Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Malacosoma disstria
(forest tent caterpillar)

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Datasheet

Malacosoma disstria (forest tent caterpillar)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Malacosoma disstria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • forest tent caterpillar
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar).
TitleAerial view of defoliation
CaptionAerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar).
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Aerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar).
Aerial view of defoliationAerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar).William M. Ciesla
Aerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar). Notice the green strips, which are areas of mixed hardwood forest, a less favoured host of this insect.
TitleAerial view of defoliation
CaptionAerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar). Notice the green strips, which are areas of mixed hardwood forest, a less favoured host of this insect.
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Aerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar). Notice the green strips, which are areas of mixed hardwood forest, a less favoured host of this insect.
Aerial view of defoliationAerial view of defoliation of water tupelo trees (Nyssa aquatica) by larvae of M. disstria (forest tent caterpillar). Notice the green strips, which are areas of mixed hardwood forest, a less favoured host of this insect.William M. Ciesla

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Malacosoma disstria Hübner, 1819

Preferred Common Name

  • forest tent caterpillar

Other Scientific Names

  • Clisiocampa anita Reiff, 1913
  • Clisiocampa astriata Reiff, 1913
  • Clisiocampa disstria Hübner, 1819
  • Clisiocampa drupacearum (Boisduval, 1868)
  • Clisiocampa erosa (Stretch, 1881)
  • Clisiocampa neustria Smith, 1797
  • Clisiocampa nubilis (Guérin-Méneville, 1832)
  • Clisiocampa perversa (Neumoegen & Dyar, 1893)
  • Clisiocampa sylvatica (Harrison, 1841)
  • Clisiocampa sylvaticoides (Neumoegen & Dyar, 1893)
  • Clisiocampa thoracicoides (Neumoegen & Dyar, 1893)

International Common Names

  • French: livrée des forêts

EPPO code

  • MALADI (Malacosoma disstria)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Lasiocampidae
  •                             Genus: Malacosoma
  •                                 Species: Malacosoma disstria

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

CanadaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaWidespreadIves, 1971; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; Hogg et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaWidespreadWood, 1992; Myers, 1993; Kukan and Myers, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaWidespreadHidahl and Reeks, 1960; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickWidespreadFitzgerald, 1995; Cartier, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Newfoundland and LabradorWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Northwest TerritoriesWidespreadHogg and Brandt, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaWidespreadMartineau, 1985; Myers, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioWidespreadSippell, 1962; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; Roland et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecWidespreadMartineau, 1985; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanWidespreadHidahl and Reeks, 1960; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaWidespreadBatzer and Morris, 1978; Stark and Harper, 1982; Myers, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaWidespreadFitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-DelawareWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-District of ColumbiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaWidespreadSamson and Nigg, 1992; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisWidespreadPerkins, 1900; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IowaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-KansasWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaWidespreadBatzer and Morris, 1978; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MaineWidespreadMacLeod and Tyrrell, 1979; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandWidespreadUSDA Forest Service Forest Pest Management, 1995; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganWidespreadMyers, 1993; Batzer et al., 1995; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaWidespreadWitter, 1979; Myers, 1993; Batzer et al., 1995; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiWidespreadBatzer and Morris, 1978; Myers, 1993; Leininger et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaWidespreadMyers, 1993; McConnell, 2000; McConnell et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshireWidespreadPerkins, 1900; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkWidespreadFutuyma & Wasserman, 1987; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaWidespreadFrye and Ramse, 1975; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OhioWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaWidespreadDrew and Arnold, 1983; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OregonWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-South DakotaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseeWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-TexasWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-UtahWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-VermontWidespreadPerkins, 1900; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonWidespreadSteinhaus and Marsh, 1962; Myers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; USDA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingWidespreadMyers, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / webbing
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / webbing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ablerus clisiocampae Parasite USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Archytas lateralis Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis toumanoffi Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Blepharipa pratensis Parasite Larvae
Cotesia atalantae Parasite Larvae
Enicospilus cushmani Parasite
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen
Entomophaga maimaiga Pathogen
Ephialtes coelebs Parasite Louisiana
Erynia crustosa Pathogen
Furia crustosa Pathogen
Hyposoter fugitivus Parasite
Itoplectis conquisator Parasite USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Larus delawarensis Predator
Leschenaultia exul Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Lespesia archippivora Parasite Larvae
Lespesia flavifrons Parasite Larvae
Macrocentrus iridescens Parasite Larvae
Nosema disstriae Pathogen Larvae/Pupae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Ooencyrtus clisiocampae Parasite USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Pimpla maurus Parasite USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Pimpla sanguinipes Parasite
Pleistophora schubergi Pathogen Larvae
Podisus maculiventris Predator USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Rogas malacosomatos Parasite Larvae
Sarcophaga aldrichi Parasite Larvae
Sarcophaga houghi Parasite USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Telenomus clisiocampae Parasite
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Vairimorpha necatrix Pathogen
Zelus longipes Predator USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Zelus luridus Predator USA; Louisiana Nyssa aquatica; Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark larvae; pupae Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves larvae; pupae Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae; pupae Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Abou-Zaid MM; Helson BV; Nozzolillo C; Arnason JT, 2001. Ethyl m-digallate from red maple, Acer rubrum L., as the major resistance factor to forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(12):2517-2527; 20 ref.

Batzer HO; Martin MP; Mattson WJ; Miller WE, 1995. The forest tent caterpillar in aspen stands: distribution and density estimation of four life stages in four vegetation strata. Forest Science, 41(1):99-121

Batzer HO; Morris RC, 1978. Forest tent caterpillar. Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet, Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 9:8 pp.

Bernier RLJr; Gannon DJ; Moser GP; Mazzarello M; Griffiths MM; Guest PJ, 1990. Development of a novel Bt strain for the control of forestry pests. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1990. Vol. 1., 245-251; 6 ref.

Brown CE, 1965. Mass transport of forest tent caterpillar moths, Malacosoma disstria Hübner, by a cold front. Canadian Entomologist, 97:1073-1075.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Malacosoma disstria. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 663. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cartier NE, 2002. Status of forest pests in New Brunswick in 2001. Department of Natural Resources and Energy. Canada: Forest Pest Management Section, Government of New Brunswick, ISBN, 1-55236-191-8.

Chisholm MD; Steck WF; Bailey BK; Underhill EW, 1981. Synthesis of sex pheromone components of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Hubner) and of the western tent caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum (Packard). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 7(1):159-164

Dixon WN; Foltz JL, 1991. Caterpillars that are not the gypsy moth caterpillar. Some forest Lepidoptera in Florida (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Lasiocampidae, Lymantriidae). Entomology Circular (Gainesville), No. 344:1 p.

Drew WA; Arnold DC, 1983. The lasiocampidae of Oklahoma (Lepidoptera). Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 63:68-69.

Duncan DP; Hodson AC, 1958. Influence of the forest tent caterpillar upon the aspen forests of Minnesota. Forest Science, 4:71-93.

Ebling PM; Kaupp WJ, 1999. Yield of occlusion bodies from forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) larvae infected with a nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Canadian Entomologist, 131(1):93-95; 8 ref.

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fitzgerald TD, 1995. The tent caterpillars. The tent caterpillars., xiv + 303 pp.; [Cornell Series in Arthropod Biology]; 24 pp. of ref.

Fitzgerald TD; Webster FX, 1993. Identification and behavioral assays of the trail pheromone of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hubner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71(8):1511-1515

Frye RD; Ramse DA, 1975. Natural control agents in forest tent caterpillar populations. North Dakota Farm Research, 32(6):14-19

Futuyma DJ; Wasserman SS, 1981. Food plant specialization and feeding efficiency in the tent caterpillars Malacosoma disstria and M. americanum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 30(2):106-110

Goyer RA, 1991. Integrated pest management of forest defoliators in the southeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 39(1-4):131-142

Gross HL, 1985. The impacts of insects and diseases on the forest Ontario. Canadian Forest Service. Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. Rep. O-X-366.

Gross HL, 1991. Dieback and growth loss of sugar maple associated with defoliation by the forest tent caterpillar. Forestry Chronicle, 67(1):33-42

Harper JD; Abrahamson LP, 1979. Forest tent caterpillar control with aerially applied formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis and Dimilin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(1):74-77

Hemming JDC; Lindroth RL, 2000. Effects of phenolic glycosides and protein on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) performance and detoxication activities. Environmental Entomology, 29(6):1108-1115; 41 ref.

Hidahl V; Reeks WA, 1960. Outbreaks of the forest tent caterpillar and their effects on stands of trembling aspen in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Canadian Entomologist, 92:199-209.

Hodson AC; Weinman CJ, 1945. Factors affecting recovery from diapause and hatching of eggs of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hbn. University of Minnesota Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 170:1-31.

Hogg EH; Brandt JP, 2001. Climate and pest interactions affect the health of trembling aspen in west-central Canada. Network News. Forest health and Biodiversity, Canadian Forest Service, 5:1-8.

Hogg EH; Brandt JP; Kochtubajda B, 2002. Growth and dieback of aspen forests in northwestern Alberta, Canada, in relation to climate and insects. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(5):823-832; many ref.

Hwang SY; Lindroth RL, 1997. Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of aspen: effects on gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. Oecologia, 111(1):99-108; 42 ref.

Ives WGH, 1971. The forest tent caterpillar in Alberta. Environment Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre Internal Report, NOR-4, Edmonton, Alberta.

Johnson WT; Lyon HH, 1988. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs., Ed. 2:556 pp.

Karowe DN, 1989. Differential effect of tannic acid on two tree-feeding Lepidoptera: implications for theories of plant anti-herbivore chemistry. Oecologia, 80(4):507-512; 28 ref.

Keddie A; Erlandson M, 1995. Characterization of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus from the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 65(1):43-47

Kleiner KW; Ellis DD; McCown BH; Raffa KF, 1995. Field evaluation of transgenic poplar expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A(a) d-endotoxin gene against forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) following winter dormancy. Environmental Entomology, 24(5):1358-1364; 43 ref.

Knight GA; Lavigne RJ; Pogue MG, 1991. The parasitoid complex of forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), in eastern Wyoming shelterbelts. Great Lakes Entomologist, 24(4):255-261

Kouassi KC; Lorenzetti F; Guertin C; Cabana J; Mauffette Y, 2001. Variation in the susceptibility of the forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki HD-1: effect of the host plant. Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(5):1135-1141; [Available online at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/jee/jeetocs/].

Kukan B; Myers JH, 1997. Prevalence and persistence of nuclear polyhedrosis virus in fluctuating populations of forest tent caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Environmental Entomology, 28:44-52.

Leininger TD; Solomon JD; Edwards MB, 1995. A forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the Mississippi delta: host preference and growth effects. Proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference, Auburn, Alabama, 1-3 November, 1994. General Technical Report Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service No. SRS-1, 126-131.

MacLeod DM; Tyrrell D, 1979. Entomophthora crustosa n.sp. as a pathogen of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). Canadian Entomologist, 111(10):1137-1144

Martineau R, 1985. Insectes nuisibles du peuplier. In: Marcel Broquet Inc, ed. Insectes Nuisibles des Forêts de l'Est du Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Marcel Broquet Inc, 245-251.

McConnell T, 2000. Forest insect and disease conditions and program highlights - 1999. Northern Region, USDA Forest-Service, Forest Health Protection Report No. 00-2.

McConnell T; Gibson K; Lockman B; Sturdevant N; Taylor J; Berg D; Little G; James B; Kegley S; Randall C; Kohler S, 2001. Montana: forest insect and disease conditions and program highlights - 2000. Forest Health Protection Report - Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, No.01-1:ii + 34 pp.

Myers JH, 1993. Population outbreaks in forest Lepidoptera. Viruses may help to explain the remarkable population cycles of tent caterpillars and other forest insects. American Scientist, 81(3):240-251

Parry D, 1995. Larval and pupal parasitism of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), in Alberta, Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 127(6):877-893; 38 ref.

Perkins GH, 1900. The forest tent caterpillar (Clisiocampa [Malacosoma] disstria). Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 76, 113-137.

Prentice RM, 1962. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the Forest Insect Survey. Volume 2. Nycteolidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Liparidae. Publication No. 128. Ottawa, Canada: Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, Department of Forestry.

Ramsewak RS; Nair MG; Sorimuthu Murugesan; Mattson WJ; Zasada J, 2001. Insecticidal fatty acids and triglycerides from Dirca palustris. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(12):5852-5856; 11 ref.

Rejmanek M; Smith JD; Goyer RA, 1987. Population dynamics of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) in a water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) forest: a simulation model. Ecological Modelling, 39(3-4):287-305

Retnakaran A; Smith L; Tomkins B; Granett J, 1979. Control of forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), with Dimilin. Canadian Entomologist, 111(7):841-846

Robison DJ; McCown BH; Raffa KF, 1994. Responses of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) to transgenic poplar, Populus spp., containing a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene. Environmental Entomology, 23(4):1030-1041; 51 ref.

Robison DJ; Raffa KF, 1994. Characterization of hybrid poplar clones for resistance to the forest tent caterpillar. Forest Science, 40(4):686-714

Roland J; Mackey BG; Cooke B, 1998. Effects of climate and forest structure on duration of forest tent caterpillar outbreaks across central Ontario, Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 130(5):703-714; 38 ref.

Samson RA; Nigg HN, 1992. Furia crustosa, fungal pathogen of forest tent caterpillar in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 75(2):280-284

Schultz PB, 1989. Forest tent caterpillar, its management as an urban pest in Virginia. Journal of Arboriculture, 15(4):92-93

Sippell WL, 1957. A study of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn. and its parasite complex in Ontario. PhD dissertation. Ann Arbor, USA: University of Michigan.

Sippell WL, 1962. Outbreaks of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn., a periodic defoliator of broad leafed trees in Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 94:408-416.

Stark EJ; Harper JD, 1982. Pupal mortality in forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae): causes and impact on populations in southwestern Alabama. Environmental Entomology, 11(5):1071-1077

Stehr FW; Cook EF, 1968. A revision of the genus of Malacosoma Hübner in North America (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae): systematics, biology, immatures, and parasites. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, United States National Museum Bulletin 276.

Steinhaus EA; Marsh GA, 1962. Report of diagnoses of diseased insect, 1951-1961. Hilgardia, 33:349-479.

USA Forest Service Forest Pest Management, 1995. Forest insect and disease conditions in the United States 1994. Forest insect and disease conditions in the United States 1994., 1994:viii + 74 pp.

USDA, 1985. Insects of eastern forests. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No. 1426. Washington, USA: USDA Forest Service.

USDA, 2000. Forest health highlights Wisconsin. Forest health protection. Washington, USA: USDA Forest service.

Wellington WG, 1950. Effects of radiation on temperatures of insects and habitats. Scientific Agriculture, 30:209-234.

Winch FE; Morrow RR, 1962. Production of maple syrup and other maple products. Cornell University Ext. Bulletin, 974.

Witter JA, 1979. The forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) in Minnesota: a case history review. Great Lakes Entomologist, 12(4):191-197

Witter JA; Kulman HM, 1972. A review of the parasites and predators of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma spp.) in North America. Technical Bulletin, University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 289:48 pp.

Witter JA; Kulman HM, 1979. The parasite complex of the forest tent caterpillar in northern Minnesota. Environmental Entomology, 8(4):723-731

Wood CS, 1992. Forest Tent Caterpillar. Forestry Canada, Forest Insect and Disease Survey, Forest Pest Leaflet No. 17.

Distribution Maps

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