Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Stictocardia tiliifolia
(spottedheart)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2019. Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.32501027.20203483186

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Datasheet

Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stictocardia tiliifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spottedheart
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Stictocardia tiliifolia is a climbing shrub with a pantropical distribution. It has occasional use as an ornamental. It has been reported as invasive in Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, Mayotte, Fiji, Palau and French Polynesia. It...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); flowering habit. January 2008.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); flowering habit. January 2008.
Copyright©Epibase/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); flowering habit. January 2008.
Flowering habitStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); flowering habit. January 2008.©Epibase/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); Flowers. Hawaii, USA. December 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); Flowers. Hawaii, USA. December 2009.
Copyright©XJ/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); Flowers. Hawaii, USA. December 2009.
FlowersStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart); Flowers. Hawaii, USA. December 2009.©XJ/via flickr - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr.) Hallier f.

Preferred Common Name

  • spottedheart

Other Scientific Names

  • Argyreia campanulata (L.) Alston
  • Argyreia tiliifolia (Desr.) Wight
  • Convolvulus campanulatus (L.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus melanostictus Schltdl.
  • Convolvulus tiliifolius Desr.
  • Ipomoea benghalensis Roem. & Schult.
  • Ipomoea campanulata L.
  • Ipomoea gangetica Sweet
  • Ipomoea grandiflora Lam.
  • Ipomoea pulchra Blume
  • Ipomoea tiliifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Rivea campanulata (L.) House
  • Rivea tiliifolia (Desr.) Choisy
  • Stictocardia campanulata (L.) Merr.

International Common Names

  • English: crimson morning glory; stictocardia; sugar candy
  • Spanish: batatilla
  • French: bois-papate marron; gros boudin; liane d’argent bâtard; liane gros boudin; liane gros marron

Local Common Names

  • American Samoa: pālulu; tagamimi; tanamini
  • China: xian ye teng
  • Cuba: camponola
  • Ecuador: soguilla
  • French Polynesia: puhipuhi
  • Guam: abubo; abubu; alalak
  • Tonga: pula; pula uta; pula vaine
  • USA: morning glory; pilikai

Summary of Invasiveness

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Stictocardia tiliifolia is a climbing shrub with a pantropical distribution. It has occasional use as an ornamental. It has been reported as invasive in Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, Mayotte, Fiji, Palau and French Polynesia. It is regarded as potentially invasive in Cuba. No further details are given about the invasiveness of S. tiliifolia or its impacts on other species or habitats. The inability of the species to produce seeds in some parts of its range lessens its weedy potential.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Stictocardia
  •                                 Species: Stictocardia tiliifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Convolvulaceae is composed of 1600-1700 species in 55-60 genera; mainly with a tropical distribution (Stefanović et al., 2003). Stictocardia includes up to 12 species, mostly from Africa and Asia. The genus is characterized by having an endocarp with ‘pockets’ that hold the seeds until dispersal (Austin and Eich, 2001). The name of the genus refers to the black glands present on various surfaces and to its heart-shaped leaves (Gunn, 1972). The epithet ‘tiliifolia’ refers to the resemblance of the leaves with the linden or lime tree (Johnson, 2004).

Gunn (1972) recognized Stictocardia campanulata as a valid name, listing Ipomoea campanulata as one of its synonyms. He states that S. campanulata is frequently reported in the literature as S. tiliifolia but without giving any further information. Austin et al. (1978) recognised S. tiliifolia and I. campanulata as two valid species based on various morphological differences, including the lack of black dotted glands in I. campanulata and differences in leaf venation. The World Flora Online (2019) recognizes S. tiliifolia as a valid species with S. campanulata and I. campanulata reduced to synonyms.

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019):

Twiners large, woody. Young branches pubescent, finally glabrescent. Petiole 3-14 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate or circular, 6-20 X 5-20 cm, herbaceous, ± pubescent or subglabrous, abaxially glandular punctate, base cordate, apex short acuminate or abruptly acuminate, mucronulate; lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs. Cymes 1-3-flowered; peduncle 1.5-7.5 cm; bracts deciduous, minute. Pedicel 2-3.5 cm. Sepals circular, subequal or inner ones shorter, 1-1.8 cm, pubescent or glabrous abaxially, minutely glandular punctate, enlarging to 4-5 cm in fruit, apex rounded or emarginate. Corolla reddish purple, with a dark centre, funnelform, 8-10 cm; limb 8-10 cm in diameter; midpetaline bands glandular punctate outside, sometimes pilose. Stamens unequal; filaments pubescent basally; anthers lanceolate, ca. 5 mm. Style filiform; lobes of stigma papillose. Fruit globose, 2-3.5 cm in diam. Seeds dark brown, 8-9 mm, pubescent.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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Stictocardia tiliifolia is a climbing shrub with a pantropical distribution (PIER, 2019). Its native distribution is not clearly delimited. It has been listed as native to Asia and Africa (Austin and Eich, 2001; PROTA, 2019), but also as native to Asia and the Pacific (PIER, 2019; POWO, 2020). In USDA-ARS (2019) the species is listed as native to Africa, Asia and the New World, but with a note stating that it is probably not native to the neotropics. S. tiliifolia is found in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America and Oceania (See Distribution Table for details; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; PIER, 2019; PROTA, 2019; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2019).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Cabo VerdePresentIntroducedA human introduction from the neotropics
ComorosPresentNot specified if native or introduced. A collection of 1850
MadagascarPresentNative
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive
SeychellesPresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
-Maluku IslandsPresentNative
JapanPresentNative
-Bonin IslandsPresentNative
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresent
PhilippinesPresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

Europe

Portugal
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced1866

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced1912
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedGuana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedPuntarenas
CubaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedAs potentially invasive; naturalized with a tendency to proliferate in some areas
DominicaPresentIntroduced1871
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced1892
HaitiPresentIntroduced1924
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced1883
MontserratPresentIntroduced1907
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedOn sand on scrublands near coast
PanamaPresentIntroduced1911
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1895Mayaguez
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1895NaturalizedSt. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1915Naturalized
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso as cultivated, Hawai?i, Kaua?i, Maui, Moloka?i, O?ahu Islands

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresentNative
-Northern TerritoryPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
Christmas IslandPresentNative
Cook IslandsPresentNative
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
-PohnpeiPresentNative
FijiPresentReported as either native or as introduced and invasive. Present in cultivation.
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentNativeAlso as Introduced
New CaledoniaPresentNative
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNative
PalauPresentReported as either native or as introduced and invasive. Present in cultivation.
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
SamoaPresent
Timor-LestePresentNative
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced1905InvasiveIsabela, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz Islands
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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It is difficult to assess where S. tiliifolia is introduced in the Pacific, Asia and Africa, as its native range is not clearly delimited. S. tiliifolia has been present in the New World since the late 1800s, being reported in the Caribbean since the 1870’s and in continental America since the early 1900s (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2019). In India and Florida, the species does not set seed and reproduction is vegetative (Gunn, 1972; Aswani and Sabu, 2012). Its spread in the Pacific is listed as possibly facilitated by seed dispersal through water currents (PIER, 2019).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 1915 No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Dominica 1871 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Guadeloupe 1892 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Haiti 1924 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Martinique 1883 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Montserrat 1907 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Panama 1911 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Puerto Rico 1895 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
United States Virgin Islands 1895 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Galapagos Islands 1905 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)
Madeira 1866 No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019)

Risk of Introduction

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Stictocardia tiliifolia has a medium to high risk of introduction into lowlands of tropical areas. Its risk of introduction is reduced by its inability to produce seeds at some parts of its range (Gunn, 1972; Aswani and Sabu, 2012). More information is needed on the biology of the species and its environmental requirements to properly assess its risk of introduction.

Habitat

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Stictocardia tiliifolia is a climbing shrub that is reported as occasionally naturalized in dry, disturbed sites, at elevations of 3-220 m in Hawaii (PIER, 2019). It is also reported from lowlands, seashore thickets, over low vegetation, plains, hammocks, shrublands and littoral and insular forests (Gunn, 1972; Johnson, 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for S. tiliifolia (as S. campanulata) by Gunn (1972) is 2n=30. Historical germplasm collections are available at USDA facilities (USDA-ARS, 2019).

Reproductive Biology

Stictocardia tiliifolia reproduces by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings from stems and soft wood (Dave's Garden, 2019; PIER, 2019). In India, despite attracting insects and birds, the plants of S. tiliifolia do not produce seeds and only propagate vegetatively (Aswani and Sabu, 2012). Gunn (1972) reports that plants also do not produce seeds in Florida.

In India, the flowers are reported as opening at 5:30-6:30 am for a period of 24 hours. Flowers are self-incompatible, protandrous, with a pollen viability of about 64%. The flowers are visited by several insects and birds for nectar and pollen. The reported pollinators include Apis dorsata, Trigona iridipennis, Letana sp., Nectarinia zeylonica and N. asiatica (Aswani and Sabu, 2012).

Physiology and Phenology

Stictocardia tiliifolia is reported as flowering from December to April in India, with a peak in blooming in February of nearly 50-60 flowers per plant every day (Aswani and Sabu, 2012). In China it produces flowers from October to November and fruits by January (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Longevity

Stictocardia tiliifolia is a perennial climbing or twining shrub (Aswani and Sabu, 2012).

Environmental Requirements

Stictocardia tiliifolia grows best in open, sunny areas on well drained sandy loams, with a pH of 5.5-7.7 (Dave's Garden, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). It also grows on gravel and between rocks (Gomes et al., 1995).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
26 -22

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall9752500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Iguana iguana Herbivore Plants|Leaves not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The seeds of S. tiliifolia have been reported being dispersed by ocean currents (Gunn, 1972; PIER, 2019).

Intentional Introduction

Stictocardia tiliifolia is occasionally used as an ornamental (PIER, 2019; PROTA, 2019).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosAt a Botanic Garden in India Yes Aswani and Sabu (2012)
Breeding and propagationPossible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Disturbance Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapePossible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
ForageForaged by Iguana iguana Yes Standley Rand et al. (1990)
Garden waste disposalPossible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
HorticulturePossible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Off-site preservation Collections at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Ornamental purposesPossible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Seed tradePossible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPossible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes PIER (2019)
Floating vegetation and debrisThe species is reported as dispersed by water currents Yes Yes PIER (2019)
GermplasmHistoric collections available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Soil, sand and gravelPossible as it grows on sandy soils near coasts Yes PIER (2019); PROTA (2019)
WaterSeeds float and are transported by water currents Yes Yes PIER (2019)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Although S. tiliifolia is reported as an invasive species, no detailed information is available of its impact on habitats or biodiversity.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Social Benefit

Stictocardia tiliifolia is an occasional ornamental species near houses. It is also reported as cultivated at the Botanic Garden of the University of Calicut University in Kerala (Aswani and Sabu, 2012; PROTA, 2019). The species is harvested from the wild for its sap, which is used to coagulate the latex of Castilla elastica (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Environmental Services

Stictocardia tiliifolia attracts birds and insects that visit the flowers for nectar and pollen (Aswani and Sabu, 2012; Dave's Garden, 2019). Some of the species are Nectarinia asiatica, N. zeylonica, Apis dorsata, Trigona iridipennis, Anoplolepis gracilipes, Paratrechina longicornis, Liothrips sp., Letana sp., cockroaches, butterflies, Tajuria cippus, Oxyopes birmanicus and O. shweta. Only N. asiatica, N. zeylonica, A. dorsata, T. iridipennis and Letana sp. are considered as pollinators (Aswani and Sabu, 2012). The leaves are eaten by Iguana iguana in Panama (Standley Rand et al., 1990).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Wildlife habitat

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Materials

  • Miscellaneous materials

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Stictocardia tiliifolia has often been confused with Ipomoea alba and Ipomoea violacea [Ipomoea tricolor]. Stictocardia is distinguished from most of the Convolvulaceae by the black glands present on the underside of the leaves and sepals and on the lower portion of the corolla (Gunn, 1972).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Very little recent information is available on the biology of S. tiliifolia. Also lacking is detailed information on its environmental requirements. Although listed as invasive in various countries, there is almost no information on the impact of S. tiliifolia on other species and the habitats.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Aswani, K., Sabu, M., 2012. Pollination biology of Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr.) Hall. f. (Convolvulaceae). The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology, 4(1), unpaginated. http://ijprb.com/journal%20%20vol%204-1.htm

Austin DF, Eich E, 2001. Synopsis of Stictocardia with another Madagascan species, S. mojangensis (Convolvulaceae). (Willdenowia). 31, 79-85.

Austin DF, Powell DA, Nicolson DH, 1978. Stictocardia tiliifolia (Convolvulaceae) re-evaluated. Brittonia, 30(2), 195-198.

Dave's Garden, 2019. Dave's Garden. In: Dave's Garden El Segundo, California, USA: Internet Brands.http://davesgarden.com

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gomes, I, Gomes, S, Kilian, N, Leyens, T, Lobin, W, Vera-Cruz, MT, 1995. Notes on the Flora of the Cape Verde Islands, W Africa. Willdenowia, 25(1), 177-196.

Gunn CR, 1972. Notes on Stictocardia campanulata (L.) Merrill and S. jucunda (THW.) C.R.Gunn (Convolvulaceae). Brittonia, 24(2), 169-176.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Johnson RW, 2004. Stictocardia Hallier f. (Convolvulaceae) in Queensland. Austrobaileya, 6(4), 631-637.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

PROTA, 2019. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2019. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

Space, J. C., Waterhouse, B. M., Miles, J. E., Tiobech, J., Rengulbai, K., 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. In: Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern . Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.https://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Palau/11.pdf

Standley Rand A, Dugan A, Monteza H, Vianda D, 1990. The diet of a generalized folivore: Iguana iguana in Panama. Journal of Herpetology, 24(2), 211-214.

Stefanović S, Austin DF, Olmstead RG, 2003. Classification of Convolvulaceae: a phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany, 28(4), 791-806.

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Useful Tropical Plants, 2019. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

World Flora Online, 2019. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gomes I, Gomes S, Kilian N, Leyens T, Lobin W, Vera-Cruz MT, 1995. Notes on the Flora of the Cape Verde Islands, W Africa. Willdenowia. 25 (1), 177-196.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

Pacific Invasives Initiative, 2019. Pacific Invasives Initiative. Auckland, New Zealand: Cooperative Initiative on Invasive Alien Species on Islands (CII). http://www.pacificinvasivesinitiative.org/

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2019. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database. Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2019. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

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USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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10/12/19 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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