Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mahonia aquifolium
(Oregongrape)

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Datasheet

Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mahonia aquifolium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Oregongrape
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. aquifolium was introduced from North America into Europe, where it is an alien invasive, in 1822 (Ross, 2009)....

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape); habit, showing foliage and fruits.
TitleHabit
CaptionMahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape); habit, showing foliage and fruits.
Copyright©Meggar/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape); habit, showing foliage and fruits.
HabitMahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape); habit, showing foliage and fruits.©Meggar/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape); Dow Gardens, Midland, Michigan, USA.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape); Dow Gardens, Midland, Michigan, USA.
Copyright©Dow Gardens/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape); Dow Gardens, Midland, Michigan, USA.
FlowersMahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape); Dow Gardens, Midland, Michigan, USA.©Dow Gardens/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mahonia aquifolium (F.T. Pursh) T. Nutt., 1818

Preferred Common Name

  • Oregongrape

Other Scientific Names

  • Berberis aquifolium Pursh., 1814
  • Berberis aquifolium Pursh. var. aquifolium
  • Berberis piperiana (Abrams) McMinn
  • Mahonia piperiana Abrams
  • Odostemon aquifolium (Pursh) Rydb., 1906

International Common Names

  • English: holly-leaved barberry; Oregon grape
  • French: Mahonie a feuilles de houx

Local Common Names

  • : Mahonia a feuilles de Houx
  • Czech Republic: mahónie cesminolistá
  • Denmark: solv-potentil; tysk potentil; var potentil
  • Estonia: laiklehine mahoonia
  • Finland: hopeahanhikki; pikkuhanhikki; saksanhanhikki
  • France: Mahonia faux Houx; mahonie
  • Germany: Gewohnliche Mahonie; Mahonie; Stechdornblaettrige Mahonie
  • Hungary: kerti mahónia
  • Italy: maonia; Maonia comune
  • Netherlands: mahonie
  • Norway: smamure; solvmure; tysk mure
  • Poland: Mahonia pospolita
  • Sweden: smafingerort; tysk fingerort; vanlig femfingerort; vasstandad femfingerort

EPPO code

  • MAHAQ (Mahonia aquifolium)

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. aquifolium was introduced from North America into Europe, where it is an alien invasive, in 1822 (Ross, 2009). There is evidence of a hybrid origin for M. aquifolium, and so it is likely that invasive populations consist largely of hybrids (Ross et al., 2009). As a highly bred species, it is thought to have an advantage over wild relatives due to selection for more flowers and fruit, giving the species a higher reproductive potential (Allen, 2006). Characteristics thought to be indicators of success for this species include high seed production and few specialist herbivores in its new habitat (Allen et al., 2006). This species escapes regularly from cultivation in private and public gardens to form spontaneous woody vegetation (Auge and Brandl, 1997).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Ranunculales
  •                         Family: Berberidaceae
  •                             Genus: Mahonia
  •                                 Species: Mahonia aquifolium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Mahonia aquifolium is a member of the family Berberidaceae, which comprises 17 genera, with very diverse morphologies (Kim and Jansen, 1998). The genera Berberis and Mahonia are very closely related and their separation is much disputed; some authors have long thought Mahonia to be a subgenus of Berberis (McCain and Hennen, 1982). The genera Berberis and Mahonia are separated only by the difference in leaf forms; the former having simple leaves and the latter, compound (Marroquin and Laferriere, 1997). The taxonomic revision of the genera by Ahrendt (1961) separates Berberis and Mahonia (Ross, 2009). Mahonia is the second largest genus in Berberidaceae after Berberis with approximately 200 species (Ahrendt, 1961), some of which have been placed in Berberis by some authors, others not (Marroquin and Laferriere, 1997). A study by Heidary et al. (2009) comparing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphological traits found that, despite the close phylogenetic relationship between the two genera, Mahonia forms a distinct group from Berberis with a long genetic distance from the other species in the study (Berberis integerrima, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis gagnepainii, and Berberis thunbergii).

Description

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M. aquifolium is hermaphrodite and flowers from January to May. Flowers are bright yellow, insect pollinated, and honey-scented in terminal racemes. They consist of several whorls of perianth segments, 3 per whorl. Stamens 6. Leaves are alternate, compound, leathery and glossy; 15-30 cm long with 5-9 leaflets; reddish bronze new growth; purplish bronze in winter. Berries appear from August to October and may remain on the plant until winter. The seeds ripen from August to September. The plant is a self-fertile evergreen perennial shrub growing to 2 m by 1.5 m. It has an informal, irregular form with upright stems with limited branching. Suckers may form colonies. It has a deep vertical taproot and a network of fine roots in the upper layer.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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M. aquifolium has a large distribution and its native range includes the western states of North America (Ross, 2009). It occurs from British Columbia to California and from the Pacific coast to Montana and Idaho (Ross and Auge, 2008). Cultivated forms are now naturalized in various natural and semi-natural environments in Europe; M. aquifolium is one of the most successful alien shrubs in central and eastern Germany where it invades semi-natural habitats (Auge and Brandl, 1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2010
-British ColumbiaPresentNative Natural USDA-NRCS, 2010
-OntarioPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2010
-QuebecPresentNative Natural USDA-NRCS, 2010
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentGBIF, 2010
-FloridaPresentGBIF, 2010
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2010
-IdahoPresent Natural GBIF, 2010
-KentuckyPresentGBIF, 2010
-MichiganPresentGBIF, 2010
-MissouriPresentGBIF, 2010
-MontanaPresentGBIF, 2010
-New JerseyPresentGBIF, 2010
-New MexicoPresentGBIF, 2010
-New YorkPresentGBIF, 2010
-OhioPresentGBIF, 2010
-OregonPresent Natural GBIF, 2010
-South DakotaPresentGBIF, 2010
-UtahPresentGBIF, 2010
-WashingtonPresentGBIF, 2010
-WyomingPresentGBIF, 2010

Europe

AustriaWidespreadIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010
BelgiumLocalisedIntroduced Invasive NOBANIS, 2010
BulgariaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010
DenmarkPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
EstoniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
FinlandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
FrancePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
GermanyPresentIntroduced Invasive Auge and Brandl, 1997; GBIF, 2010
HungaryPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
IrelandPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
ItalyPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
NorwayPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
PolandPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
PortugalPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
SpainPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
SwedenWidespreadIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
UKPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2008
UkrainePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2010

Oceania

AustraliaPresentGBIF, 2010
-New South WalesPresentGBIF, 2010

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. aquifolium was introduced to Europe for horticultural purposes in 1822 and repeatedly after that time. It was first spotted outside gardens in 1860, after a gap of 38 years (Ross, 2009). This species frequently escapes from natural, silvicultural and urban ecosystems, and has been an aggressive invader in some forests of central Germany and other parts of central Europe (Auge and Brandl, 1997).

Cultivated forms are now naturalized in parts of Europe and were intensively bred with related species, especially Mahonia repens and Mahonia pinnata, both also native to North America (Ross and Auge, 2008) and descendants of cultivated forms are also successful invaders in central Europe (Allen et al., 2006).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Central Europe North America 1822 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes
Western Europe North America 1822 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes

Habitat

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Found in woods and shrublands, conifer forests, and slopes up to 2,100 m altitude (Ross and Auge, 2008).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics
 
M. aquifolium is a diploid species (2n=28). High genetic diversity is expected in this taxon because invasive Mahonia populations are thought to originate from gardens and are likely to mainly be hybrids of the closely related North American natives, M. aquifolium, M. repens, and M. pinnata (Ross and Durka, 2006). The influence of plant breeding for ornamental traits might increase the chances of naturalization, thus contributing to invasion success.
 
Research using microsatellite markers showed that invasive populations are clearly separated from native M. aquifolium, and that M. pinnata genes are not present in invasive populations (Ross and Auge, 2008). A further study found that plants from invasive Mahonia populations grow more vigorously (in terms of stem length, aboveground biomass and number of leaves) than native plant populations, and concluded that this is probably the result of selection and hybridization (Ross and Auge, 2008). Clonal growth, seedling recruitment and increased genetic diversity make M. aquifolium an aggressive invader (Auge and Brandl, 1997).
 
Reproductive Biology
 
Repeated seedling recruitment takes place, leading to a continuous colonization of available space, and sexual reproduction allows for dispersal to new sites and aids in local invasion. Where there is competition, such as with grass, reproduction is via clonal growth by root sprouts and stem layers (Ross and Auge, 2008). Mahonia populations reproduce sexually by seedlings, facilitating regional and local spread; Auge and Brandl (1997) suggested that seedling recruitment and clonal growth are the main reasons why M. aquifolium is such a successful invader.
 
Physiology and Phenology
 
Invasive Mahonia populations exhibit high phenotypic and quantitative trait variation (Ross et al., 2009). As well as the clonal growth observed in this species, M. aquifolium is thought to adapt easily to disturbed and possibly contaminated soils and is also quite fertile (Sukopp and Wurzel, 2003).
 
Associations
 
In a study on the effect of climate change on central European cities, Sukopp and Wurzel (2003) found that M. aquifolium has become a significant component of Robinia stands. It thrives in older Robinia stands, and is present in old groups of Sambucus. M. aquifolium can be found growing with Ribes aureum although this species is not as shade tolerant as M. aquifolium.
 
Environmental Requirements

Partial shade; moist, well-drained, acidic soil; drought tolerant but dislikes hot, dry sites and harsh winds. Dry soil moisture conditions on moist, well-drained, acid loams.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphrophora alni Herbivore
Cumminsiella mirabilissima Pathogen
Rhagoletis meigenii Herbivore Fruits/pods

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The seed-predating fruit fly Rhagoletis meigenii, native to Europe; a native generalist leafhopper Aphrophora alni; and an introduced rust fungus from North America, Cumminsiella mirabilissima, all attack invasive Mahonia populations (Ross and Auge, 2008).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)
 
Regional spread depends partly on seed dispersal by vertebrates; the fleshy fruits are particularly liked by birds.
 
Intentional Introduction

Introduced for horticultural purposes and grown in private and public gardens as an ornamental plant for its attractive flowers, evergreen foliage and blue berries (Ross et al., 2009).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity
 
M. aquifolium populations usually consist of distinct patches formed by one or more genets, but the shrub can sometimes cover the entire understorey. It can out-compete native species due to its successful reproductive strategy, i.e. the colonization of available space due to repeated recruitment of seedlings (Auge and Brandl, 1997).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Uses

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Economic Value
 
M. aquifolium is used as herbal medicine in human and veterinary medicine; it is antibacterial, the root bark is diuretic, and the fruit is used as a laxative; it is used as a natural dye, and it provides food and cover for wildlife.
 
Environmental Services

M. aquifolium may be useful for erosion control, for a part of the growing period (Hudek and Rey, 2009). M. aquifolium has a high tolerance of chemical pollutants and favourable root morphology, which mean that it could be used in urban landscaping and bioengineering; it also has a high abiotic tolerance (Hudek and Rey, 2009).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore
  • Veterinary

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. aquifolium is similar to Mahonia repens in that the species known as M. aquifolium is thought to be a hybrid introduced as a highly bred ornamental shrub. M. repens has rougher, less glossy foliage, while M. pinnata has broader leaflet shape.

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

Stumps can be painted with 2,4-D, dicamba, glyphosate or triclopyr herbicide immediately after it has been cut down and then retreated until the plant has been killed according to eHow.co.uk

References

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AHRENDT LWA, 1961. Berberís and Mahonia: a taxonomic revision. Journal of the Linnean Society: Botany, 57:1-410.

Allen CR; Garmestani AS; LaBram JA; Peck AE; Prevost LB, 2006. When landscaping goes bad: the incipient invasion of Mahonia bealei in the Southeastern United States. Biological Invasions, 8(2):169-176. http://www.springerlink.com/content/y52617v31454t082/?p=835eadae08864172912f07cdf3927ed5&pi=5

Auge H; Brandl R, 1997. Seedling recruitment in the invasive clonal shrub, Mahonia aquifolium Pursh (Nutt.). Oecologia, 110(2):205-211.

DAISIE, 2008. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org

GBIF, 2010. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. GBIF. http://data.gbif.org/species/

Heidary S; Marashi H; Farsi M; Kakhki AM, 2009. Assessment of genetic structure and variation of native Berberis populations of Khorasan provinces (Iran) using AFLP markers versus morphological markers. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 7(2):101-107. http://ijb.nrcgeb.ac.ir

Hudek C; Rey F, 2009. Studying the effects of Mahonia aquifolium populations on small-scale mountain agro-ecosystems in Hungary with the view to minimise land degradation. Land Degradation & Development, 20(3):252-260. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/ldr

Kim YD; Jansen RK, 1998. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation and phylogeny of the Berberidaceae. American Journal of Botany, 85(12):1766-1778.

Kowarick I, 2005. Urban ornamentals escaped from cultivation. In: Crop ferality and volunteerism [ed. by Gressel, J.]. Florida, USA: CRC Press, 97-121.

Marroquin J; Laferriere JE, 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis.

McCain JW; Hennen JF, 1982. Is the taxonomy of Berberis and Mahonia (Berberidaceae) supported by their rust pathogens Cumminsiella santa sp. nov. and other Cumminsiella species (Uredinales)? Systematic Botany, 7(1):48-59.

NOBANIS, 2010. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

Ross C, 2009. Invasion success by plant breeding. Evolutionary changes as a critical factor for the invasion of the ornamental plant Mahonia aquifolium., Germany: Vieweg and Teubner, 103 pp.

Ross C; Durka W, 2006. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the invasive shrub Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae) and their applicability in related species. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6(3):948-950. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=men

Ross CA; Auge H, 2008. Invasive Mahonia plants outgrow their native relatives. Plant Ecology, 199(1):21-31. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100328

Ross CA; Faust D; Auge H, 2009. Mahonia invasions in different habitats: local adaptation or general-purpose genotypes? Biological Invasions, 11(2):441-452. http://www.springerlink.com/content/y7002j2414271347/?p=d48c11cd995e4d45b8e6c4892ae212b9&pi=26

Sukopp H, 2004. Human-caused impact on preserved vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(4):347-355. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V91-49DFHMT-5&_user=10&_coverDate=06%2F15%2F2004&_rdoc=4&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235885%232004%23999319995%23500504%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5885&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=10&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=aa8cea2bc61d7b652c9299cf0df4d5ac

Sukopp H; Wurzel A, 2003. The effects of climate change on the vegetation of central European cities. Urban Habitats, 1(1):66-86.

USDA-ARS, 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2010. The PLANTS Database. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wittig R, 2004. The origin and development of the urban flora of Central Europe. Urban Ecosystems, 7:323-339.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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01/03/10 Original text by:

Claire Teeling, Consultant, UK

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