Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Malvaviscus arboreus
(wax mallow)

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Datasheet

Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Malvaviscus arboreus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wax mallow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. arboreus is widely grown as a garden ornamental, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This species has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized principally in open, disturbed...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flowers and leaves. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flowers and leaves. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flowers and leaves. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.
Flowers and leavesMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flowers and leaves. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flower. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.
TitleFlower
CaptionMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flower. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flower. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.
FlowerMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); flower. Enchanting Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
HabitMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing stem and leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing stem and leaves.
Copyright©Karan A. Rawlins/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing stem and leaves.
HabitMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow); habit, showing stem and leaves.©Karan A. Rawlins/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.

Preferred Common Name

  • wax mallow

Other Scientific Names

  • Achania coccinea Salisb.
  • Achania malvaviscus (L.) Sw.
  • Achania mollis Aiton
  • Hibiscus coccineus Walter
  • Hibiscus malvaviscus L.
  • Malvaviscus acapulcensis Kunth
  • Malvaviscus arboreus var. arboreus
  • Malvaviscus arboreus var. lobatus A. Robyns
  • Malvaviscus arboreus var. mexicanus Schltdl.
  • Malvaviscus balbisii DC.
  • Malvaviscus mollis (Aiton) DC.

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese hat; fire-dart; turk's cap
  • Spanish: amapola; arito (Mexico); bombillo; capucha de monje; majagu¨illa; malvavisco; quesillo
  • Chinese: xiao xuan ling hua

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: Sagra’s malvaviscus
  • Belize: old man’s apple; tulipan; tulipan de monte
  • Dominican Republic: bombillito; platanito
  • Germany: Beerenmalve, Strauchförmige; Wachsmalve, Strauchförmige
  • Guatemala: clavel encarnado; estrella de panama
  • India: juba kusum; lanka jaba; mattu chemparati
  • Jamaica: Mahoe rose; sugar bark
  • Lesser Antilles: Hibiscus-piment; sleepy mallow
  • Malaysia: bunga raya
  • Mexico: mazapan; monacillo
  • Nicaragua: flor de los santos
  • Peru: cucarda caspi; pinon
  • Puerto Rico: capucha de monje
  • Saint Lucia: mazapan
  • Thailand: chaba
  • United States Virgin Islands: sleeping hibiscus

EPPO code

  • MAIAR (Malvaviscus arboreus)

Spanish acronym

  • amapolilla

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. arboreus is widely grown as a garden ornamental, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This species has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized principally in open, disturbed areas (Webb et al., 1988; Liogier, 1997; PIER, 2014). M. arboreus is a fast-growing shrub with the potential to grow forming dense patches. It is now quite widespread and is becoming common in coastal areas, old gardens, roadsides, waste grounds and secondary forests (Turner and Mendenhall, 1993; Liogier, 1997; PIER, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Malvaviscus
  •                                 Species: Malvaviscus arboreus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Malvaceae is a large family of flowering plants containing about 243 genera and 4225 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees (Stevens, 2012). This family is largely tropical, but representatives can also occur in subtropical and temperate regions of the world (Stevens, 2012). The genus Malvaviscus includes about 11 species (the Plant List, 2013). Species within this genus are highly variable morphologically and this variation has led to widely differing opinions as to the number of species and subspecific taxa (Turner and Mendenhall, 1993; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Description

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The following description comes from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014):

M. arboreus is a small shrub, up to 1 m tall. Branchlets sparsely villous to glabrate, rarely glabrous. Stipule filiform, approximately 4 mm, usually caducous; petiole 2-5 cm, puberulent; leaf blade broadly cordate to ovate-cordate, usually 3-lobed, sometimes entire, 6-12 × 2.5-10 cm, nearly glabrous or stellate pilose on both surfaces, basal veins 3 or 5, base broadly cuneate to nearly rounded or cordate, margin crenate, sometimes irregularly so, apex acuminate. Flowers solitary, axillary, pendulous, tube-shaped, slightly expanding only at top, 2.3-5 cm. Pedicel 3-15 mm, villous or puberulent. Epicalyx lobes spatulate, 8-15 mm, connate at base, hairy. Calyx campanulate, approximately 1 cm in diameter, lobes 5, slightly longer or shorter than bracteoles, hirsute. Petals 5, scarlet-red, 2.5 - 5 cm. Staminal column 5-7 cm, exceeding corolla tube. Style branches 10. Ripe fruit bright red, usually 3- or 4-seeded. 

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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M. arboreus is native to Mexico and Central America (USDA-ARS, 2014). It can be found cultivated and naturalized in China, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the southeastern USA, the West Indies, the Galapagos Islands, New Zealand, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (i.e., Fiji, New Caledonia, Hawaii and Tonga). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014cultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014cultivated
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001cultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014cultivated
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-DelhiPresentIntroducedFlowers of India, 2014cultivated
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedFlowers of India, 2014cultivated
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedNegi and Hajra, 2007Naturalized in the Doon Valley
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedLim, 2014cultivated
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009cultivated
ThailandPresentIntroducedLim, 2014cultivated
VietnamPresentIntroducedLim, 2014cultivated

North America

BermudaAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedRandall, 2012
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaLocalisedUSDA-NRCS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
-FloridaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
-GeorgiaLocalisedUSDA-NRCS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-LouisianaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
-MississippiLocalisedUSDA-NRCS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
-North CarolinaLocalisedUSDA-NRCS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
-South CarolinaLocalisedUSDA-NRCS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
-TexasPresentListed as both native and introduced

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012Potential threat in lower montane rainforest
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ColombiaPresent Natural USDA-ARS, 2014
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013cultivated
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith, 1981cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Webb et al., 1988
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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The history of introduction of M. arboreus is uncertain. It is highly probable that this species has been moved from Mexico and Central America and intentionally introduced as an ornamental into new habitats (PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). In the West Indies, it was first reported for Jamaica in 1864 (Grisebach, 1864) and later it appears in a herbarium collection made in Trinidad in 1917 (US National Herbarium). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of M. arboreus is moderate to high. Because this species has been widely introduced as an ornamental, there is a high probability for this species to escape from cultivation and become naturalized into natural areas, principally in areas near cultivation (Webb et al., 1988). 

Habitat

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M. arboreus grows in wet areas at middle elevations (0-2000 m) in coastal areas, disturbed sites, mesic forests, riversides and secondary forests (Webb et al., 1988; Turner and Mendenhall, 1993; Liogier, 1997; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. arboreus is n = 28 (Sidhu et al., 1990, Turner and Mendenhall, 1993).

Reproductive Biology

M. arboreus is a self-compatible shrub and its flowers are pollinated principally by hummingbirds. In Costa Rica, (Guanacaste) the cinnamon hummingbird (Amazilia rutila) is the principal pollinator of the species (Webb, 1984).

Physiology and Phenology

M. arboreus produces flowers and fruits throughout the year (Henny et al., 1994).

Environmental Requirements

M. arboreus grows best in areas with full sun or partial shade on well-drained sandy soils. If it grows in partial shade, plants produce fewer flowers because of the reduced light (Flowers of India, 2014). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 25

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall10003500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. arboreus spreads by seeds and vegetatively by layering and stem segments. Seeds and stem fragments are often dispersed in dumped garden waste, during floods or in soil movements (Webb, 1984; Webb et al., 1988; Henny et al., 1994; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeOften planted as ornamental and escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Webb et al., 1988
Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes Yes Webb et al., 1988
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine – medicinal herb Yes Yes Lim, 2014
Nursery tradeOften planted as ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes Henny et al., 1994, publ. 1995
Ornamental purposesOften planted as ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes Henny et al., 1994, publ. 1995

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds escaped from cultivation areas Yes Yes Webb et al., 1988
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Webb et al., 1988

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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M. arboreus has been widely cultivated as a garden ornamental. This species has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in natural habitats. Once established, M. arboreus grows forming dense thickets which have the potential to completely out-compete native vegetation principally in wet areas (Webb et al., 1988; Liogier, 1997; PIER, 2014). This species also represents a problem when it grows as an environmental weed along waterways, in riparian vegetation, and in coastal forests (Webb et al., 1988; Broome et al., 2007; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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M. arboreus is often cultivated as a landscape and garden ornamental and as a potted plant for its colourful flowers. It is also grown as a medicinal herb. Leaves and flowers are used in traditional medicine in Central America and Haiti (Duke et al., 2009). A leaf decoction is used for the treatment of cystitis, diarrhoea, gastritis, and sore throat. Flower decoctions are used to treat bronchitis and fever (Lim, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. arboreus is very similar to Malvaviscus penduliflorus, and this species is sometimes regarded as a variety of M. arboreus (i.e., Malvaviscus arboreus var. penduliflorus). These two species can be distinguished based on the following morphological traits:

  • M. penduliflorus has hairless or sparsely hairy stems and leaves while M. arboreus has densely and finely hairy stems and leaves.
  • M. penduliflorus also has larger flowers (5-7 cm long) that are usually drooping in nature, while M. arboreus has relatively small flowers (2.5-5 cm long) that are usually borne in an upright position

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

There is no information readily available on the control of M. arboreus.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Duke JA; Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ; Ottesen AR, 2009. Duke's handbook of medicinal plants of Latin America. Boca Raton FL, USA: CRC Press, 832 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flowers of India, 2014. Flowers of India. http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Grisebach AHR, 1864. Flora of the British West Indian Islands. London, UK: Lovell Reeve & Co., 806 pp.

Henny RJ; Freeman N; Schmaltz D; Beall B; 1994, publ. 1995. Production of Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. (Turk's Cap) as a flowering pot plant. In: Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 107. 181-182.

Lim TK, 2014. Edible Medicinal and Non Medicinal Plants, Volume 8: Flowers. New York, USA: Springer Science & Business, 1023 pp.

Liogier AH, 1997. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Negi PS; Hajra PK, 2007. Alien flora of Doon Valley, Northwest Himalaya. Current Science, 92(7):968-978. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Sidhu MK; Gupta RC; Goyal N, 1990. SOCGI plant chromosome number reports-IX. Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 25:145-146.

Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. 1981, 818 pp.; many pl. (8 col.).

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Turner BL; Mendenhall MG, 1993. A revision of Malvaviscus (Malvaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 1:439-457.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Webb CJ, 1984. Hummingbird pollination of Malvaviscus arboreus in Costa Rica. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 22:575-581.

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, 1365 pp.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Atlas of Florida Vascular Plantshttp://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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30/04/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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