseases of Gramineae in Europe, Torino, 44.

Appiano A; Lovisolo O, 1979. Ultrastructure of maize roots infected with maize rough dwarf virus and presence of virus particles in vacuoles with lysosomal activity. Microbiologica, 2:37-50

Bai FW; Qu ZC; Yan J; Zhang HW; Xu J; Ye MM; Wu HL; Liao XG; Shen DL, 2001. Identification of rice black streaked dwarf virus in different cereal crops with dwarfing symptoms in China. Acta Virologica, 45(5/6):335-339; 12 ref.

Bai FW; Yan J; Qu ZC; Zhang HW; Xu J; Ye MM; Shen DL, 2002. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that a dwarfing disease on different crops in China is due to rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). Virus Genes, 25: 201-206.

Blattny C; Pozdena J; Prochazkova Z, 1965. Virusbedingte Rauhverzwergung und Streifenkrankheit bei Zea mais L. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 52:105-130.

Boccardo G; Milne RG, 1975. The maize rough dwarf virion 1. Protein composition and distribution of RNA in different viral fractions. Virology, 68(1):79-85

Boccardo G; Milne RG, 1981. Enhancement of the immunogenicity of the maize rough dwarf virus outer shell with the cross-linking reagent dithiobis (succinimidyl) propionate. Journal of Virological Methods, 3:109-113.

CABI; EPPO, 1997. Maize rough dwarf fijivirus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 738.

Caciagli P, 1986. A simple model to forecast maize rough dwarf virus epidemics in maize. Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Epidemiology of Plant Virus Diseases, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-10.

Caciagli P, 1991. Recent observations on the epidemiology of maize rough dwarf virus. Phytoparasitica, 19:3.

Caciagli P; Casetta A, 1986. Maize rough dwarf virus (Reoviridae) in its planthopper vector Laodelphax striatellus in relation to vector infectivity. Annals of Applied Biology, 109(2):337-344

Caciagli P; Guglielmone L; Ferrero C; Migliore PM, 1992. Testing maize hybrids for susceptibility to maize rough dwarf reovirus by experimental inoculation with the vector Laodelphax striatellus.. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 2(1):15-21; 13 ref.

Caciagli P; Roggero P; Luisoni E, 1985. Detection of maize rough dwarf virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plant hosts and in the planthopper vector. Annals of Applied Biology, 107(3):463-471

Conti M, 1966. Indagini sulla trasmissione del virus del nanismo ruvido del mais (MRDV) per mezzo di Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. Annali Facoltà Scienze Agrarie di Torino, 3:337-348.

Conti M, 1972. Investigations on the epidemiology of maize rough dwarf virus. I. Overwintering of virus in its planthopper vector. Actas III Congresso Unione Fitopatologica Mediterranea, Oeiras, Portugal:11-17.

Conti M, 1983. Maize virus and virus diseases in Italy and other Mediterranean Countries. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Nault LR, Ritter RM, eds, Proceedings of the International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium and Workshop, Wooster, Ohio, USA, 103-112.

Conti M, 1984. Epidemiology and vectors of plant reolike viruses. In: Harris KF, ed. Current Topics in Vector Research. New York, USA: Praeger, 2:111-139.

Conti M; Milne RG, 1977. Some new natural hosts of maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV). Annales de Phytopathologie, 9:255-259

Deng WenSheng; Yang XiCai; Zhang YuMan; Liu YuLe; Kang LiangYi, 2000. cDNA cloning and sequencing analysis of the seventh segment of maize rough dwarf virus genome. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 40(5):488-494; 4 ref.

Denno RF; Perfect TJ; eds, 1994. Planthoppers. Their Ecology and Management. New York, USA: Chapman & Hall.

DistTfano AJ; Conci LR; Munoz Hidalgo M; Guzmßn FA; Hopp HE; Vas Mdel, 2002. Sequence analysis of genome segments S4 and S8 of Mal de Rfo Cuarto virus (MRCV): evidence that the virus should be a separate Fijivirus species. Archives of Virology, 147(9):1699-1709; 40 ref.

DistTfano AJ; Conci LR; Munoz Hidalgo M; Guzmßn FA; Hopp HE; Vas Mdel, 2003. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of genome segments S1, S2, S3 and S6 of Mal de Rfo Cuarto virus, a newly accepted Fijivirus species. Virus Research, 92(1):113-121; 49 ref.

Dovas CI; Eythymiou K; Katis NI, 2004. First report of maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) on maize crops in Greece. Plant Pathology, 53(2): 238.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fang S; Yu J; Feng J; Han C; Li D; Liu Y, 2001. Identification of rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus in maize with rough dwarf disease in China. Archives of Virology, 146(1):167-170; 14 ref.

Favali MA; Barbieri N; Bianchi A; Bonecchi R; Conti M, 1980. X-ray microanalysis of leaf tumors from maize plants experimentally infected with maize rough dwarf virus: scanning and transmission electron microscopic study. Virology, 103(2):357-368

Favali MA; Bassi M; Appiano A, 1974. Synthesis and migration of maize rough dwarf virus in the host cell: an autoradiographic study. Journal of General Virology, 24(3):563-565

Francki RIB; Boccardo G, 1983. The Plant Reoviridae. In: Joklik WK, Ed., The Reoviridae. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 505-563.

Francki RIB; Fauquet CM; Knudson DL; Brown F; eds, 1991. Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Fifth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology, Supplement 2. Vienna, Austria: Springer-Verlag.

Francki RIB; Milne RG; Hatta T, 1985. Plant Reoviridae. In: Francki RIB, Milne RG, Hatta T, Atlas of Plant Viruses, vol. 1. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 47-72.

Grancini P, 1949. Notizie sul "nanismo" del mais. Notiz. Mal. Piante, 3:39-41.

Grancini P, 1962. Ulteriori notizie sul nanismo ruvido del mais. Maydica, 7:17-25.

Harpaz I, 1972. Maize rough dwarf. A planthopper virus disease affecting maize, rice, small grains and grasses. Maize rough dwarf. A planthopper virus disease affecting maize, rice, small grains and grasses. Israel Universities Press. Jerusalem Israel, xvi + 251 pp.

Harpaz I; Klein M, 1966. Chemical changes induced in maize plants by the maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV). Scr.Hierosol., 18:127-142. Cited in Lovisolo, 1971.

HSni A, 1988. Identification of maize rough dwarf virus and maize dwarf mosaic virus in Switzerland. Abstracts of the 5th Conference on Virus Diseases of Gramineae in Europe, Budapest, Hungary, 19.

Huth W, 1994. Maize viruses increasing tendency. PSP Pflanzenschutz Praxis, No. 2:17-20

Isogai M; Uyeda I; Choi JK, 2001. Molecular diagnosis of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in Japan and Korea. Plant Pathology Journal, 17(3): 164-168.

Izadpanah K; Ahmadi AA; Jafari SA; Parvin S, 1983. Maize rough dwarf in Fars. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 19(1/4):25-29 (57-68 Farsi s

Klein M; Harpaz I, 1969. Changes in resistance of graminaceous plants to delphacid planthoppers induced by maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV). Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie, 64:39-43.

Lesemann D; Huth W, 1975. Detection of maize rough dwarf virus-like particles in enations of Lolium plants from Germany. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 82(3):246-253

Lindsten K, 1974. Planthopper-transmitted virus diseases of cereals in Sweden. Acta Biologica Iugoslavica, B, 11(1):55-66

Lindsten K; Conti M, 1977. Observations on the transmission of some phytoreoviruses by different lines of vector planthoppers. Annales de Phytopathologie, 9:307-311

Louie R; Abt JJ, 2004. Mechanical transmission of maize rough dwarf virus. Maydica, 49(3): 231-240.

Louro D; Sequeira OA, 1986. Reovirus associated with maize rough dwarf disease. I - Morphological aspects. CiOncia Biologica (Portugal), 11(1/2): 26a.

Lovisolo O, 1971. Maize rough dwarf virus. C.M.I./A.A.B. Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 72.

Lovisolo O; Caciagli P, 1989. Tentativi di valutazione dei danni causati alle colture da malattie virali e simil-virali. Informatore Fitopatologico, 10:33-39.

Luisoni E; Conti M, 1970. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., a new natural host of maize rough dwarf virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 9(2-3):102-105.

Luisoni E; Milne RG; Boccardo G, 1975. The maize rough dwarf virion II. Serological analysis. Virology, 68(1):86-96

Maramorosch K; Shikata E; Granados R, 1969. The fate of plant-pathogenic viruses in insect vectors: electron microscopic observations. In: Maramorosh K, Ed., Viruses, Vectors and Vegetation. New York, New York, USA: Interscience Publishers, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 417-431.

Marzach8 C; Antoniazzi S; D'Aquilio M; Boccardo G, 1996. The double-stranded RNA genome of maize rough dwarf Fijivirus contains both mono and dicistronic segments. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(6):601-605; 25 ref.

Marzach8 C; Boccardo G; Caciagli P, 1999. Heterogeneity of maize rough dwarf fijivirus genomic segments isolated from 1997 field infection. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 106(4):431-436; 16 ref.

Marzachi C; Accotto GP; D'Aquilio M; Caciagli P; Boccardo G, 1990. In vitro transcription of the double-stranded RNA genome of maize rough dwarf virus (Reoviridae). Journal of General Virology, 71(3):707-711

Marzachi C; Boccardo G; Milne R; Isogai M; Uyeda I, 1995. Genome structure and variability of fijiviruses. Seminars in Virology, 6(2):103-108; 28 ref.

Miao HQ; Chen XZ; Cao KQ; Yang YJ; Li SY, 2001. The relationship between different sowing periods and diseased plant rate of maize rough dwarf virus. Plant Protection, 27(4): 9-12.

Milne RG; Boccardo G; Bo ED; Nome F, 1983. Association of maize rough dwarf virus with Mal de Rio Cuarto in Argentina. Phytopathology, 73(9):1290-1292

Milne RG; Conti M; Lisa V, 1973. Partial purification, structure and infectivity of complete maize rough dwarf virus particles. Virology, 53(1):130-141

Milne RG; del Vas M; Harding RM; Marzachi; Mertens PPC, 2005. Genus Fijivirus. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the ICTV. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press, 534-542.

Milne RG; Lesemann D-E, 1978. An immunoelectron microscopic investigation of oat sterile dwarf and related viruses. Virology, 90(2):299-304

Milne RG; Lovisolo O, 1977. Maize rough dwarf and related viruses. Advances in Virus Research, 21:267-341

Milne RG; Luisoni E, 1977. Serological relationships among maize rough dwarf-like viruses. Virology, 80(1):12-20

Murphy JF; Fauquet CM; Bishop DHL; Ghabrial SA; Jarvis AW; Martelli GP; Mayo MA; Summers MD; eds, 1995. Virus Taxonomy. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology, Supplement 10. Wien, Austria: Springer-Verlag.

Nakkazi E, 2010. Maize disease threatens to devastate East Africa. Science and Development Network. Science and Development Network. http://www.scidev.net/en/news/maize-disease-threatens-to-devastate-east-africa.html

Nuss DL; Dull JD, 1991. Strucrural and functional properties of plant reovirus genome. Advances in Virus Reseach, 38:249-306.

Padino PR; Feo Ldi; Lenardon SL, 2004. Mal de Rio Cuarto. In: Viruses and Virus Diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae), eds Lapierre H & Signoret PA. Paris, France: INRA Editions, 685- 687.

Reddy DVR; Boccardo G; Outridge R; Teakle DS; Black LM, 1975. Electrophoretic separation of dsRNA genome segments from Fiji disease and maize rough dwarf viruses. Virology, 63(1):287-291

Signoret PA, 2004. Pangola stunt virus. In: Viruses and Virus Diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae), eds Lapierre H & Signoret PA. Paris, France: INRA Editions, 776-778.

Signoret PA; Alliot B, 1985. Occurrence of maize rough dwarf virus in France and Spain. Mitteilungen, Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin-Dahlem, No. 228:74-75

Signoret PA; Cagliagli P; Conti M, 2004. Maize rough dwarf . In: Viruses and Virus Diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae), eds Lapierre H & Signoret PA. Paris, France: INRA Editions, 667-670.

Sun LY; Xu JL; Fang SG; Wang ZH; Han CG; LiDW; Yu JL, 2004. Sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of genomic segments 8 and 9 of rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolated from maize. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, 12(3): 306-311.

Uyeda I, 2004. Rice black streaked dwarf virus. In: Viruses and Virus Diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae), eds Lapierre H & Signoret PA. Paris, France: INRA Editions, 501-503.

Uyeda I; Milne RG, 1995. Introduction: genomic organization, diversity and evolution of plant reoviruses. Seminars in Virology, 6(2):85-88

Vidano C; Lovisolo O; Conti M, 1966. Nuovi ospiti sperimentali del virus del nanismo ruvido del mais (MRDV). Atti della Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, 100:699-710.

Wang AnLe; Wang JiaoJuan; Chen ChaoHui, 2005. Study on maize rough dwarf virus incidence law and its integrated control technique. Journal of Maize Sciences, 13(4):114-116.

Wetter C; Luisoni E; Conti M; Lovisolo O, 1969. Purification and serology of maize rough dwarf virus from plant and vector. Phytophologische Zeitschrift, 66:197-212.

Zhang H; Chen J; Lei J; Adams MJ, 2001. Sequence analysis shows that a dwarfing disease on rice, wheat and maize in China is caused by Rice black streaked dwarf virus. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 107: 563-567.

Distribution References

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Maize rough dwarf fijivirus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 738.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CONTI M, LOVISOLO O, 1971. Tubular structures associated with Maize rough dwarf virus particles in crude extracts: electron microscopy study. Journal of General Virology. 13 (1), 173-176. DOI:10.1099/0022-1317-13-1-173

Dovas C I, Eythymiou K, Katis N I, 2004. First report of maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) on maize crops in Greece. Plant Pathology. 53 (2), 238. DOI:10.1111/j.0032-0862.2004.00973.x

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Harpaz I, 1972. Maize rough dwarf. A planthopper virus disease affecting maize, rice, small grains and grasses. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Universities Press. xvi + 251 pp.

Huth W, 1994. Maize viruses - increasing tendency. (Maisvirosen - Tendenz zunehmend.). PSP Pflanzenschutz Praxis. 17-20.

Lindsten K, 1974. Planthopper-transmitted virus diseases of cereals in Sweden. Acta Biologica Iugoslavica, B. 11 (1), 55-66.

Lindsten K, Conti M, 1977. Observations on the transmission of some phytoreoviruses by different lines of vector planthoppers. Annales de Phytopathologie. 307-311.

Louie R, Abt J J, 2004. Mechanical transmission of maize rough dwarf virus. Maydica. 49 (3), 231-240.

Signoret P A, Alliot B, 1985. Occurrence of maize rough dwarf virus in France and Spain. In: Mitteilungen, Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin-Dahlem, 74-75.

Distribution Maps

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