Maliarpha separatella (African white rice borer)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Maliarpha separatella Ragonot
Preferred Common Name
- African white rice borer
Other Scientific Names
- Ampycodes pallidicosta
- Anerastia pallidicosta
- Enosima vectiferella
- Maliarpha pallidicosta (Hampson)
- Maliarpha vectiferella (Ragonot)
- Rhinaphe vectiferella
Local Common Names
- Germany: Bohrer, Afrikanischer Reisstengel-
- MALISE (Maliarpha separatella)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
M. separatella is a stem borer of sub-Saharan and Indian Ocean islands and is the only rice stem borer that has widespread distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. Damage by M. separatella includes reduced plant height, total number of grains per panicle, number of filled grains per panicle and grain weight, depending on the plant stage attacked.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Pyralidae
- Genus: Maliarpha
- Species: Maliarpha separatella
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Cook’s (1997) revision of the genus Maliarpha suggests that the species previously referred to as M. separatella is in fact a complex of three closely related stem borers. Biafra and Ethiotropa are synonymized with Maliarpha. However, a literature review for M. separatella revealed that since 1997 authors still refer to ‘M. separatella’ in entirety, rather than reporting on individual species of a complex. This datasheet takes lead from the scientific literature, thus reflecting the lack of acknowledgement of the species complex.
DistributionTop of page
M. separatella is a rice stem borer of sub-Saharan and Indian Ocean Islands distribution and it is the only rice stem borer that has widespread distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. It also occurs in the Comoro Islands and Madagascar (Kfir et al., 2002). Although it has been reported from China, India and Myanmar, it is not considered a rice stem borer there (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). Sandhu and Chander (1975) reported M. separatella on sorghum in India, and Li (1985) reported it on sugarcane in Papua New Guinea; however, Bianchi et al. (1993) refuted these records, and considered M. separatella to be monophagous and restricted to sub-Saharan Africa.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Burkina Faso||Present||Ba et al. (2008)|
|Cameroon||Present||Martin (1958)||Specimen record|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Monnet (1979?)|
|Ghana||Present||Martin (1958)||Specimen record|
|Kenya||Present||Njokah et al. (1982); Nye (1960)|
|Madagascar||Present||Bianchi et al. (1989); Martin (1958)||Specimen record|
|Malawi||Present||Martin (1958)||Specimen record|
|Tanzania||Present||Nye (1960)||As Tanganyika|
|China||Present||Martin (1958)||Specimen record|
|India||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Punjab||Present||Sandhu and Chander (1976)||First record on Sorghum. First record in India this century. Bianchi et al. (1993) disputes this record.|
|Myanmar||Present||Martin (1958)||Specimen record|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Li (1985)||On sugarcane. Bianchi et al. (1993) disputes this record.|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
M. separatella was first reported as a pest in 1955, when it was found feeding on irrigated rice in Swaziland (Hall, 1955).
HabitatTop of page
All climatic zones in West Africa are suitable for M. separatella, but it is more commonly found in the humid tropical and Guinea savanna zones than in the Sudanian savanna zone (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004).
It is one of the most abundant stem borers in West African rice ecosystems, in both the drought-prone uplands and the lowlands (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). According to Delucchi et al. (1996), M. separatella is present in all rice ecosystems, but more abundant in rainfed lowland and irrigated systems than in upland rice systems (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004).
All toposequence sites in inland valley rice fields in M’bé, Cote d’Ivoire, were found to be suitable habitats for M. separatella (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
M. separatella is a rice pest. There have been reports of it attacking sorghum in India (Sandu and Chandler, 1976) and sugarcane in Papua New Guinea (Li, 1985), but Bianchi et al. (1993) disputed these records. Other host plants for this pest recorded in West Africa are: Andropogon tectorum (WARDA, 1977), Oryza bartii, Oryza longistaminata and Oryza punctata (Khan et al., 1991), but again, Delucchi et al. (1996) considered hosts other than Oryza spp. in West Africa to be doubtful. Alternative hosts have been added to the host table; however, disputes in the literature should be taken into consideration.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page
M. separatella infests rice for most of its growth, attacking tillers and tunnelling in the internodes. These activities increase with the maturity of the crop (Njokah et al., 1982). Early rice, which provides the highest crop yield, is heavily attacked by M. separatella, and although later rice is only minimally infested, this increases through progression of the season (Breniere et al., 1962). The damage caused by this stem borer is said to be unique among rice stem borers because it rarely causes deadhearts or whiteheads (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). Small, circular cavities are made in the stem, which is not pierced (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). Breniere (1969), studying plant damage by M. separatella in Cote d’Ivoire, concluded that an increase in cropping density and high levels of Nitrogen fertilizer application would likely lead to an increase in the level of damage caused by M. separatella (see the section on Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures).
Rice plants have a whitish, fragile portion at the base when grown in deep water, which, combined with feeding by M. separatella and water pressure at a depth of 3 m, results in the damaged part of the plant detaching; infested stems are seen floating on the water surface and hills are missing (Akinsola, 1980; Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Stems / dead heart|
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / cut at stem base|
|Whole plant / external feeding|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Egg batches are laid randomly (Bianchi et al., 1989), at night, in groups of 2-120 (Appert, 1970) on rice as the plants are forming shoots (Breniere et al., 1962). Each female may deposit 1-6 egg masses and start ovipositing the second night after emergence (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). The females are more attracted to widely-spaced rice seedlings with few tillers than densely sown, bushy plants (Appert, 1967) and oviposit on the upper leaf surface (Appert, 1970), in parallel rows (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). Three adult flights were observed in Madagascar: October-November, December-January and January-May (Randrianangally, 1990). The most vulnerable growth stage of rice is the tillage-stem elongation, which corresponds with the third flight of M. separatella.
The eggs are attached to the leaf surface by a ‘cement-like’ substance that when dried causes the leaf lamina to be ‘pinched’ (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). This stage lasts for 7-10 days before hatching. Heinrichs and Barrion (2004) recorded larvae hatch at about 07.00 hours, though the location was unspecified.
The larvae are white with dark-brown heads, later turning yellow (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). They bore into the stems, moving between internodes (Breniere et al., 1962). Akinsola and Agyen-Sampong (1984) reported that some larvae migrate to the second and third internodes during later crop growth stages, but larvae were not found at the top internode. The larvae were observed to complete their life cycles in one or two internodes, without migrating between tillers, once they lodged themselves within the stem.
Active larvae are quite different in appearance to diapausing larvae, which are sluggish, milky white and have a wrinkled body (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). They bore through the leaf sheath into the stem using large mandibles (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004), after feeding on green tissues within the sheath for approximately 5 days (Appert, 1970). They feed for approximately 45 to 60 days (Appert, 1970), passing through 5-7 instars (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). Pupation takes place in the stem, at the bottom (Breniere et al., 1962; Appert, 1970). Just before pupation, the larva cuts a hole in the stem to allow the adult to emerge and the larva pupates with its head just below this exit hole (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004).
Appert (1970), who studied M. separatella in Tananarive (Antananarivo), Madagascar, reported that fully-fed larvae can overwinter in diapause in the rice stubble after the crop is harvested in May, and then pupate when the weather becomes warmer in October. Insect populations are small at this time and so the rice crop is not heavily infested; however, when the next generation emerges the crop will be at the tillering and heading stage of the second crop in December/January. The adults are abundant in the following generation in February and thus the crop is heavily infested.
Pollet (1978), studying pests of rice in the Cote d’Ivoire, reported that Pyriculatia oryzae showed a preference for rice previously damaged by M. separatella. Once M. separatella adults have emerged, this fungus attacks the panicle neck and affects grain development. The combination of attack by the insect pest and fungus can lead to complete grain yield loss.
In Nigeria, higher populations of M. separatella were found on rice transplanted in the dry season (November to May) compared to the wet season (June to October) (Ukwungwu, 1987). Later growth stages were more susceptible to infestation and incidence of the pest was low in August to January. Alam (1988) reported that the proportion of M. separatella in irrigated rice was higher than in upland rice in Nigeria.
Kega et al. (2017) reprted that irrigation methods and cropping systems greatly influenced fluctuation of M. separatella infestation at Mwea irrigation scheme in Central Province, Kenya. High pest infestations occurred in areas of sporadic irrigation and where double cropping of rice was carried out. The study suggested that in case of double cropping it will be necessary to control the stem borer and that efforts should be made to ensure that farmers synchronize planting dates. It has also be reported that high M. separatella densities were found in the farms outside National Irrigation Board control and where there was non-adherence to the cropping calendar (Kega et al., 2017).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Newly-hatched larvae often move to the tip of a leaf blade and suspend themselves on self-produced silken threads. The wind can move these silken threads and allow the larvae to attach to adjacent leaves of the same or neighbouring plants. First instar larvae then move down the leaf to the leaf sheath and stem (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
Damage by M. separatella includes reduced plant height, total number of grains per panicle, number of filled grains per panicle and grain weight, depending on the plant stage attacked (Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004). Bouriquet (1963) reported that 20% of rice yield in Madagascar is lost to the stem borers M. separatella and Sesamia calamistis. The critical period in rice development when M. separatella can cause yield loss is approximately 42-65 days after transplanting (DT) (Delucchi et al., 1996). Larval mortality before this period is too high to cause concern and the plants compensate for any damage caused.
Ho et al. (1983) reported that the percentage of empty grains in rice was affected by the level of infestation by M. separatella; however, the calculated loss in yield was higher than the actual difference between grain weight in infested and uninfested crops. In a later study, Bianchi et al. (1993) found no significant decrease in number of panicles or significant increase in the number of whiteheads and empty grains per hill during the period of highest sensitivity to this pest. However, it was found that the number of panicles increased and the number and weight of filled grains per hill decreased with increasing infestation rates.
The incidence of pest infestation is not always correlated to crop loss (e.g. Appert, 1967; Akinsola, 1984) and crop loss depends more on development stage of the plant at the time of attack (Breniere, 1971). Appert (1967) found that when plants suffered an attack early in the growing season, the plants sometimes replaced tillers after the ovipositing moths departed. When plants were attacked late in the season, after flowering, this had no effect on yield. Serious losses occurred when older larvae were present in the plant during flowering and ear formation. Erratic results were also described by Akinsola (1984), who reported instances where tillers that were bored by M. separatella gave higher yields than uninfested ones.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Abundant in its native range
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures
Several authors have investigated various factors for the cultural control of M. separatella in rice ecosystems, including rotting of stubble; using trap crops; adjusting planting date and adjusting planting density (e.g. Breniere et al., 1962; Ukwungwu, 1984; Nwilene et al., 2011).
Breniere et al. (1962) stated that flooding after harvest to ensure rotting of the stubble, or early cultivation where the soil was pulverized and dry plant clumps were buried, were recommended for control of M. separatella in Madagascar. Planting dry-season crops and allowing cattle to graze and trample the stubble are also important control measures to be adopted as part of an integrated control programme (Appert, 1967).
The use of trap crops has also been suggested as an effective method in the battle to control stem borers in southwest Nigeria (Nwilene et al., 2011). Nwilene et al. (2011) investigated the resistant status of upland NERICA rice varieties and the effectiveness of using maize as a trap crop against stem borers, including M. separatella. Intercropping rice and maize is widely used in Nigerian upland rice cultivation and the authors reported a significant reduction in stemborer attack on rice when NERICA rice was intercropped with maize, compared to plots that were intercropped with cassava or monocrops.
Planting date is also something to consider in controlling insect pests, including M. separatella. Ukwungwu (1984) reported that rice planted in February, March and April in Nigeria was more prone to infestation by M. separatella compared to rice planted in August. In the following year, infestation was high in the February, April and May crops, and again low in the August crop. Predicting peak populations of pests, with regard to seasons (e.g. Ukwungwu, 1987), is a useful tool in helping to control insect pests such as stem borers.
The effect of planting density on pest incidence was studied in western Kenya, where it was found that the intensity of damage by stem borers, including M. separatella, was the same at two densities studied (Ho and Kibuka, 1983a). When plots received a higher dose of fertilizer, the percentage of empty grains due to pest infestation was higher. The authors concluded that high-density planting was not economically viable, since yield did not increase with dense planting.
During a study by Appert (1967) to investigate the ecology and control of this pest in Madagascar, it was stated that the indigenous parasites of M. separatella were not effective enough for use in biological control. This is also true of biological control methods that rely on ingestion, such as pathogenic species, because stem borers such as M. separatella spend the larval stage within plant stems, rendering this method ineffective (see the review by Nickel, 1964).
Nickel (1964), in a review of biological control of rice stem borers including M. separatella, suggested that firstly steps should be taken to determine natural control factors of stem borers, as well as ecological studies of parasites proposed for control in their native environment, and evaluation post-release. This is the basis of determining the efficacy of any biological control programme.
Breniere et al. (1962) stated that chemical control of M. separatella was not economically viable in Madagascar due to the lack of damage the pest caused to rice in this country. It is also said to be too expensive in Kenya, except in irrigated lowland rice (Ho and Kibuka, 1983c).
During a study by Appert (1967) to investigate the ecology and control of this pest in Madagascar, it was found that the use of fertilizer lead to accelerated growth of the plants and subsequent early pest attack, but this declined as the plants became more bushy and less attractive to females (see the section on Reproductive Biology), which moved on to less dense vegetation in unfertilized plots.
In a later study by the same author (Appert, 1970), it was stated that insecticide application is economical when the number of egg masses per sampling unit of 1 m x 1 m, taken every 10 days from 20 DT, is higher than 3.5.
The synthetic insecticide isofenphos (Randrianangally, 1990; Lafleur, 1994) has been tested for its efficacy against M. separatella and in some cases compared with the effects of neem (e.g. Lafleur, 1994). For example, while neem was found to be ineffective against M. separatella in Burkina Faso and yield of rice could be increased with the use of synthetic insecticides, the latter reduced the natural control of other rice pests, suggesting an integrated approach is necessary to improve the efficacy of control methods.
Experiments have also been conducted to investigate the effects of different formulations of neem for the control of pests including M. separatella (e.g. Ho and Kibuka, 1983b; Amaugo et al., 2005). Ho and Kibuka (1983b) reported that the percentage of stems infested with M. separatella was significantly lower in plots treated with neem cake and urea-neem cake than untreated plots and those treated with neem oil. However, the number of whiteheads in the plots did not significantly differ. Plots treated with neem cake and urea-neem cake produced the highest grain and straw yields, indicating a potential for the input of neem to control this stem borer.
Host Resistance (incl. vaccination)
Rice varieties resistant (e.g. Malinga, 1985; Nwilene et al., 2011; Kega et al., 2013) or moderately resistant (Anon., 1974) to M. separatella have been reported. Susceptibility is related to stem and leaf width, the capacity of forming new tillers and the duration and earliness of plant development (Appert, 1967).
Kega et al. (2013) studied the management of M. separatella using resistant rice cultivars and entomopathogenic nematodes in Mwea, Kenya. The authors concluded that this would be a viable method to control M. separatella as part of an integrated approach.
Baumgartner at al. (1990) studied rice production in Madagascar using a multiple regression model and used this to estimate the effects of various production factors, including pest control. Regional differences, quality of irrigation, planting density and dates of planting were all found to be important factors for consideration. Results indicated that weed control and insecticides only had a positive effect on yield when applied to fields that had high yield potential.
Monitoring and Surveillance (incl. remote sensing)
Cork et al. (1991) analysed ovipositor washings of female M. separatella and found 3 electrophysiologically active (EAG-) compounds, which they subsequently used in fields trials in Sierra Leone. Two of the EAG-active compounds attracted male moths in the field, showing promise for use in monitoring M. separatella.
Appert (1967) reported that light traps for assessing distribution and infestation levels were less accurate than counts of egg masses. When the number of egg masses exceeded 5 per m2, artificial control was said to be economically viable during the susceptible period, between the last 10 days of tillering and the end of flowering. Using egg mass counts to determine economic threshold was also reported by Delucchi et al. (1996), working in Madagascar.
ReferencesTop of page
(West Africa Rice Development Association) WARDA, 1977. Special Research Project, Rokupr. Monrovia, Liberia, Sierra Leone: WARDA.
(West Africa Rice Development Association) WARDA, 1979. Annual report for 1979. Monorovia, Liberia, Sierra Leone: WARDA.
Anon, 1955. Outbreaks and new records. Plant Protection Bulletin FAO, 3(8/9):125-127,140-143.
Anon, 1974. Annual Report 1974, 75., Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 199 pp.
Appert J, 1967. M. separatella, a caterpillar mining rice in Madagascarecology and control. (Maliarpha separatella Ragoaot (Lep, Pyralidae), chenille mineuse du riz à Madagascar-cologie et lutte.) Docum. Inst. Rech. agton. Madagascar, 113. 60 pp.
Appert J, 1970. M. separatella (the white rice borer). New observations and a review of the entomological problems of rice in Madagascar. (Maliarpha separatella (borer blanc du riz). Observations nouvelles et rappel des problémes entomologiques du riz á Madagascar.) Agron. trop, 25(4):329-367 pp.
Ba NM, Dakouo D, Nacro S, Karamage F, 2008. Seasonal abundance of lepidopteran stemborers and diopsid flies in irrigated fields of cultivated (Oryza sativa) and wild rice (Oryza longistaminata) in western Burkina Faso. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 28(1):30-36. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=1864980&jid=JTI&volumeId=28&issueId=01&aid=1864976&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1742758408930435
Baumgärtner J, Regev U, Rahalivavololona N, Graf B, Zahner P, Delucchi V, 1990. Rice production in Madagascar: regression analysis with particular reference to pest control. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 30(1-2):37-47.
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Bianchi G, Rasoloarison B, Genini M, 1993. Noxiousness of the African white stem borer, Maliarpha separatella Rag (Pyralidae: Phycitinae) in irrigated paddy fields at Lake Alaotra (Madagascar). Insect Science and its Application, 14(5):667-673.
Breniere J, 1969. The importance of entomological problems in the development of rice-growing in West Africa. (Importance des problèmes entomoplogiques dans le développe-ment de la riziculture de I'Afrique de 1'Ouest.) Agron. trop, 24(10):906-927 pp.
Cork A, Agyen-Sampong M, Fannah SJ, Beevor PS, Hall DR, 1991. Sex pheromone of female African white rice stem borer, Maliarpha separatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Sierra Leone: identification and field testing. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 17(6):1205-219.
Delucchi V, Bianci G, Bousse P, Graf B, Rahalivavololona N, Zahner P, 1996. The biology and control of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot (1888) (Lep., Pyralidae, Phycitinae). Agricultural Zoology Reviews, 7:1-34.
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Kega VM, Kasina M, Olubayo F, Nderitu JH, 2013. Management of Maliarpha separatella rag using effective entomopathogenic nematodes and resistant rice cultivars. Journal of Entomology, 10(2):103-109. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=je.2013.103.109&org=10
Kega VM, Kasina M, Olubayo F, Nderitu JH, 2017. A Study of the African White Rice Stem Borer (Maliarpha separatella Rag.) Population Density Fluctuations at Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Central Kenya. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(1):52-56. http://www.hrpub.org DOI: 10.13189/ujar.2017.050108
Malinga YWK, 1985. The performance of selected rice varieties for relative resistance to stem-borer, Maliarpha separatella (Rag.), attack under field conditions. Insect Science and its Application, 6(2):227-231.
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Walker K, 2006. African white stemborer (Maliarpha sepraratella). PaDIL., Australia. http://www.padil.gov.au
Ba N M, Dakouo D, Nacro S, Karamage F, 2008. Seasonal abundance of lepidopteran stemborers and diopsid flies in irrigated fields of cultivated (Oryza sativa) and wild rice (Oryza longistaminata) in western Burkina Faso. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 28 (1), 30-36. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=1864980&jid=JTI&volumeId=28&issueId=01&aid=1864976&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1742758408930435 DOI:10.1017/S1742758408930435
Bianchi G, Baumgärtner J, Delucchi V, Rahalivavololona N, Skillman S, Zahner P H, 1989. Sampling egg batches of Maliarpha separatella RAG. (Lep., Pyralidae) in Madagascan rice fields. Tropical Pest Management. 35 (4), 420-424.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Djiba S, 1995. Passage of the dry season by Chilo spp. (Lepido., Pyralidae) in the Casamance region. (Le devenir de Chilo spp. (Lepido., Pyralidae) en saison sèche dans la région de Casamance.). Sahel IPM. 1995 (2), 18-21.
Hall, 1955. Outbreaks and new records: Swaziland. In: FAO Plant Prot. Bull, 3 (8) 127.
Martin E L, 1958. Notes on some Rice Stem Borers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), with the Description of a new Species of Chilo Zincken. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 49 (pt. 1), 187-191 pp. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300053529
Njokah J J, Kibuka J G, Raina A K, 1982. Some aspects of population dynamics of Maliarpha separatella (Rag) on rice in the Lake Basin areas of Kenya. Insect Science and its Application. 3 (4), 271-273.
ContributorsTop of page
29/05/14 Original text by:
Claire Beverley, CABI, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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